CN103341735B - Hollow axle and manufacture method thereof - Google Patents

Hollow axle and manufacture method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103341735B
CN103341735B CN201310286931.8A CN201310286931A CN103341735B CN 103341735 B CN103341735 B CN 103341735B CN 201310286931 A CN201310286931 A CN 201310286931A CN 103341735 B CN103341735 B CN 103341735B
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described
hollow axle
billet
deg
manufacture method
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CN201310286931.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103341735A (en
Inventor
黄大为
吴德志
李盼
田相玉
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中联重科股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of hollow axle and manufacture method thereof, described method includes: a, by forging or cast the blank manufacturing tubulose, with prepared billet; B, described billet is carried out heat treatment; C, the described billet after heat treatment is machined out, is of similar shape with described hollow axle and the semi-finished product of size to be formed; D, described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, to prepare described hollow axle. The present invention uses tubular blank to manufacture hollow axle, owing to blank itself has had central through hole, thus saves raw material and decreases the labor content of follow-up link.

Description

Hollow axle and manufacture method thereof

Technical field

The present invention relates to field of machining, in particular it relates to a kind of hollow axle and manufacture method thereof.

Background technology

Along with the requirement of many plant equipment light-weight design is more and more higher, solid shafting is replaced by hollow axle more and more, for instance the bearing pin on the jib of concrete pumping equipment has been increasingly employed hollow-core construction. Hollow axle can alleviate complete vehicle weight, but, compare solid shafting, the processing request of hollow axle is more harsh: wall thickness is wanted uniformly, the axiality of central through hole and external peripheral surface should be ensured, ensure central through hole and the respective cylindricity of external peripheral surface again, simultaneously, for improving intensity and the wearability etc. of hollow axle, the requirement of Technology for Heating Processing is also improved. The method of existing production hollow axle be adopt bar be raw material by sawed-off for bar blanking, then punching forms central through hole on drilling machine, and waste of raw materials is relatively big, and adds follow-up labor content; It addition, only its internal and external circumference surface is carried out coating lubricating oil and do not carry out other surface treatment making hollow axle in existing method, surface abrasion resistance and the rust-preventing characteristic of workpiece are poor.

Summary of the invention

It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of hollow axle and manufacture method thereof.

The present invention relates to the manufacture method of a kind of hollow axle, the method includes:

A, by forge or cast manufacture tubulose blank, with prepared billet;

B, described billet is carried out heat treatment;

C, the described billet after heat treatment is machined out, is of similar shape with described hollow axle and the semi-finished product of size to be formed;

D, described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, to prepare described hollow axle.

Preferably, described step a includes the external peripheral surface of rough turn described blank, and is put down by described blank two end face cars vertically.

Preferably, described step b includes successively described billet being carried out Quenching Treatment and temper, described Quenching Treatment includes to 840 DEG C��860 DEG C and the heating of described billet is incubated at the temperature of 840 DEG C��860 DEG C 1.4h��1.6h, then makes described billet cool down in quenching medium; Described temper includes to 610 DEG C��630 DEG C and the heating of described billet is incubated at the temperature of 610 DEG C��630 DEG C 4h��5h, then makes described billet cool down.

Preferably, wherein, when described billet is heated by described Quenching Treatment, when the temperature of described billet is less than 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of 80 DEG C/h��120 DEG C/h, when the temperature of described billet is more than or equal to 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of 50 DEG C/h��60 DEG C/h.

Preferably, in described Quenching Treatment, when described billet being put in described quenching medium, the axis of described billet is made to be perpendicular to the liquid level of described quenching medium.

Preferably, the wall thickness of described billet is 20mm��30mm.

Preferably, described machining includes the external peripheral surface of the described billet after finish turning heat treatment, and carries out expanding endoporus process to the described billet after heat treatment with boring machine.

Preferably, described step c includes, after described billet being machined as and having the shape identical with described hollow axle, the external peripheral surface of the shaft part of described billet being carried out ground, to obtain described semi-finished product.

Preferably, described step d includes, before described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, described semi-finished product are carried out deburring process.

Preferably, described surface treatment includes described semi-finished product are carried out nitrogen treatment, and this nitrogen treatment includes being positioned in salt bath by described semi-finished product, by the temperature of described salt bath heating to 560 DEG C��580 DEG C and keep 5h��6h.

Preferably, described step d cools down after also including at 350 DEG C��400 DEG C, the semi-finished product after described nitrogen treatment are incubated 15min��20min again.

