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Final beam transport system

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CN103339683A
CN103339683A CN 201280006537 CN201280006537A CN103339683A CN 103339683 A CN103339683 A CN 103339683A CN 201280006537 CN201280006537 CN 201280006537 CN 201280006537 A CN201280006537 A CN 201280006537A CN 103339683 A CN103339683 A CN 103339683A
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system
laser
path
optical
fusion
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CN 201280006537
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Chinese (zh)
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A·拜拉米安
J·拉特考斯基
R·萨维奇
R·德里
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劳伦斯利弗摩尔国际安全有限责任公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21BFUSION REACTORS
    • G21B1/00Thermonuclear fusion reactors
    • G21B1/11Details
    • G21B1/23Optical systems, e.g. for irradiating targets, for heating plasma or for plasma diagnostics

Abstract

A system includes a laser system operable to provide a laser beam along an optical path and a fusion chamber coupled to the optical path. The system also includes a neutron pinhole disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber and a neutron attenuation region disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber.

Description

最后光束传输系统 Finally, the beam delivery system

[0001] 交叉引用相关申请 [0001] CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0002] 本申请要求2011年I月28日提交的美国临时专利申请N0.61/437,177的优先权,该申请所公开内容通过引用全部合并和本文。 [0002] This application claims the benefit of US Provisional Patent May 28, 2011 I filed N0.61 / 437,177, the disclosure of which application is fully incorporated by reference herein and.

[0003] 关于对依照联邦赞助研究和发展做出的发明的权利的声明 [0003] Declaration on the Rights of the invention in accordance with the federal sponsorship of research and development to make the

[0004] 遵照用于劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家安全局工作的美国能源部和劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家安全局,LLC之间的合同N0.DE-AC52-07NA27344,美国政府在本发明中具有相应的权利。 [0004] N0.DE-AC52-07NA27344 comply with the contract between the US Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Security Agency for the Lawrence Livermore National Security Agency working, LLC, the US government has accordingly in the present invention s right.

背景技术 Background technique

[0005] 依据能源信息政府机构(Energy Information Agency)和目前政府间气候变化专门小组(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC))方案的项目,预期全世界对电功率的需求,从目前的约2太瓦电功率(TWe)到2030年的4TWe,翻了一倍,并到2100年可以达到8-10TWe。 [0005] according to the Energy Information-governmental organizations (Energy Information Agency) and currently specializes in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)) project proposals, expected demand worldwide for electrical power, from the current about 2 TWh electric power (TWe) 2030 4TWe, doubled, and by 2100 may reach 8-10TWe. 他们还预期,在下一个30到50年,大量的电生产的需求,将由矿物燃料,通常是煤和天然气提供。 They also expect the next 30-50 years, a large number of electrical production needs, by fossil fuels, coal and natural gas are usually provided. 今天,煤供应世界电能的41%,并被预期到2030年供应45%。 Today, coal supplies 41% of the world's electricity, and is expected to supply 45 per cent by 2030. 此夕卜,来自IPCC的最近报告,已经把排放进大气的人造源的CO2,对地球行星气候有显著影响的可能性定在90%。 Bu this evening, the latest report from the IPCC, CO2 emissions from man-made sources have put into the atmosphere, and the possibility of a significant impact on the climate of the planet Earth set at 90%. “一切照旧”基数线情况(“business as usual”baseline scenarios)指出,到2050年,CO2排放几乎是目前水平的两倍半。 "Business as usual" base line situation ( "business as usual" baseline scenarios) pointed out that by 2050, CO2 emissions are almost two and half times the current level. 比以往更甚的是,新技术和另外的能源对满足在发达的和发展中的世界两者中日益增加的能量需求都是必不可少的,同时试图稳定和降低大气中CO2的浓度并缓解伴生的气候变化。 More than ever, the new technology and additional energy to meet the world in both developed and developing of the increasing energy demand are essential, while trying to stabilize and reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and mitigate associated climate change.

[0006] 核能,一种无碳排放的能源,自1950年以来,已成为世界能量生产的关键组分,且当前的量约占世界电力生产的16%,这是一个可以在“原则上”被增加的百分数。 [0006] Nuclear Energy, a non-carbon energy, since 1950, has become a key component of the world energy production, and the current account for about 16% of the world's electricity production, which is a can "in principle" the percentage increase. 然而。 however. 有若干因素造成它的长期可持续性的困难。 It has caused difficulties in its long-term sustainability of a number of factors. 这些有关因素包含:从核燃料循环带来的核材料和技术的扩散的风险;要求深埋在地质贮藏室中的长寿命放射性核废料的产生;目前对一次性的、开放的核燃料循环的依赖性;以及低成本的、低碳足迹铀矿的可用性。 The relevant factors include: the risk of proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies brought from the nuclear fuel cycle; produce long-lived radioactive nuclear waste in deep geological storage room requirements; the current dependence on one-time, open the nuclear fuel cycle ; and a low-cost, low-carbon footprint availability of uranium ore. 单单在美国,核反应堆已经产生多于55,000公吨(MT)用完的核燃料(SNF)。 In the US alone, it has produced more than 55,000 metric tons of nuclear reactors (MT) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF). 在不远的将来,我们将有足够的用完的核燃料,把尤卡山地质废料贮藏室填满到它70,000 MT的法定极限。 In the near future, we will have enough spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain geological storage room filled with waste to its legal limit of 70,000 MT.

[0007] 聚变(fusion)是将来功率产生有吸引力的能量选项,现在有两种主要的聚变发电厂方案被研发。 [0007] Fusion (fusion) is the future power generating attractive energy option, there are two main types of fusion power plant program was developed. 在第一种方案中,惯性约束聚变(Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF))使用激光、重离子光束、或脉冲功率,以便迅速压缩含有氘(D)和氚(T)混合物的小囊(capsule)。 In a first embodiment, the inertial confinement fusion (Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)) using a laser, heavy ion beam, or pulsed power to rapidly compress capsule (Capsule) containing deuterium (D) and tritium (T) mixture. 随着小囊半径的缩小和DT气体密度及温度的增加,DT聚变反应在被压缩的小囊中心的小斑点中被引发。 With the increase of the radius of the balloon is reduced and a small gas density and temperature DT, DT fusion reactions in the capsule is compressed in the center of the small spot is initiated. 这些DT聚变反应产生α粒子和14.1 MeV的中子两者。 These DT fusion reactions produce both the α particles and 14.1 MeV neutrons. 聚变燃烧前缘从该斑点传播,产生显著的能量增益。 Fusion combustion front propagated from the spot, a significant energy gain. 第二种方案,磁性聚变能量(MFE)使用强磁场以便约束DT等离子体并产生要求维持燃烧等离子体和产生能量增益的条件。 The second embodiment, a magnetic fusion energy (the MFE) so as to constrain the use of a strong magnetic field is required to maintain DT and generating a plasma and a plasma generating combustion conditions of the energy gain.

[0008]用于ICF的重要技术,最初是在加州利弗莫尔市的劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家实验室(LLNL)-本发明的受让人-的国家点火设施(National Ignition Facility (NIF))上研发的。 [0008] an important technique for ICF, initially in Livermore, California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) - assignee of the present invention - the National Ignition Facility (National Ignition Facility (NIF) ) on research and development. 那里,被设计成获得热核聚变点火和燃烧的基于激光的惯性约束聚变项目,利用I到1.3 MJ的激光能量。 There, it was designed to obtain a laser-based inertial confinement fusion project thermonuclear fusion ignition and combustion, the use of I to 1.3 MJ of laser energy. 预期有量级为10到20 MJ的聚变产出。 Expected order of magnitude of 10 to 20 MJ of fusion output. 如果聚变技术独立地被用于有成本效益的功率生产,则按中心热斑聚变几何结构要求,超过200 MJ的聚变产出是被预期的。 If fusion technology is used independently cost effective power production, press the central hot spot fusion geometrical requirements over 200 MJ fusion outputs it is contemplated. 因此,显著技术挑战仍然是要获得由纯惯性约束聚变能量供电的经济性。 Therefore, significant technical challenges remain to be obtained from the pure economics of inertial confinement fusion energy supply.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0009] 按照本发明的实施例,涉及惯性约束聚变的方法和系统被提供。 [0009] According to an embodiment of the present invention relates to a method and inertial confinement fusion systems are provided. 尤其是,一种满足最高水平要求的最后光学装置光束传输系统被提供,它适合用于激光惯性聚变引擎(LIFE)系统。 In particular a final optic beam delivery system to meet the highest level of requirements is provided, which is suitable for laser inertial fusion engine (LIFE) system. 该光学装置能使351nm光快速瞄准和传输通过双中子小孔并使光束会聚在靶上(如,与本文描述的实施例一道采用的靶跟踪系统,将能在点火之前最后30 μ s使击发瞄准校正)。 The optical device enables the transmission and 351nm light and quick aiming beam to the target by neutron-bis orifice (e.g., a target tracking system according to one embodiment described herein employed, will be able to make the final 30 μ s prior to ignition The firing aim correction). 本文描述的光学系统,启动靶跟踪系统和校直的诊断光束。 The optical system described herein, a target tracking system startup and diagnostic beam alignment. 该最后光学装置已经被设计成对中子损害和靶冲击压强波是坚固的,同时对351nm激光束提供最小损耗。 The final optical devices have been designed to target neutron damage and impact pressure waves are strong, while providing minimum loss of laser beam 351nm. 替换该最后光学装置的方法也被描述。 This last alternative method of optical device are also described. 本发明的实施例还能应用于高辐射(radiation)环境中的其他光学系统。 Embodiments of the present invention can also be applied to high radiation (Radiation) other optical system environment.