Preferably, described blank is made by die forging.

Preferably, the material of described hollow axle is 40Cr, 42CrMo, No. 45 steel or 27SiMn.

The invention still further relates to a kind of hollow axle, this hollow axle is made up of the manufacture method of the hollow axle according to the present invention.

In the manufacture method of the hollow axle of the present invention, the tubular blank that forging or casting prepare is used to manufacture hollow axle, owing to blank itself has had central through hole, thus compared with the method for existing prepared billet that club-shaped material holed, save raw material and decrease the labor content of follow-up link, it addition, when adopting the methods such as die forging to produce blank, the compactness of the material after forged is good so that blank itself has good mechanical property; Secondly, billet is also carried out heat treated operation by the present invention and is optimized, the strict parameter controlled in heat treatment so that the internal and external circumference surface property of hollow axle uniformly, not easy to crack; Additionally, the present invention increases the operation that hollow axle carries out surface treatment, and specifically workpiece is carried out nitrogen treatment, optimize the surface quality of hollow axle further, increase its wearability and rust-preventing characteristic.

Other features and advantages of the present invention will be described in detail in detailed description of the invention part subsequently.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Accompanying drawing is used to provide a further understanding of the present invention, and constitutes the part of description, is used for explaining the present invention, but is not intended that limitation of the present invention together with detailed description below. In the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is the front sectional view of the hollow axle that the manufacture method of the hollow axle according to present embodiment produces.

Description of reference numerals

The 1 fixing end of locking end 2

3 escape 4 planes

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in detail. It should be appreciated that detailed description of the invention described herein is merely to illustrate and explains the present invention, it is not limited to the present invention.

In the present invention, when not making contrary explanation, the noun of locality of use as " inside and outside " refer to relative to the profile of each parts itself inside and outside.

The invention provides the manufacture method of a kind of hollow axle, the method includes:

A, by forge or cast manufacture tubulose blank, with prepared billet;

B, described billet is carried out heat treatment;

C, the described billet after heat treatment is machined out, is of similar shape with described hollow axle and the semi-finished product of size to be formed;

D, described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, to prepare described hollow axle.

In the manufacture method of the hollow axle of the present invention, the tubular blank that forging or casting prepare is used to manufacture hollow axle, owing to blank itself has had central through hole, thus compared with the method for existing prepared billet that club-shaped material holed, the blank directly using tubulose manufactures billet can save raw material usage, reduce the cost, and decrease the labor content of follow-up link, for instance eliminate the step forming central through hole in boring; And, be conducive to being avoided by when drilling machine is holed due to the cylindricity of the former central through holes thus resulted in self such as elastic cutter relieving and the defect poor with the axiality of inner circumferential surface.

Furthermore it is preferred that adopt forging method to produce described blank, adopt the blank compactness that the mode of forging is produced good so that blank itself has good mechanical property, is conducive to the raising of the mechanical performance of hollow axle. And, in present embodiment, described blank is made by die forging, the blank size precision that die forging prepares is high, allowance is little and production efficiency is high and prepared blank surface quality and compactness are good, it is possible to save material, improve manufacture efficiency, improve the mechanical performance of blank and decrease follow-up labor content.

Preferably, described step a includes the external peripheral surface of rough turn described blank, and is put down by described blank two end face cars vertically. So, by rough turn, defect that may be present for the external peripheral surface of blank and oxide layer are waited for bus, after rough turn, prepare the surface roughness reduction of external peripheral surface of billet and two end faces vertically are more smooth, advantageously ensure that the effect of subsequent heat treatment.

Billet is carried out heat treated step needs according to the material of billet and size and needed for the effect (such as hardness, toughness and depth of hardening zone etc.) that reaches determine. In the present embodiment, described step b includes successively described billet being carried out Quenching Treatment and temper, described Quenching Treatment includes to 840 DEG C��860 DEG C and at the temperature of 840 DEG C��860 DEG C, the heating of described billet is incubated 1.4h(hour)��1.6h, then make described billet cool down in quenching medium; Described temper includes to 610 DEG C��630 DEG C and the heating of described billet is incubated at the temperature of 610 DEG C��630 DEG C 4h��5h, then makes described billet cool down.

During Quenching Treatment, workpiece heat is enable the maximum temperature that workpiece reaches, namely aforesaid 840 DEG C��860 DEG C, is called hardening heat; During temper, workpiece heat is enable the maximum temperature that workpiece reaches, namely aforesaid 610 DEG C��630 DEG C, is called temperature. In heat treatment process, hardening heat in Quenching Treatment and temperature retention time and the temperature in temper and the temperature retention time quality important to the final hollow axle prepared, wherein temperature retention time is relevant with the concrete size of hollow axle. Therefore, in the step b of present embodiment, successively hollow axle is carried out Quenching Treatment and temper, and by hardening heat in Quenching Treatment and temperature retention time are carried out conservative control, make the structural transformation of hollow axle fully, uniform small grains, avoid abnormal grain growth even to produce hardening flaw etc., improve intensity and the hardness of hollow axle;Then pass through and temperature in temper and temperature retention time are carried out conservative control, eliminate as much as quenching stress, adjust hardness and the toughness of hollow axle, optimize the mechanical performance of hollow axle.

Wherein, preferably, when described billet is heated by described Quenching Treatment, when the temperature of described billet is less than 600 DEG C, described billet is rapidly heated, such as make described billet heat up rapidly with the speed of 80 DEG C/h��120 DEG C/h, when the temperature of described billet is more than or equal to 600 DEG C, make described billet be warming up to 840 DEG C��860 DEG C with the speed of 50 DEG C/h��60 DEG C/h. By the firing rate in Quenching Treatment is controlled, the metaplasia making hollow axle is more abundant, reduces the thermograde in hollow axle, thus avoiding cracking.

And wherein, preferably, in described Quenching Treatment, when described billet is put in described quenching medium, the axis making described billet is perpendicular to the liquid level of described quenching medium, this surface being so conducive to billet can obtain uniform Quenching Treatment, makes the even tissue of hollow axle, it is prevented that crackle occur.

It should be noted that the heat treatment mode in present embodiment is particularly suited for the billet that wall thickness (referring to the external diameter of hollow axle and the difference of internal diameter) is 20m��30mm.

It addition, described machining includes the external peripheral surface of the described billet after finish turning heat treatment, and with boring machine, the described billet after heat treatment is carried out expanding endoporus and process. In the present embodiment, the processing of central through hole is adopted boring machine, owing to the cutter rigidity of boring machine is big, avoid prior art the phenomenon of elastic cutter relieving easily occurs due to the insufficient rigidity of lathe tools when using lathe and then causes that central through hole is horn-like, thus use boring machine to advantageously ensure that the inner circumferential surface of hollow axle and the axiality of external peripheral surface and the cylindricity of self.

It addition, described machining can also include other step according to the concrete structure of manufactured hollow axle. Such as, when manufacturing the hollow axle in Fig. 1, need locking end 1 and the fixing end 2 of machining hollow axle, specifically, the external peripheral surface of car billet makes it at one end form the stage portion that external diameter is less, then go out escape 3 at the inner opposite end place car vertically of this stage portion again, and on the external peripheral surface of this stage portion, process external screw thread, to form locking end 1; Further, the local of the external peripheral surface of car billet makes billet form, at the other end, another stage portion that external diameter is bigger, then adopts the part on another stage portion surface of milling machine mill off, forms two planes 4 of the axis being mutually symmetrical and being parallel to hollow axle.

And, described machining is additionally may included in billet and rules and go out oil leab along the line machine drill pulled, and in hollow axle use procedure, injects lubricating oil and play the effect that lubrication minimizing rubs in this oil leab.

Moreover it is preferred that described step c includes after described billet being machined as and having the shape identical with described hollow axle, the external peripheral surface at the shaft part to described billet carries out ground, to obtain described semi-finished product. After ground, the half-finished surface roughness prepared reduces, and the semi-finished product obtained have had the shape and size identical with required prepared hollow axle.

In addition, described step d includes, before described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, described semi-finished product are carried out deburring process, to remove thorn or the overlap that the half-finished outer surface processed is formed, thus optimizing half-finished surface quality, deburring processes can adopt method commonly used in the art, for instance manual deburring and electrochemical deburring etc.

Described surface treatment can according to the concrete material selection surface treatment method well known in the art of this finished product, for instance, electrochemical surface treatment, hot-working surface treatment and chemical surface treatment etc. In present embodiment, described surface treatment can include described semi-finished product are carried out nitrogen treatment, and this nitrogen treatment includes being positioned over described semi-finished product salt bath (such as, BaCl2Mixed solution with NaCl) in, and wearability, fatigue durability and corrosion resistance are all improved dense structure's property raising of the outer surface (including external peripheral surface and inner circumferential surface) of the hollow axle keeping 5h��6h, via nitride to prepare after processing at the temperature of described salt bath heating to 560 DEG C��580 DEG C.