[0010] 按照本发明一实施例,一种替换被放置在高辐射环境中的光学元件的方法被提供。 [0010] is provided a method according to embodiments of the present invention, an alternative optical element is placed in a high radiation environment. 该方法包含:暂停光束线的操作;拉动缆线,以便使该光学元件通过辐射墙转移;以及用替换光学元件交换该光学元件。 The method comprising: pausing operation of the beamline; cable pulls, so that the optical element is transferred by radiation wall; the optical element and an exchange with a replacement optical element. 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便使该替换光学元件通过该辐射墙转移;把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处;以及把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上。 The method further comprising: pulling the cable, so that the replacement optical element through which the radiation transfer wall; the replacement optical element is placed at a first end surface adjacent the telescope; and the replacement optical element disposed in a first end surface of the telescope . 该方法还包含:把该替换光学元件安置在运动(kinematic)元件上;检验该替换光学元件的光学对准;以及恢复光束线的操作。 The method further comprises: the replacement optical element disposed on a moving (Kinematic) element; test the replacement optical element in optical alignment; beamline and recovery operations.

[0011] 按照本发明另一个实施例,一种光学系统被提供。 [0011] According to another embodiment of the present invention, an optical system is provided. 该光学系统包含,有第一端和第二端的室和被安装在到该真空室的第一端的光学装置支架。 The optical system includes, a first end and a second end of the chamber and an optical device holder a first end of the vacuum chamber is mounted to. 该光学装置支架有安装表面。 The optical device holder mounting surface. 该光学系统还包含,被安装到该安装表面的菲涅尔光学装置和附着于该光学装置支架的缆线。 The optical system further comprises a Fresnel optical means is mounted to the mounting surface and the optical device is attached to the cable holder. 该光学系统还包含,被安装到该真空室的第二端的第二光学元件。 The optical system further comprises, a second optical element mounted to a second end of the vacuum chamber.

[0012] 按照本发明的特定实施例,一种系统被提供。 [0012] is provided according to a particular embodiment of the invention, a system. 该系统包含:可操作以便提供沿光路的激光束的激光器系统和被偶联到该光路的聚变室。 The system comprising: a laser system operable to provide a laser beam along the light path and the optical path are coupled to the fusion chamber. 该系统还包含,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间的中子小孔,以及沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间的中子衰减区。 The system further comprises, arranged between the neutron pinhole chamber laser system and fusion, and the neutrons are disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the region of the fusion chamber attenuation along the optical path.

[0013] 按照本发明一实施例,薄的菲涅尔光学装置被用作该最后光学装置。 [0013] According to one embodiment of the present invention, the thin Fresnel optic is used as the final optic. 该最后光学装置(它可以由熔融石英制造)被安装在框架中,该框架借助垫圈(如,O型环密封圈)被密封到含有中子小孔(如,与建筑物连结的大的水泥结构)的传输望远镜。 The cement large final optic (which may be made of fused Shi Ying) is mounted in a frame, the frame by means of a gasket (e.g., O-ring seal) is sealed to contain the neutron aperture (e.g., coupled to the building structure) transmission telescope. 在一实施例中,最后光学装置的孔径约为0.6\43父430113,有21如1^ (2800Pa)的外部压强和〜0.5m torr的内部压强。 In one embodiment, the aperture of the optical device about the last 0.6 \ 430113 Father 43, 21 such as an internal pressure of 1 ^ (2800Pa) and an external pressure of ~0.5m torr. 在该实施例中,约116磅的力加在光学装置的表面上。 In this embodiment, about 116 pounds of force applied to the surface of the optical device.

[0014] 本发明的实施例,按可接入方式提供可替换光学装置,无需使用没有能力以可接受的寿命耐受高辐射环境的电子装置、发动机、液压装置或诸如此类。 Example [0014] the present invention, access may be provided by alternative optical devices, without the use of an electronic device to inability to tolerate an acceptable lifetime of the high radiation environment, the engine, the hydraulic device or the like.

[0015] 按照本发明一实施例,一种最后光学装置光束传输系统被提供,它满足与例如在LIFE中发现的与高辐射环境相关联的最高水平要求。 [0015] According to one embodiment of the present invention, a final optic beam delivery system is provided, it satisfies the high radiation environment associated with the highest level of requirements such as found in the LIFE. 该光学装置允许351nm光缓慢瞄准和传输通过光学上透明的中子屏蔽(亦称中子小孔,它能够按双小孔配置被实施),并把光束会聚在靶上。 The optical device allows to aim and slow 351nm light transmitted through the optically transparent shielding neutrons (neutrons, also known as apertures, which apertures can be configured to be implemented in double), and the beam to the target. 该最后光学装置已经被设计成对中子损害和靶冲击压强波是坚固的,同时对351nm激光束提供降低的或最小的损耗。 The final optical devices have been designed to target neutron damage and impact pressure waves are strong, while providing a reduced or minimal loss of the 351nm laser beam. 替换这些最后光学装置的方法也被本发明的实施例提供。 Alternatively these last method is also provided an optical device embodiment of the present invention. [0016] 为数众多好处通过优于常用技术的本发明获得。 [0016] The numerous advantages achieved by the present invention over conventional techniques. 例如,本发明的实施例提供的方法和系统,能在用屏蔽墙屏蔽中子源的区中实现光学装置的替换。 For example, the method and system embodiments of the present invention provides, in alternative shield wall can shield a neutron source region realized by an optical device. 在一些实施例中,用于把激光聚焦到靶上的最后光学装置,提供光的会聚以及真空屏障和/或氚屏障两种作用。 In some embodiments, for focusing the laser beam on the target final optic, providing two functions and a vacuum condensing light barriers and / or barrier tritium. 本发明的这些和其他实施例连同许多它的优点和特征,结合下面的正文和附图更详细描述。 The present invention these and other embodiments, together with many of its advantages and features described in conjunction with the text below and the accompanying drawings in more detail.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0017] 图1是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的最后光束传输系统的元件; [0017] FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating the final element of the beam delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

[0018] 图2是简化不意图,不出按照本发明实施例的最后光束传输系统; [0018] FIG. 2 is a simplified not intended to last an embodiment of the beam delivery system not in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention;

[0019] 图3A是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含两个级联的中子小孔的最后光束传输系统; [0019] FIG 3A is a schematic diagram illustrating the beam delivery system comprises finally two cascaded neutron pinhole according to an embodiment of the present invention;

[0020] 图3B是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含单一中子小孔的最后光束传输系统; [0020] FIG. 3B is a schematic diagram illustrating the final delivery system comprises a single neutron beam apertures according to embodiments of the present invention;

[0021] 图3C是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的中子小孔望远镜的元件; [0021] FIG 3C is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating neutron pinhole telescope element according to an embodiment of the present invention;

[0022] 图4A是对一组退火(annealing)条件的熔融石英光学装置中的透射率(transmission)作为波长函数的简化曲线; [0022] FIG 4A is a set of molten quartz optical annealing apparatus (annealing) conditions of transmittance (Transmission) curves as a function of the wavelength simplified;

[0023] 图4B是在熔融石英光学装置中的吸收作为温度函数的简化曲线; [0023] FIG. 4B is absorbed in the molten quartz optical apparatus as a simplified function of temperature profile;

[0024] 图5是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的入射到最后光学装置上的冲击压强波形; [0024] FIG. 5 is a simplified graph showing incident embodiment according to the present invention to the embodiment of the impact pressure wave on the final optic;

[0025] 图6A是等高线曲线,示出靶点火冲击在最后光学装置中引起的应力; [0025] FIG 6A is a contour graph showing the impact stress caused by the fire targets the final optical device;

[0026] 图6B是等高线曲线,示出受靶点火冲击的最后光学装置的最大位移; [0026] FIG 6B is a contour graph showing the maximum displacement of the final optic target by the impact of fire;

[0027] 图7A是按照本发明实施例的最后光学装置换出(changeout)系统的简化示意图; [0027] FIG. 7A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating transducer (changeout) final optic system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

[0028] 图7B是按照本发明实施例的用于最后光学装置替换品的包含在屏蔽墙中的曲径式(labyrinth)中子屏障的光学装置通路(optical pass-thru)的简化示意图; [0028] FIG. 7B is a simplified schematic diagram of an optical device comprising a barrier in the path of neutron shield wall of the labyrinth (Labyrinth) for example of replacement of the final optic (optical pass-thru) according to the embodiment of the present invention;

[0029] 图8A是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的有机械安装可重复性和有真空能力的系统; [0029] FIG. 8A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a mechanical embodiment of the installation according to the present invention, a vacuum system and repeatability capability;

[0030] 图8B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的系统,该系统包含来自该系统的任何一对窗口模块的独立可移除性; [0030] FIG. 8B is a simplified schematic diagram of a system according to embodiments of the present invention, the system comprises a removable independently of any pair of window module from the system;

[0031] 图SC是简化流程图,表明按照本发明实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的方法; [0031] FIG. SC is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of exchanging the last optical device in a high radiation environment in an embodiment of the present invention;

[0032] 图9A是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的到达屏蔽墙之间区域的激光器机架曲径式保养入口; [0032] FIG. 9A is a simplified schematic diagram showing a laser shield rack inlet labyrinth maintenance area between the wall reaches an embodiment according to the invention;

[0033] 图9B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明另外的实施例的激光器机架曲径和中子小孔的结构; [0033] FIG. 9B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a laser structure and the labyrinth rack neutron pinhole further embodiment according to the present invention;

[0034] 图10是图解,示出按照本发明实施例的作为时间函数的靠近靶室中心的环境的 [0034] FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating the environment close to the center of the target chamber as a function of time in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

演变; Evolution;

[0035] 图1lA是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的由于逆韧致辐射(Bremstrahlung)吸收,作为离激光入口孔的距离函数的激光透射率;和 [0035] FIG. 1lA is a simplified graph showing since the inverse bremsstrahlung (Bremstrahlung) absorption, the transmittance of the laser as a function of distance from the inlet aperture of the laser according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

[0036] 图1lB是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的铅蒸汽中SRS信号的饱和。 [0036] FIG 1lB is a simplified graph illustrating the saturated steam lead SRS signal according to an embodiment of the present invention. 具体实施方式 detailed description

[0037] 本发明的实施例涉及聚变反应室。 [0037] Embodiments of the present invention relates to a fusion reaction chamber. 本发明的实施例可应用于能量系统,这些能量系统包含,但不限于,激光惯性约束聚变能量(Laser Inertial-confinement FusionEnergy (LIFE))引擎、诸如混合聚变-裂变LIFE系统的混合聚变-裂变系统、产生IV反应堆、整体式快速反应堆、磁约束聚变能量(MFE)系统、加速器驱动系统、以及其他。 Embodiments of the invention may be applied to the energy system, the energy system including, but not limited to, inertial confinement fusion energy (Laser Inertial-confinement FusionEnergy (LIFE)) engine, such as hybrid fusion - fission hybrid fusion System LIFE - fission system generating reactor IV, the integral fast reactors, magnetic confinement fusion energy (the MFE) system, accelerator driven systems, and others. 在一些实施例中,该能量系统是LIFE引擎的混合版本,是混合聚变-裂变LIFE系统,诸如在2008年9 月30 日提交的标题为“Control of a Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-FissionPower Plant”的国际专利申请N0.PCT/US2008/011335中描述的,该专利公开的内容,在所有场合通过引用全文合并于本文。 In some embodiments, the energy system is a hybrid version of the LIFE engine, a hybrid fusion - fission LIFE system, such as in heading 2008, September 30 entitled "Control of a Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-FissionPower Plant" international Patent application N0.PCT / US2008 / 011335 described in this patent disclosure, all occasions incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0038] 本发明的实施例,为系统元件免受中子注量(fluence)的损害提供保护,该中子注量很可能能够限制光学装置的寿命。 [0038] Example embodiments of the present invention, from the neutron fluence (Fluence) damage to protect system components, the neutron fluence likely to be able to limit the life of the optical device. 最后光学装置是有高风险的光学装置之一,它除耐受激光能量外,还要耐受表I中描述的所有问题。 Finally, the optical device is one of an optical device of high risk, which in addition withstand laser energy, but also to withstand all the questions in I is described. 该最后光学装置直接暴露于来自靶室的气体(主要是氙,但有氦、氢、氘、氚、铅、碳的靶混入物)和靶弹片(shrapneI)。 Finally, the optical device is directly exposed to the gas chamber from the target (mainly xenon, but helium, hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, lead, was mixed with carbon target) and target missile sheet (shrapneI). 对一些利用LIFE设计的商业发电厂,基数输出功率是1950MW。 Some designs use LIFE commercial power plants, power base output is 1950MW. 离子和X射线被靶室中的氙气吸收,留下来自聚变反应的14MeV中子的1560丽,它在最后光学装置的地方产出1.5 X IO1Vm2.sec的平均辐照量。 X-rays are absorbed ions and xenon in the target chamber, leaving the 1560 Korea 14MeV neutrons from the fusion reaction, which outputs an amount of 1.5 X IO1Vm2.sec average radiation in the last place of the optical device. 此外,在最后光学装置的地方,除了21torr的基数压强外,还有产生〜0.53torr压强的压强波。 Further, in the last place of the optical device, in addition to the base pressure of 21torr, there is generated a pressure wave ~0.53torr pressure. 最后,该光学装置被放置在被耦接到靶室外围区(blanket)中与点火的气体膨胀和液体锂流动相关联的振动的环境中。 Finally, the optical device is placed in the target chamber is coupled to the peripheral region (Blanket) with ignition gas expansion and vibration environment of the liquid lithium flows associated. 在一些LIFE设计中,这借助机械上使第一墙和外围区与真空室外围区去耦而被减轻,该真空室被连接到光导管组件。 LIFE In some designs, by means of which the first wall and the peripheral region and the peripheral region of the vacuum chamber is mechanically decoupled reduce, the vacuum chamber is connected to a light pipe assembly. 外围区中的光束线孔径也起作用以便衰减入射到最后光学装置上的气体冲击。 Beamline aperture in the peripheral region also acts to attenuate the impact of the gas entering the final optic. 该最后光学装置被设计成经受得住剩余的威胁,并有效地使〜3J/cm2的351nm激光(与光束垂直)透射和聚焦。 Finally, the optical device is designed to withstand the remaining threats, and effectively 351nm laser ~3J / cm2 (corresponding vertical beam) transmission and focusing.

[0039] [0039]

把发射量*__威胁的性质__如何对付_ The emission amount * __ __ how to deal with the nature of the threat _

中子~ IO21/秒=2x1013原子位移损坏和核嬗变热退火和设计光学装置 Neutron ~ IO21 / sec = 2x1013 atoms and damage the displacement and the design of nuclear transmutation thermal annealing the optical device

__n/cm2-s___能容忍_ __n / cm2-s ___ _ tolerable

带电粒~ 10% = 280 MW的离子位移、溅射表面使室气体中的离子停止 Ion displacement charged particles ~ 10% = 280 MW, the surface of the sputtering chamber so that ions in the gas stops

_±_ ~60keV麦克斯韦单位加热/消融__ _ ± _ ~ 60keV Maxwell unit heating / ablation __

X射线在15 Hz上〜12% =表面加热和消融 在室气体和光束管中使 X-rays ~12% 15 Hz = on the surface of the heating chamber and the gas and ablation beam manipulation tube

__340 MW = 0.5 JZcm2___之衰咸(停止)_ __340 MW = 0.5 JZcm2___ salt of decline (stop) _

Y射线<1% 化学键的断裂 热退火和设计光学装置 Ray Y <1% thermal annealing at break chemical bonds and design of the optical device

____能容忍_ ____ can tolerate _

气体冲~4 kPa的过压强持续作用于最后光学装置的光学装置的机械设计和/击__5-10 ms ( 20-40 kPa-s ) 机械应力__或反向气流_ Gas red ~ 4 kPa pressure over a sustained action mechanical design and / blow __5-10 ms (20-40 kPa-s) of the optical device of the optical apparatus final mechanical stress or reverse flow in _ __

[0040] 表1.最后光学装置所受威胁 [0040] Table 1. Finally the optical device threats

[0041] 最后光束传输系统包含被用于使光束从变频器出口传输到靶室中心的光学装置。 [0041] Finally, the beam delivery system comprises a light beam is used for transmission of the drive from the outlet chamber to the optical center of the target device. 该最后光学装置系统是坚固的、可用的,可以传送激光通过光学上透明的中子屏蔽(亦称中子小孔,因为激光能传播通过该小孔,没有实际光学损耗),并经受得住来自靶室的多种威胁。 The final optic system is robust, available laser light may be transmitted through an optically transparent shield neutrons (neutron pinhole also known as laser energy propagating through the aperture, no practical optical loss), and withstand from a variety of threats to the target chamber. 参考图2,该最后光束传输系统包含光学装置MlO和所有后面的光学装置。 Referring to Figure 2, the beam delivery system comprises the final optical device and an optical device MlO all subsequent. 除了351nm的激光注量外,LlULGl和FLl都暴露于中子照射,而FLl,该最后光学装置,暴露于祀点火引起的额外机械冲击和靶弹片中。 In addition to the 351nm laser fluence, LlULGl FL1 and are exposed to neutron irradiation, and FL1, the final optic, additional mechanical shock and exposure to the Missing Si film caused ignition. 图2示意示出最后光学装置传输,不同于NIF结构,后者利用楔形聚焦透镜和安装在紧靠变频器的碎片(debris)屏蔽。 FIG 2 schematically illustrates the final optic transmission, unlike NIF structure, using a wedge which is mounted close to the focus lens and a drive fragments (debris) shield. 为保护激光器系统和操作人员免受中子照射,被称作中子小孔的装置被使用。 To protect the device from neutron irradiated laser system and operator, it is called neutron pinhole is used. 该中子小孔是在三米厚的混凝土屏蔽墙中的小的(〜Icm)孔,它允许光通过,但吸收从靶室逃逸的大部分中子。 The holes are small neutron (~Icm) hole in the concrete shield wall three meters in thickness, which allows light to pass through, but absorbs most of the neutrons escaping from the target chamber. 如果该小孔位于伽利略中继望远镜的焦点位置,则该小孔的孔径能够被变成最小(理论上与1«光束线中的小孔有相同大小),从而使被透射的中子最少,同时完全透射激光。 If the aperture is located in the relay Galilean telescope focal position of the aperture becomes the minimum aperture can be (theoretically 1 «line beam apertures have the same size), such that the minimum transmittance of neutrons, while fully transmitted laser.