Additionally, preferably, described step d cools down after also including at 350 DEG C��400 DEG C, the semi-finished product after described nitrogen treatment are incubated 15min��20min again, to pass through the thermal stress being incubated after release surface processes in workpiece, avoid workpiece in the process that workpiece is cooled down to be deformed as far as possible.

The manufacture method of the hollow axle of present embodiment is particularly suited for the production of the hollow axle that material is 40Cr, 42CrMo, No. 45 steel or 27SiMn.

Present invention also offers a kind of hollow axle, this hollow axle is made up of the manufacture method of the hollow axle according to the present invention.

The preferred embodiment of the present invention is described in detail above in association with accompanying drawing; but; the present invention is not limited to the detail in above-mentioned embodiment; in the technology concept of the present invention; technical scheme can being carried out multiple simple variant, these simple variant belong to protection scope of the present invention.

It is further to note that, each concrete technical characteristic described in above-mentioned detailed description of the invention, in reconcilable situation, it is possible to be combined by any suitable mode, in order to avoid unnecessary repetition, various possible compound modes are no longer illustrated by the present invention separately.

Additionally, can also carry out combination in any between the various different embodiment of the present invention, as long as it is without prejudice to the thought of the present invention, it should be considered as content disclosed in this invention equally.

Specifically describe the present invention below in conjunction with embodiment, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to this.

Embodiment

Manufacturing 5 groups of hollow axles, the material of described hollow axle is 42CrMo, often group manufacture hollow axle 20, wherein the 1st��3 group be embodiment, the 4th��5 group be comparative example.

Step manufacture is as follows:

A, manufactured the blank of tubulose by die forging, the external peripheral surface of rough turn described blank, and described blank two end face cars vertically are put down, with prepared billet, in each group, the wall thickness of billet is as shown in table 1;

B, described billet carrying out heat treatment, described heat treatment includes successively billet being carried out Quenching Treatment and temper:

Described Quenching Treatment includes to hardening heat and billet heating is incubated a period of time at such a temperature. When described billet is heated by described Quenching Treatment, when the temperature of billet is less than 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of V1, when the temperature of described billet is more than or equal to 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of V2, then make billet cool down in quenching medium, and when billet being put in quenching medium, make the axis of billet be perpendicular to the liquid level of quenching medium.

Described temper includes to temperature and billet heating is incubated a period of time at such a temperature, then makes billet cool down,

Wherein, hardening heat, the temperature retention time of Quenching Treatment, temperature, the temperature retention time of temper, V1 and V2 value respectively as shown in table 1;

C, the billet after heat treatment is machined out, including the billet after finish turning heat treatment external peripheral surface and with boring machine carry out expand endoporus process, again the external peripheral surface of the shaft part of billet is carried out ground, be of similar shape and the semi-finished product of size with hollow axle to be formed;

D, semi-finished product being carried out deburring process, carry out surface treatment afterwards again, described surface treatment includes described semi-finished product are carried out nitrogen treatment, and this nitrogen treatment includes being positioned over semi-finished product salt bath (BaCl2Mixed solution with NaCl) in, by the temperature of salt bath heating to T1 and keep the t1 time, the semi-finished product after then being processed by via nitride cool down after being incubated t2 under T2 again,

Wherein, T1, t1, T2 and t2 value respectively as shown in table 2.

Measure respectively and above-mentioned 5 groups prepare the yield strength of hollow axle, tensile strength and case hardness, assay method is respectively as follows: GB/T228-2002 metal material tensile testing at ambient temperature, GB/T228-2002 metal material tensile testing at ambient temperature and GB/T231-2002 metal Brinell hardness test, calculating the meansigma methods often organizing the yield strength of hollow mandrel, tensile strength and case hardness (Brinell hardness), result is as shown in table 3.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Group number Yield strength (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Case hardness (N/mm2) 1# 680 951 316 2# 693 965 325 3# 675 942 307 4# 590 860 283 5# 565 825 272

From the result in table 3, employing is substantially optimized according to the mechanical property of the hollow axle (the 1st��3 group) that the manufacture method of the hollow axle of the present invention prepares, there is higher intensity, bigger load can be born, not easy fracture, and be also greatly improved owing to case hardness strengthens wearability; And it is possible to know by inference by carrying out surface treatment, the rust-preventing characteristic of hollow axle improves, and service life extends.