[0042] 图3A是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含两个级联的中子小孔的最后光束传输系统。 [0042] FIG 3A is a schematic diagram illustrating the beam delivery system comprises finally two cascaded neutron apertures according to embodiments of the present invention. 虽然该系统能够被称为“两中子小孔”系统,但应当理解,该系统利用两组中子小孔。 Although this system can be referred to as "two neutron pinhole" system, it should be understood that the system utilizes two neutron pinholes. 如图3A所示被设计的系统,遭受的辐射剂量,利用两个级联的中子小孔,被衰减到0.04rem/年。 The system is designed to 3A, the radiation doses incurred by two cascaded neutron pinhole, is attenuated to 0.04rem / years. 应当指出,最后光学装置326/320不仅聚焦,而且使光束从第二中子小孔中继望远镜(包含聚焦透镜314和菲涅尔透镜(型号2a)316以及匹配聚焦透镜315/菲涅尔透镜318)的轴,偏转到靶室中心386。 It should be noted that not only the final optical focusing device 326/320, but also the beam from the second neutron pinhole relay telescope (314 including a focus lens and a Fresnel lens (Part 2a) 316 and 315 matching the focus lens / Fresnel lens 318) shaft, the deflection center of the chamber 386 to a target. 因为最后光学装置(即,菲涅尔透镜(型号2b) 326和匹配最后光学装置(即,菲涅尔透镜(型号Ib)) 320使激光束偏转,所以它只作为中子的散射源起作用,从而阻止射出的中子穿过在位置上(at location)的中子小孔。来自小孔330的中子的透射谱,将是被粗糙地准直的中子束,这些中子在经过小孔结构的一些准直之后,被周围屏蔽材料和外围区散射。如图3A所示,在位置332上的第二中子小孔的轴,再次从位置330上的第一中子小孔的轴偏转,阻止来自第二小孔的射出中子穿过第一小孔。使用这种技术,中子剂量能够被衰减到这样的强度,以致人类在激光器机架长久工作是可能的。 Finally, because the optical device (i.e., the optical device 326 and the last matching Fresnel lens (type 2b) (i.e., Fresnel lens (Type Ib)) 320 deflects the laser beam, so it only acts as a source of neutrons scattered , thereby preventing emitted neutrons passing through the position (at location) apertures neutron transmissive spectra from neutron apertures 330, it will be roughly collimated neutron beam, the neutrons passing through after some of the collimated holes structure, and a shielding material around the peripheral region scattering., second shaft neutron pinhole at position 332, a first neutron pinhole. 3A again from the position 330 in FIG. a shaft deflection, to prevent neutrons emitted from the second orifice through the first aperture. using this technique, neutron dose can be attenuated to such an intensity, that at long laser human work racks are possible.

[0043] 在一实施例中,激光器机架310A和310B,包含2.2m宽X 1.35m高X10.4m长的1«激光器/放大器。 [0043] In one embodiment, the laser racks 310A and 310B, comprising a length of 2.2m wide X 1.35m high X10.4m 1 «laser / amplifier. 这些激光器机架,能产生有435mm正方形光束尺寸、适合聚变应用的激光束。 These lasers rack, 435mm square can produce a beam size, the laser beam for fusion applications. 此外,在一些实施例中,内部锥体324以26.9°的角度为特征,而外部锥体322以47.25°的角度为特征,但这些具体角度不是本发明要求的。 Further, in some embodiments, the internal angle of the cone 324 is characterized by 26.9 °, and the outer cone 322 is characterized by an angle of 47.25 °, these angles are not specifically required by the present invention. 作为例子,在其他实施例中,锥体角度是30°和50°。 By way of example, in other embodiments, the cone angle is 30 ° and 50 °.

[0044] 该最后传输光学系统的光学设计,同时满足许多要求,包含:瞄准和集中到靶室中心上的入射靶的能力;有效地传输351nm光到靶室中心;以及把能量聚焦进靶空腔的激光入口孔(LEH)。 [0044] The optical design of the last transmitted optical system, meet a number of requirements, comprising: aiming and ability incident target of the target chamber center concentrated; efficiently transmitted 351nm target chamber central light to; and the energy is focused into the target space laser inlet bore (LEH). 为达到这些目的,图1所示的反射镜MlO和Mll被用于保持集中在最后传输光学装置上,并缓慢瞄准该靶。 For these purposes, view of the mirror shown in MlO and Mll is used to maintain focus on the last optical transmission apparatus, and the aimed target slow. 透镜L9、HO和Lll除了传输光束通过第一中子小孔外,还用来消除(null out)菲涅尔最后光学装置引起的色散,该色散相对于传统的凸透镜有相反的符号。 Lens L9, HO Lll and transmitted in addition to the first neutron beam passes through the outer orifice, also for the chromatic dispersion (null out) of the optical apparatus caused by the Fresnel Finally, the dispersion with respect to the conventional convex lenses have opposite signs. 光栅LGl补偿由菲涅尔最后光学装置的偏转(衍射)引起的时域上的歪斜,并且还用来提供要求的中子小孔I和2之间的偏转。 A raster distortion in the field caused by the deflection compensation LGl (diffraction) optical device Fresnel last, and also to provide the required deflection between the apertures I and neutron. 由此在颜色和时域二者上完全被补偿,该菲涅尔光学装置能够把351nm驱动激光束聚焦进靶的LEH。 Thereby fully compensated in both the color and the time domain, the Fresnel optic can be driven to 351nm laser beam is focused into the target LEH.

[0045] 本发明的实施例利用数个光学元件之一作为最后光学装置,该最后光学装置包含:掠入射金属反射镜(GMM)、椭圆面反射镜、薄菲涅尔光学装置、或诸如此类。 Example [0045] The present invention utilizes one of several optical elements as the last optical apparatus, the optical apparatus finally comprising: a grazing incidence mirror metal (the GMM), ellipsoidal reflector, thin Fresnel optic device, or the like. 在利用GIMM或抛物面反射镜的实施例中,附加的真空窗被包含在中子空间滤波器前面的最后光学装置的设计上游中(如,紧接着)。 In embodiments utilizing GIMM or parabolic mirror, the additional vacuum window is included in the design of the optical apparatus upstream of the last preceding neutron spatial filter (e.g., immediately). 该光学装置除其他外,适合用于两个目的:保证望远镜焦点上的真空,以便激光能够被透射;以及作为氚屏障起作用。 The optical means, inter alia, suitable for two purposes: to ensure the vacuum telescope focal point, so as to be capable of transmitting laser light; and acts as a barrier tritium. 图1所示菲涅尔光学装置,作为最后聚焦光学装置和作为真空屏障二者起作用。 As shown in FIG. 1 Fresnel optic, as the final focusing optics and acts both as a vacuum barrier. 通过把该最后光学装置做成薄的,中子引起的吸收能够被降低到数个百分点的水平。 Can be reduced to a level of a few percent by the last optical apparatus is made thin, the absorption of neutrons.

[0046] 虽然与中子小孔相关联的两个中继望远镜的光轴之间的角度形成约60°角度的夹角,但这不是本发明要求的,而其他实施例利用望远镜之间的不同角度。 [0046] While the angle between the optical relay telescope with two apertures associated neutron forms an angle of approximately 60 ° angle, this is not required by the present invention, while other embodiments utilize between telescope different angle. 在一些实施例中,第一中继望远镜沿水平平面取向,而第二中继望远镜沿竖直平面取向,该两个光轴之间成直角。 In some embodiments, the first relay telescope oriented along a horizontal plane, and the second relay telescope along a vertical plane oriented at right angles to the optical axis between the two. 除了出示的那些取向外,其他取向也被包含在本发明的范围之内。 In addition to those presented orientation, other orientations are also included within the scope of the invention. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will recognize that many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0047] 图3B是不意图,不出按照本发明一实施例的包含单一中子小孔的最后光束传输系统。 [0047] FIG. 3B is not meant, not the final beam delivery system comprises a single neutron pinhole according to an embodiment of the present invention. 参考图3B,激光光源350A到350N,被提供在第一区351。 3B, the laser light source 350A to 350N, is provided in the first region 351. 来自激光光源350A到350N的光,被引向例如厚度全部是3米的屏蔽墙352。 Light from the laser source 350A to 350N is, for example, is directed to a thickness of 3 m are all shielding wall 352. 一组中子小孔353A到353N,被提供在该屏蔽墙352中,使激光辐射在用一组光学系统(如,一组N个的中继望远镜)会聚之后,能穿过该屏蔽墙。 A set of neutron pinholes 353A to 353n, which are provided in the shielding wall 352, the laser radiation after a set of converging optical system (e.g., a set of N relay telescope), to pass through the shield wall. 因此,当该系统被称作“单一中子小孔”系统时,能够被理解为利用单一组中子小孔,而不是两组中子小孔。 Thus, when the system is called "single neutron pinhole" system, it can be understood as using a single set of neutron pinholes, rather than two neutron pinholes.

[0048] 穿过该组中子小孔353A到353N的光,反射离开图示实施例中的抛物面反射镜360,入射在菲涅尔光学装置362和364上。 [0048] The light passing through the aperture 353A to 353N group of neutrons, the illustrated embodiment is reflected off the parabolic mirror 360 in the embodiment, the Fresnel optic is incident on the 362 and 364. 在一些实施例中,菲涅尔光学装置362和364之间的距离,足以使抛物面反射镜360能被定位在突出部分361下面。 In some embodiments, the distance between the Fresnel optic 362 and 364, sufficient to cause the parabolic mirror 360 can be positioned below the projecting portion 361. 在被菲涅尔光学装置364聚焦后,光被聚焦到靶386上。 After being focused Fresnel optic device 364, light is focused onto the target 386.

[0049] 靶386上产生的中子,沿所有方向,包含锥体368方向,穿过墙366和365之间的空间传播出去。 The neutrons [0049] The target 386, in all directions, comprising the cone 368 direction, the space between the through walls 366 and 365 spread out. 锥体368左侧的中子,被墙366反射或吸收。 Neutron cone 368 on the left side wall 366 is reflected or absorbed. 在一实施例中,墙363和突出部分361定义锥体368的角度扩展。 In one embodiment, the wall 363 and the protruding portion 361 defines a cone angle 368 of the extension. 虽然中子入射在菲涅尔光学装置364上,但墙365阻止中子入射在菲涅尔光学装置362上。 Although neutrons incident on the Fresnel optic 364, the wall 365 prevents neutrons incident on the Fresnel optic 362. 因为中子被包含在墙363和突出部分361之间,只有单一组中子小孔被需要用于把区351中的中子密度降低到可接受水平。 Because neutrons are comprised between the wall 363 and the projecting portion 361, only a single set of apertures is a need for a neutron to reduce neutron density zone 351 to an acceptable level.

[0050] 图3C是简化示意图,示出按照本发明一实施例的中子小孔望远镜的元件。 [0050] FIG 3C is a simplified schematic diagram showing a neutron aperture telescope element according to an embodiment of this invention. 如图3C所示,第一望远镜370使光聚焦通过第二屏蔽墙372,以便穿过第二中子小孔374。 3C, a first telescope 370 is focused by a second light shielding wall 372, the second neutron to pass through aperture 374. 该光通过菲涅尔光学装置376A被折射,该菲涅尔光学装置376A形成第二中继望远镜370的元件。 The light passes through the Fresnel optic is refracted 376A, 376A of the Fresnel optic element forming the second relay telescope 370. 该第二中继望远镜380使光聚焦,通过初级屏蔽墙(未示出),以便穿过位置382A上的第一中子小孔。 The second relay telescope 380 focus light, through the primary shield wall (not shown), to pass through holes in the first neutron position 382A. 通过图显而易见,多个平行的光路,由提供多个穿过初级和次级屏蔽墙的中子小孔的本发明的实施例提供,这些中子小孔如中子小孔374B所示,来自该中子小孔374B的光被菲涅尔光学装置376B收集。 , A plurality of parallel optical paths, provided by the embodiment of FIG apparent from the embodiments of the present invention to provide a plurality of through the primary and secondary neutron shield wall apertures, the apertures neutrons neutron holes 374B shown from the neutron pinhole 374B of the light is collected by a Fresnel optical device 376B.

[0051] 穿过位置382上第一中子小孔的光,入射在菲涅尔光学装置384A上,菲涅尔光学装置384A收集并把该光聚焦到靶386上。 The [0051] position of the through hole 382 of the first neutron light incident on the Fresnel optic 384A, 384A Fresnel optic collects and focuses the light onto the target 386. 因为菲涅尔光学装置376A和384A中存在的两个光栅结构,接收来自点光源的光并把光聚焦到对应的点光源,所以这些菲涅尔光学装置的制造被简化,使高质量制造过程能被利用。 Because the Fresnel optic 376A and 384A of the two grating structures exist, receives light from the point light source and to focus the light to the corresponding point light source, the manufacturing of the Fresnel optic is simplified, so that high quality manufacturing process It can be utilized. 为了制造这些光栅,点光源被用于定义该光栅结构,因为穿过该光栅的光,是作为点光源发出并终止在点光源。 In order to manufacture these gratings, the point light source is used to define the grating structure, since the light passing through the grating, and is sent at the termination point light source as a point source. 如图所示,光栅正在接收发散的光并产生被接收光的会聚。 As illustrated, the grating being received and generates a diverging light condensing the received light. 这样,光栅的曝光能够用点光源完成。 Thus, exposure can be completed with the grating point light source. 按照本发明的实施例,各种不同锥体角度能够被利用,例如,靶386和菲涅尔光学装置384A之间的内部锥体的26.9°的角度,以及靶386和菲涅尔光学装置384B之间的外部锥体的47.2°的角度。 According to an embodiment of the present invention, various cone angles can be utilized, e.g., the internal angle of the cone between the target 386 and the Fresnel optic 384A 26.9 °, and the target 386 and the Fresnel optic 384B 47.2 ° angle between the outer cone.

[0052] 按照一些实施例,该制造过程与其他体系结构相比,由于点光源能够在光栅定义过程中被利用,所以得到改进。 [0052] In accordance with some embodiments, the fabrication process as compared with other architectures, since the point light source can be utilized in the grating definition process, it is improved. 作为例子,如图3C所示实施例中使用的被制造的菲涅尔光学装置,与使发散光束准直的菲涅尔光学装置相比较,有降低的像差。 By way of example, Fresnel optic is used in the manufacturing of embodiments as shown in FIG. 3C, compared with the Fresnel optic so divergent beam collimated with reduced aberrations.

[0053] 发明人注意到,熔融石英中中子引起的吸收,在相当适中的中子照射水平上饱和,且该吸收能够借助升高基底的温度而被部分地退火,如图4A所示。 [0053] The inventors have noted that, in the fused Shi Ying caused by neutron absorption, saturated over a relatively modest level of neutron irradiation, and can be absorbed by the temperature rise of the substrate is annealed partially shown in Figure 4A. 在一实施例中,5.3mm厚的熔融石英基底,被用于菲涅尔光学装置,它足以作为21torr的靶室和约0.5mtorr的中继望远镜之间的真空屏障起作用。 In one embodiment, 5.3mm thick fused silica substrate, Fresnel optic is used, it is sufficient as a barrier between the vacuum chamber the target relay telescope acts 0.5mtorr of about 21torr.

[0054] 发明人已经确定,如果足够厚度的光学装置(如,5.3_厚的光学装置)被保持在〜580° C,则吸收损耗被降低到〜0.5%。 [0054] The inventors have determined that, if a sufficient thickness of the optical device (e.g., a thickness of the optical device 5.3_) is maintained at ~580 ° C, the absorption loss is reduced to ~ 0.5%. 如图4B所示,熔融石英光学装置的吸收作为温度的函数变化。 Absorption 4B, the molten quartz optical device varies as a function of temperature. 加热能够通过使用光束加热、产生〜3.4MW的外部加热器、或它们的组合实现。 It can be heated by using a heating beam generating ~3.4MW external heater or a combination thereof. 在不使用加热器的实施例中,发明人已经确定,单独的光束加热,将升高光学装置的温度到〜518° C,有〜3.5%的相关联的透射率损耗,这样可适合于一些应用。 In an embodiment without using the heater, the inventors have determined that heating the individual light beams, the optical device to raise the temperature of ~518 ° C, with a transmittance of ~3.5% of the losses associated with such may be suitable for some application. 按照本发明一实施例,5.3_厚的熔融石英菲涅尔光学装置被用于最后光学装置,尽管本发明的实施例不限于该特定厚度。 According to an embodiment of the present invention, a thick fused Shi Ying 5.3_ Fresnel optic is used for the final optic, although the embodiments of the present invention is not limited to this particular thickness. 其他厚度也能够被使用。 Other thicknesses can also be used.

[0055] 图4A是曲线图,示出按照本发明一实施例的作为最后光学装置波长函数的校正透射率百分率。 [0055] FIG. 4A is a graph showing the percent transmittance as a function of wavelength correction last optical device according to an embodiment of the present invention. 图4B是示出5.3mm厚熔融石英光学装置的激光吸收对温度的曲线。 4B is a diagram illustrating a laser apparatus 5.3mm thick molten quartz optical absorption curve on temperature.

[0056] 参考图4A,被中子损坏的石英的退火过程,表明作为退火过程的结果,是351nm透射率中的巨大变化。 [0056] Referring to Figure 4A, Shi Ying damaged neutrons annealing process, indicated that as a result of the annealing process, the great changes in the transmittance of 351nm.

[0057] 除中子威胁外,由靶点火产生的冲击波将入射在最后光学装置上。 [0057] In addition to the threat of neutrons, the shock wave generated by the fire will be incident on the target final optic. 图5是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明一实施例的入射在最后光学装置上的冲击压强波形。 FIG 5 is a simplified graph showing the pressure waveform is incident to an embodiment of the present invention is an impact on the final optical device. 图6A是等高线曲线,示出靶点火冲击在最后光学装置中引起的应力。 6A is a contour graph showing the impact stress caused by the fire targets the final optical device. 图6B是等高线曲线,示出受靶点火冲击的最后光学装置的最大位移。 6B is a contour graph showing the maximum displacement of the final optic target by the impact of fire. 如图6A和6B所示,在最后光学装置中出现约2 um的位移和约40,000帕斯卡的应力,这对本文描述的设计是可接受的。 As shown in FIG. 6A and 6B, the displacement of about 2 um and about 40,000 Pascals stresses occur in the final optical device, the design of which is described herein is acceptable.