Claims (12)

1. the manufacture method of a hollow axle, it is characterised in that the method includes:
A, by forge or cast manufacture tubulose blank, with prepared billet;
B, described billet is carried out heat treatment: successively described billet is carried out Quenching Treatment and temper, described Quenching Treatment includes to 840 DEG C��860 DEG C and the heating of described billet is incubated at the temperature of 840 DEG C��860 DEG C 1.4h��1.6h, then makes described billet cool down in quenching medium; Described temper includes to 610 DEG C��630 DEG C and the heating of described billet is incubated at the temperature of 610 DEG C��630 DEG C 4h��5h, then makes described billet cool down;
C, the described billet after heat treatment is machined out, is of similar shape with described hollow axle and the semi-finished product of size to be formed;
D, described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, to prepare described hollow axle,
Wherein, in described Quenching Treatment, when described billet being put in described quenching medium, the axis of described billet is made to be perpendicular to the liquid level of described quenching medium.
2. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described step a includes the external peripheral surface of rough turn described blank, and is put down by described blank two end face cars vertically.
3. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, when described billet is heated by described Quenching Treatment, when the temperature of described billet is less than 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of 80 DEG C/h��120 DEG C/h, when the temperature of described billet is more than or equal to 600 DEG C, described billet is made to heat up with the speed of 50 DEG C/h��60 DEG C/h.
4. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, the wall thickness of described billet is 20mm��30mm.
5. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described machining includes the external peripheral surface of the described billet after finish turning heat treatment, and carries out expanding endoporus process to the described billet after heat treatment with boring machine.
6. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described step c includes, after described billet being machined as and having the shape identical with described hollow axle, the external peripheral surface of the shaft part of described billet being carried out ground, to obtain described semi-finished product.
7. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described step d includes, before described semi-finished product are carried out surface treatment, described semi-finished product are carried out deburring process.
8. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described surface treatment includes described semi-finished product are carried out nitrogen treatment, and this nitrogen treatment includes being positioned in salt bath by described semi-finished product, by the temperature of described salt bath heating to 560 DEG C��580 DEG C and keep 5h��6h.
9. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 8, wherein, described step d cools down after also including at 350 DEG C��400 DEG C, the semi-finished product after described nitrogen treatment are incubated 15min��20min again.
10. the manufacture method of hollow axle according to claim 1, wherein, described blank is made by die forging.
11. the manufacture method of the hollow axle according to any one in claim 1-10, wherein, the material of described hollow axle is 40Cr, 42CrMo, No. 45 steel or 27SiMn.
12. a hollow axle, it is characterised in that this hollow axle is made up of the manufacture method of the hollow axle according to any one in claim 1-11.
CN201310286931.8A 2013-07-09 2013-07-09 Hollow axle and manufacture method thereof CN103341735B (en)

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CN103624498A (en) * 2013-12-09 2014-03-12 北京机电研究所 Forming method of hollow-shaft type part
CN104087732A (en) * 2014-06-30 2014-10-08 成都高普石油工程技术有限公司 Processing technology conducive to nozzle processing quality
CN104963820A (en) * 2015-07-10 2015-10-07 广西玉柴机器股份有限公司 Air compressor
CN105081700B (en) * 2015-09-08 2017-08-25 清华大学深圳研究生院 The cylindrical accessories processing method and system of a kind of metal die
CN105750844B (en) * 2016-04-29 2018-04-06 沈阳透平机械股份有限公司 Compressor hollow spindle processing method
CN106862880B (en) * 2017-03-06 2019-08-27 中航动力株洲航空零部件制造有限公司 Hollow shaft processing method
CN107175468A (en) * 2017-05-30 2017-09-19 胡建锋 A kind of processing technology of hollow drive shaft
CN107855730B (en) * 2017-09-21 2019-10-22 上海力信电气技术有限公司 Multistage hollow shaft interconnection method
CN107598491A (en) * 2017-09-21 2018-01-19 长乐晶尚设计有限公司 A kind of high intensity bridge precasting steel frame and its manufacture method
CN107649835B (en) * 2017-09-21 2019-04-12 长乐晶尚设计有限公司 A kind of corrosion resistant bridge precasting steel frame and its manufacturing method

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