[0058] 该光学装置能够被安装在框架中,该框架能够用垫圈密封被密封到含有中子小孔的传输望远镜,该框架是被连接到建筑物的大的水泥结构。 [0058] The optical device can be mounted in the frame, the frame can be sealed with a gasket seal to the transmission aperture telescope comprises a neutron, which is connected to the frame of a building a large concrete structure. 在一实施例中,熔融石英光学装置的孔径约为0.53X43X49.65cm3 (在30°的角度上是43cm孔径),有21torr (2800Pa)的外部压强和0.5mtorr的内部压强,这导致在光学装置表面上134磅的力。 In one embodiment, the aperture is about molten quartz optical apparatus 0.53X43X49.65cm3 (on a 30 ° angle of aperture is 43cm), internal pressure of 21torr (2800Pa) and 0.5mtorr external pressure, which results in the optical device 134 lbs of force on the surface. 在如图5所示的〜135 us冲击脉冲期间,附加的0.5torr(70Pa)入射到最后光学装置上。 ~135 us during the impulse shown in Figure 5, additional 0.5torr (70Pa) incident on the final optic. 为理解该脉冲对5.3_厚光学装置的机械作用,使用Shell模型(对薄的基底有用的有限单元栅格技术),按四等分对称(quarter symmetry)的模型被建立。 This pulse is appreciated that the mechanical action of 5.3_ thickness of the optical device using Shell model (thin substrates useful finite element grid technology), by a symmetrical quarters (quarter symmetry) model is established. 至于边界条件,与垫圈的接触点被模型化为刀口滚筒(knife-edge rollers)(只垂直于光学装置被支承)。 As boundary conditions, the contact point of the washer is modeled blade roller (knife-edge rollers) (perpendicular to the optical device is only supported). 第一模态频率是131Hz。 A first modal frequency is 131Hz. 由于脉冲引起的光学装置的应力和位移,在图6中示出。 And displacement of the optical apparatus due to the stress caused by a pulse, shown in FIG. 6. 最大有效表面应力是40600Pa。 The maximum stress is the effective surface 40600Pa. 最大位移是2.62X10_6m (2.62um)0该最大位移和最大有效表面应力二者,在约6ms时出现在分析中。 The maximum displacement is the maximum displacement of both surface stress and the maximum effective 2.62X10_6m (2.62um) 0, in the analysis appears at about 6ms. 这些结果指出,最后光学装置存活率不受冲击波的威胁,且该最大表面位移对激光焦斑没有显著影响。 These results indicate that the survival rate of the final optic threat against shock, and the maximum surface displacement no significant effect on the laser focal spot. 应当指出,最后光学装置的安半圈装能够被设计成避免模态频率上的谐振,或由于先前的射击和/或支承装备液体流动(如,外围区、冷却,或诸如此类)引起建筑物的振动。 It should be noted that the final optic security apparatus capable of half-rings is designed to avoid the resonance frequency of the mode, or due to previous shot and / or equipment supporting fluid flow (e.g., peripheral region, cooling, or the like) caused by the building vibration. 对该振动的无源阻尼机构的工程,能够在该最后光学装置的谱的基础上实施,该工程包含根据该室的环境和机械安装硬件设计的作用。 Engineering the passive vibration damping mechanism can be implemented on the basis of the spectrum of the final optical device, comprising the project according to environmental and mechanical design of the chamber mounting hardware action.

[0059] 如图6A所示,全局最大有效表面应力是4.6 X 104,全局最小是零。 [0059] 6A, the global maximum effective surface stress is 4.6 X 104, a global minimum is zero. 如图6B所示,最后光学装置的全局最大位移是2.62 X 10-6m,而全局最小位移是-2.47 X 10_6。 6B, the global maximum displacement of the final optic is 2.62 X 10-6m, while the global minimum displacement is -2.47 X 10_6. 这些值不准备成为对本发明实施例的限制,只是提供本发明各个不同实施例中遇到的应力和位移的例子。 These values ​​are not prepared to be limited to the embodiments of the present invention, but the present example provides stress and displacement of various embodiments of the invention encountered.

[0060] 本发明的实施例,为在辐射热环境中最后光学装置(以及两个中子小孔之间的其他光学装置)的替换,提供方法和系统。 [0060] Example embodiments of the present invention, an optical device to replace the last (and other optical devices between the two apertures neutrons) in the radiant heat environment, provide methods and systems. 对第一级,没有电子装置能在该环境中存活,并将有低的MTTF。 The first stage, the electronic device can not survive in that environment, and have a low MTTF. 替换硬件将有非常大的MTTF,因为这些部件的失效将要求工厂停工(影响工厂可用性),以便能接近在靶室周围的高辐射区域中的硬件。 Alternatively hardware will have the MTTF very large, because the failure of these components will require plant shutdown (affecting plant availability), in order to close the hardware high radiation area around the target chamber.

[0061] 图7A是按照本发明一实施例的最后光学装置换出(changeout)系统的简化示意图。 [0061] FIG. 7A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating transducer (changeout) final optic system according to an embodiment of the present invention. 图7A所示系统,提供双光学装置替换能力和经由缆线驱动720进入高辐射区域的简单机械替换。 The system shown in FIG. 7A, providing the ability to replace bi-optical drive apparatus 720 via a cable and a simple mechanical replacement into a high radiation area. 图7B是按照本发明一实施例的最后光学装置替换品的光学装置通路(opticalpass-thru)的简化示意图,该通路包含在屏蔽墙中的曲径式中子屏障。 7B is a simplified schematic diagram of apparatus according to the optical path of the optical apparatus of the last replacement according to an embodiment of the present invention (opticalpass-thru), which comprises a labyrinth passageway in the neutron shield wall of the barrier. 本发明的一些实施例,能由菲涅尔光学装置的几何形状,例如,一侧40cm或50,但只有5mm厚和相关的低重量而被实现。 Some embodiments of the present invention, can be, e.g., 40cm or 50 side, but only related to 5mm thick and low weight is achieved by the geometry of the Fresnel optic. 菲涅尔光学装置705薄的本性,还能实现通过细的曲径730移除,如图7B所示。 Fresnel optic thin nature 705, 730 also enables removed through a fine labyrinth, shown in Figure 7B.

[0062] 如图7A所示,用于替换薄菲涅尔光学装置705的系统被提供,它不利用在高辐射区域中的任何液压的或有发动机的装置。 [0062] As shown in FIG. 7A, the optical system used to replace the thin fresnel device 705 is provided, in which any hydraulic high radiation area or device without using an engine. 如图7A和7B所示,该系统和方法,使用有滑轮或滚轮的缆线,引导被损坏的菲涅尔透镜,通过屏蔽墙中弯曲的狭长孔(slit),离开高辐射环境,该狭长孔作为中子曲径(labyrinth)起作用,但允许最后光学装置的交换。 7A and FIG, 7B of the system and method, using a roller or pulley cable guide damaged Fresnel lens, a shield wall by bending elongated holes (Slit), leaving a high radiation environment, the elongate as the neutron labyrinth hole (labyrinth) function, but allow the exchange of the final optical device. 这些曲径之一的近视图,以适合中子模型的示例性实施例中所用的尺寸,示出于图7B中。 Close-up view of one of the labyrinth, to fit the dimensions of an exemplary embodiment of the neutron in the model used, is shown in FIG. 7B.

[0063] 参考图7B,光学组件穿过曲径,以阻止中子穿过与光学组件通道关联的墙。 [0063] Referring to Figure 7B, the optical assembly through the labyrinth to prevent neutrons passing through the wall of the optical components associated with the channel. 如图1所示,为激光束的通道提供的中子小孔,相互成一定角度取向,以阻止中子作为未被偏折的中子穿过最里面的小孔。 1, the apertures for the passage of the laser beam neutron provided, oriented at an angle to each other, to prevent a non-deflected neutron neutrons passing through the innermost apertures. 光学组件能穿过曲径,该曲径作为曲径形状的功能而阻挡中子。 The optical assembly can pass through the labyrinth, the labyrinth functions as a labyrinth shape while blocking neutron. 参考图7B,在一些实施例中,该曲径有15cm的宽度和〜150cm的曲率半径,为300cm厚的墙提供300cm的入口和出口端口之间的距离。 Referring to Figure 7B, in some embodiments, the labyrinth has a width of 15cm and a radius of curvature ~150cm provide a distance between the inlet and outlet ports of 300cm 300cm thick walls.

[0064] 虽然为清晰目的而没有在图7A中示出,本发明的实施例使用两个缆线系统(每一菲涅尔光学装置705 —个),缆线被附着在每一光学装置的顶部和底部(即,共4条缆线走过墙中的两个曲径式狭长孔)。 [0064] Although for clarity purposes are not shown in FIG. 7A, an embodiment of the present invention using two cable systems (each Fresnel optic device 705 - of), each cable is attached to an optical device the top and bottom (two labyrinth elongated hole wall, i.e., a total of four cables through). 在其他实施例中,其他的实施方案能够被利用。 In other embodiments, other embodiments can be utilized. 如图7A所示,箭头702A示出替换期间左方光学装置的运动,而箭头702B示出替换期间右方光学装置的运动。 7A, the leftward movement shown by arrow 702A during the replacement of the optical device, and the arrow 702B shown rightward movement of the optical apparatus during replacement.

[0065] 虽然图7B所示曲径是连续弯曲的结构,但这不是本发明实施例的要求。 [0065] While the labyrinth is shown in FIG. 7B continuously curved structure, but this is not a requirement of the present invention embodiment. 在其他实施例中,如图7C所示的之字形曲径被利用。 Zigzag labyrinth In other embodiments, as shown in Figure 7C is utilized.

[0066] 在一些实施例中,因为最后光学装置中没有调整能力,所以安装硬件能实现精确运动替换。 [0066] In some embodiments, because the ability to adjust the final optical device is not so precise movement of the mounting hardware can be replaced. 在出示的实施例中,这是借助建立如图8A所示望远镜端面805获得的,在那里,铁磁钢球825 (如,基于Nd的磁体,或其他高的强度对质量比的磁体,诸如基于钕铁硼的磁体、基于钐钴的磁体或其他类似的磁体)被安装进表面,以便为菲涅尔光学装置模块提供运动对准点827,也如图8A所示。 In the embodiment presented, this is illustrated by means of the establishment of a telescope end surface 805 in FIG. 8A is obtained, where the ferromagnetic steel ball 825 (e.g., a magnet-based magnets, Nd, or other high strength to mass ratio, such as NdFeB-based magnet, a samarium cobalt-based magnet or similar magnet) is mounted into the surface, so as to provide motion alignment points Fresnel optic module 827, also shown in Figure 8A. 在其他实施例中,该运动支架被颠倒,磁体和运动对准点被提供在相反的元件上(即,磁体被安装在LRU上,而对准点在望远镜端面上)。 In other embodiments, the movement of the carriage is reversed, and movement of the magnet alignment points are provided on the opposite member (i.e., the magnet is mounted on the LRU, the alignment points on the end face of the telescope). 如图8A所示,基于Nd的高能力磁体(它可用其他合适的高的强度对质量比的磁体替换),菲涅尔光学装置,以及真空垫圈830,全都一起作为一排可替换单元,被安装在最后光学装置框架807上。 Shown, based on the high capacity of Nd magnet (a magnet which can be used other suitable high strength to mass ratio) can be defined FIG. 8A, Fresnel optic device, and a vacuum gasket 830, all row together as a replaceable unit Finally, the optical device is mounted on the frame 807. 该精确框架能够由刚性材料,诸如有缆线附件840的不锈钢制成。 The frame can be accurate from a rigid material such as made of 840 stainless steel cable attachment. 为使窗口模块能独立移除,两对缆线驱动器被提供,如在图8B的正视图所示。 In order to remove the window module independent, two pairs of the cable drive is provided, as shown in FIG. 8B is a front view of FIG. [0067] 参考图8A,该望远镜端面包含钢的法兰盘,该法兰盘在一端包含同样由钢制成的运动结节(kinematic nodule)825。 [0067] Referring to Figure 8A, the telescope end surface comprises steel flange, which flange comprises moving nodules (kinematic nodule) 825 made of steel at the same end. 钢的使用,可使图8A所示元件具有与其他室元件类似的寿命。 The use of steel enables elements shown in FIG. 8A and the other chamber element having a similar lifetime. 可替换的元件,都被安装到该钢法兰盘,例如最后光学装置815(如,熔融石英菲涅尔透镜,它能够被脱机安装,以提供微观对准能力)、用于在表面建立真空密封的垫圈830、基于Nd的磁体827、用于在替换和修理操作时把组件移进和移出该系统的缆线附件830、诸如此类。 Alternatively the element, are mounted to the flanges of steel, such as the last optical device 815 (e.g., fused Shi Ying Fresnel lens, it can be mounted off-line, to provide a micro-alignment capability), for establishing a surface vacuum sealing gasket 830, Nd-based magnet 827 for replacement and repair operations at the time of the assembly into and out of the cable attachment 830 of the system, and the like. 在一些实施例中,两个组件被并排地提供,并使用两个独立缆线系统,左方的组件将向左方换出,而右方的组件将向右方换出。 In some embodiments, two assemblies are provided side by side, using two separate cable systems, the left assembly will swap out the left, right and right component will be swapped out. 如图8B所示,独立的一对缆线852和854,允许窗口模块能在两侧独立地移除。 8B, the separate a pair of cables 852 and 854, allow the window module can be independently removed on both sides. 在一些实施方式中,垫圈是任选的,因为一些实施例对该系统的各部分不利用真空环境。 In some embodiments, the gasket is optional, as some embodiments of portions of the system does not utilize a vacuum environment. 在这些实施例中,光学装置能够被安装,但不对中子小孔密封,因为在光学装置两侧不存在压强差。 In these embodiments, the optical device can be mounted, but not sealed neutron pinholes, because there is no pressure differential on both sides of the optical device. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will recognize that many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0068] 图SC是简化流程图,示出按照本发明一实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的方法。 [0068] FIG. SC is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of exchanging the last optical device in a high radiation environment in an embodiment in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention. 该方法800包含:暂停操作(810);任选地使望远镜通气,达到室压强(812);以及任选地添加另外的Xe气,使透镜像“打嗝” 一样离开望远镜端面(814)。 The method 800 comprises: pausing operation (810); optionally breather telescope, reaches the pressure chamber (812); and optionally adding further Xe gas in the transparent image "hiccup" as leaving telescope end surface (814). 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便通过辐射墙收回最后光学装置(816);以及在中子小孔#1和中子小孔#2之间的区中,使用机器人交换最后光学装置(818)。 The method further comprising: pulling the cable, in order to recover the final optical device (816) by radiation wall; and a neutron and neutron pinhole aperture ## in the region between the two, using a robot to exchange the last optical means (818 ). 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便把替换最后光学装置放置在望远镜端面之前(820);使用磁体,以便把最后光学装置拉进运动位置(822);任选地抽真空,以便把最后光学装置安置在运动装置上(824);按需要检验对准和重新使光束瞄准(826);以及恢复操作(828)。 The method further comprising: pulling the cable, in order to replace the last optical means placed in front (820) end faces telescope; using magnets to pull into the final movement position of the optical device (822); optionally evacuated to the final optical means disposed on the moving means (824); re-alignment and inspection needed aiming light beam (826); and a recovery operation (828). 虽然在出示的实施例中,运动装置被利用,但这不是本发明的实施例要求的,而其他对准技术也包含在本发明的范围之内。 Although in the present embodiment, the motion device is utilized, but this is not an embodiment of the present invention claims, while the other alignment techniques are also included within the scope of the invention.

[0069] 应当明白,图SC中出示的具体步骤,是提供按照本发明一实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的具体方法。 [0069] It should be appreciated that the specific steps presented in FIG. SC, to provide a specific way to exchange the last optical device in a high radiation environment in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 按照另外的实施例,其他步骤的序列也可以执行。 According to a further embodiment, other sequences of steps may also be performed. 例如,本发明另外的实施例可以按不同的次序执行上面列举的步骤。 For example, a further embodiment of the present invention may perform the steps listed above in a different order. 此外,图8C中所示个别步骤,可以包含多个子步骤,这些子步骤可以按适合于该个别步骤的各种不同次序执行。 Moreover, the individual steps in FIG. FIG. 8C, may comprise a plurality of sub-steps, sub-steps may be adapted to a variety of different execution order of the individual steps. 另夕卜,附加的步骤可以依赖于具体应用被添加或移除。 Another Bu Xi, additional steps may depend on the particular application is added or removed. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will recognize that many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0070] 虽然密封光学装置的具体方法,相对于图SC被提供,但本发明的实施例不受这些方案的限制。 [0070] Although the specific method of sealing an optical device, is provided with respect to FIGS. SC, but limiting embodiments of the present invention is not limited to these programs. 在其他实施例中,推-拉密封被作为阀利用,与金属罐(canister)的密封类似。 In other embodiments, the push - pull seal is utilized as a valve, and the metallic casing (canister) is similar to the seal. 因此,本发明的实施例为在一定距离上,借助对阀的一侧排气和其后换出(changingout)光学装置,提供密封的建立。 Thus, embodiments of the present invention is at a distance, by means of the side of the exhaust valve and subsequent swapped out (changingout) optical means provided to establish sealing. 通过致动控制杆,密封能够随着光学装置支架被紧顶着法兰盘而被建立。 By actuating the control lever, as the optical device can be sealed tightly against the flange bracket is to be established. 为了释放该密封,该控制杆被沿相反方向致动,使光学装置支架能按类似金属罐顶盖的方式,从法兰盘离开。 To release the seal, the lever is actuated in the opposite direction, the optical device holder can, away from the flange in a similar manner canister cover. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will recognize that many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0071] 图8C所示方法,允许磁性运动安装的被动式方法,以便在跨越多个维护操作(servicing operation)中保持对准。 [0071] The method shown in FIG. 8C, a method allowing passive magnetic motional mounting order across a plurality of maintenance operations (servicing operation) are held in alignment. 所有可膨胀的部件能够立刻从该福射环境中移除,无需使发电厂为直接保养停工。 All expandable member can be removed immediately from the exit of the Fu environment, without making direct plant maintenance shutdown. 所有要求的气动真空阀、有发动机的缆线驱动、以及机器人光学装置交换,被限制在中子小孔#1和#2之间的区域。 Pneumatic vacuum valve all the requirements, there is a cable drive motor, and a robot optical switching means, is limited to the region between the # 1 and # neutron pinholes. 该区域和接入(access),在图9A中示意示出。 The region and the access (access), is schematically illustrated in FIG. 9A. 提供真空和氚屏障二者的气锁门920,被定位在曲径940的入口,该曲径940保持激光器机架的辐射水平对人员是安全的。 Providing a vacuum barrier to both gas and tritium lock 920 is positioned in the inlet labyrinth 940, 940 holding the labyrinth rack laser radiation level is safe for personnel. 机器人维护车辆930能够为供应新材料(光学装置和/或硬件)进入,以替换部件。 Maintenance vehicle can enter the robot 930 to supply the new material (the optical device and / or hardware), to replace parts. 这些相同的车辆能够被用于载运屏蔽容器中用完的部件,送至工厂中辐射有害废料场所,以便回收和/或处置。 These same vehicle can be used to carry spent shielded container member, the radiation sent to the plant hazardous waste sites, for the recovery and / or disposal. 如图9A所示,在最后光学装置通过曲径被移出,进入更低辐射区域911之后,车辆能通过联动装置(interlock)移除光学装置。 9A, in the optical device is removed by the last labyrinth, 911 into the vehicle by a linkage (Interlock) to remove more low emissivity optical device region.

[0072] 本发明的实施例是如此操作,以致该环境的压强是低的(〜21t0rr),这样将防止几乎所有最轻粒子仍然悬浮在室气体中,从而促进洁净度。 [0072] Example embodiments of the present invention is such operation, the pressure of the environment that is low (~21t0rr), this will prevent almost all of the lightest particles are still suspended in the gas chamber, so as to promote cleanliness. 气体清洗喷嘴能够被定位在最后光学装置的区中,气体清洗喷嘴的最终目的有两个:为使室气体受靶点火的“爆喷(puff)”偏移,提供反向气流压强;以及在该最后光学装置被替换和在操作期间保持洁净度,还提供低压强“空气刀”清洁它。 Gas cleaning nozzle can be positioned in the region of the final optical device, the ultimate goal of the cleaning nozzle has two gas: a gas chamber such that "explosive jet (Puff)" by the target offset fire, to provide reverse flow pressure; and the final optic and cleanliness can be replaced during operation, also provides low pressure "air-knife" clean it. 该清洗气流流率的控制,能够用位于初级屏蔽墙外侧低辐射区域中的气动阀实现。 The purge air flow rate control can be achieved with low radiation on the primary shield wall outer region pneumatic valve. 在保养操作期间,该清洗气压强能够被简单地增加到使最后光学装置的气体清洁能满足要求为止。 During maintenance operations, the cleaning gas pressure can be easily added to the gas cleaning final optic can meet the requirement.

[0073] 该系统除了提供长寿命的和可替换的最后光学装置外,本发明的实施例还解决位于中子中间的光学装置的有关问题。 [0073] In addition to the system to provide a long life optical device and the last alternative, further embodiments of the present invention to solve the problem of the neutron in the middle of the optical device. 这些光学装置(如图9中出示的Lll和LGl)和它们的有关硬件,是处在辐射环境中,该环境构成对光学装置的威胁并限制接入和保养能力。 These optical means (Lll presented in Figure 9 and LGL) and their related hardware, is in a radiation environment, pose a threat to the environment and limit access to the optical device and maintenance capability. 初始中子学的计算表明,中子小孔#2 (初级屏蔽墙926中的小孔925)显著衰减1.5XlO17n/m2sec的入射剂量。 Calculating an initial neutronics show neutron pinhole # 2 (925 apertures 926 in the primary shield wall) doses significantly attenuated incident 1.5XlO17n / m2sec of. 这些中子似乎高度被准直,这样将使相对简单的中子废物(dumps)能被用于限制中子小孔之间区域中的中子通量。 These neutrons seem to be highly collimated, so will a relatively simple neutron waste (dumps) can be used to limit the neutron flux in the region between the neutron pinhole. 有发动机的车辆930和有电子装置的致动器,将被允许进入该区域提供维护,而一些部件可以被允许在该区域中永久工作。 The vehicle engine 930 and an electronic device actuator, are allowed to provide access to the maintenance area, and some components may be allowed to work in the area permanently. 早已在该区域中的光学装置的维护,更加直截了当,并能够用与标准洁净度约定相称的处置方法实施。 Embodiment already maintained in the region of the optical device, more straightforward, and can be used with standard conventions cleanliness commensurate disposal methods.

[0074] 图9B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明另外的实施例的激光器机架曲径和中子小孔体系结构。 [0074] FIG. 9B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a laser and neutron pinhole labyrinth rack architecture according to a further embodiment of the present invention. 如图9B所示,被提供的体系结构,使用单组中子小孔(如,图9B中出示的一组四个中子小孔950)提供中子屏蔽。 9B, the architecture is provided, using a single set of neutron pinholes (e.g., FIG. 9B show a set of four apertures 950 neutrons) providing a neutron shielding.

[0075] 在不出的实施方案中,在大气压强下并利用空气环境的激光器/放大器,被提供在激光器机架955中。 [0075] In the embodiment not strong and the air atmosphere using a laser / amplifier, the laser is provided in the rack 955 at atmospheric pressure. 来自激光器/放大器的光,用光学装置引导,穿过包含该单组中子小孔950的屏蔽墙952。 Light from the laser / amplifier, the optical guiding means, through a single set containing the neutron shielding walls 952,950 of apertures. 利用如图所示的其他光学装置,该激光束在穿过该组中子小孔之后,按围绕墙956和958的之字形方式被引导,入射在靶室960上。 Using other optical devices as shown, the laser beam after passing through the set of neutron pinholes, by surrounding walls 956 and 958 is guided in a zigzag manner, the chamber 960 is incident on a target. 在示出的实施方案中,靶室960是在21torr,有作为聚变反应结果产生的氙和氚的混合物。 In the illustrated embodiment, the target chamber 960 is 21torr, the fusion reaction as a mixture of xenon and the resulting tritium. 曲径区域962大体上与靶室的大气条件相同,为21torr,有Xe和T的混合物。 The same atmospheric conditions and is substantially meander region 962 of the target chamber, to 21torr, and T is a mixture of Xe. 靶室960中产生的向曲径区域962传播的中子,被墙958和956阻挡,因而不能按相当大的密度到达中子小孔。 962 neutron propagation to the target region of the labyrinth chamber 960 generated by the barrier walls 958 and 956, and therefore can not reach by the relatively high density neutron pinholes.

[0076] 为了替换包含最后光学装置970的光学装置,缆线/轨道引导系统980被提供,以便使光学装置能移除和替换,如贯穿本说明书的更完全的描述。 [0076] In order to replace the optical apparatus comprises an optical device 970 and finally, the cable / rail guide system 980 is provided, so that the optical device can be removed and replaced, as described more fully throughout the present specification. 在光学装置的使用寿命之后,使用该缆线/轨道引导系统980,随着光学装置沿屏蔽墙982被路由,并通过还充当氚屏障的气锁门984被抽出,于是光学装置被移除。 After the service life of the optical device using the cable / rail guide system 980, as the optical means is routed along the shielding wall 982, and is drawn through the barrier also serves as a tritium gas lock 984, then the optical device is removed. 在通过气锁门984被抽出之后,机器人光学装置替换车辆990,能够被用于移除用完的光学装置和传送新的光学装置。 After being drawn through the air lock 984, the robotic vehicle 990 Alternatively the optical device, the optical device can be used for removing spent and new optical transmission apparatus. 机器人光学装置替换车辆所处环境,能够是大气,例如空气的压强。 Alternatively robotic vehicle environment in which the optical apparatus, the atmosphere can be, for example pressure air.

[0077] 再次参考图1,该最后光束传输系统,提供引导351nm激光到祀室中心的机构。 [0077] Referring again to FIG. 1, the beam transport system and finally, to provide a means for guiding the laser 351nm worship center of the chamber. 与某些其他聚变技术系统(如,NIF)相反,该室不是高真空。 Fusion technology with some other systems (e.g., the NIF) Instead, the vacuum chamber is not high. 在一些实施例中,该室被有意地用保护机构,诸如g/cm3的氙气体填充,以保护室墙抵御离子和X射线。 In some embodiments, the chamber is intentionally protective means, such as xenon gas g / cm3 is filled, the chamber walls to protect against X-ray and ions. 按15Hz的靶点火,也把靶的成分(氢、氘、氚、氦、碳、铅,诸如此类)添加到该气体混合物,因为真空系统通常在下一次射击之前,一般不替换所有气体。 Press 15Hz fire targets, but also the target component (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, carbon, lead, and the like) is added to the gas mixture, usually as the vacuum system before the next shot, generally do not replace all gases. 因此,光束通过该复杂气体混合物传播的详细分析,已经被施行,以提供有关该光束动力学(如,由于非线性过程产生的丝化现象(filamentation)或散射)的信息。 Thus, the beam passes through a detailed analysis of a complex mixture gas propagation, has been implemented, to provide information about the dynamics of the light beam (e.g., due to the phenomenon of wire (filamentation) in nonlinear or scattered) information. 该分析在一个实施方案中,开始于传播2TW、15ns、0.351 um的激光束,通过靶室中心附近的数十cm的Xe/Pb等离子体以及数米在最后光学装置出发的气体。 This analysis In one embodiment, the propagation begins 2TW, 15ns, 0.351 um laser beam, through several tens cm in the vicinity of the target chamber center Xe / Pb in the starting plasma and the final few meters of the optical device gas. 该靶室环境的产生和演变,被示出在图10中。 Generation and evolution of the environment of the target chamber, is shown in FIG. 10.

[0078] 参考图10,在激光射击之前,气体处在〜0.5eV的有5%的铅混合的非电离状态。 [0078] Referring to FIG 10, before the laser shot, the gas in the non-ionized state ~0.5eV 5% of lead mixed. 当激光脉冲的下缘开始加热靶时,等离子体球形成,它在激光脉冲期间生长到〜25cm的范围。 When the lower edge of the laser pulse to start heating target, the plasma sphere is formed, it grows to a range ~25cm during the laser pulse. 在〜Iu s后,该等离子体已经因辐射而冷却为中子气体的热混合物,它继续辐射,直到下一次靶射击。 After ~Iu s, the plasma has been cooled by radiation heat of the gas mixture of neutrons, radiation which continues until the next pigeon shooting.

[0079] 激光与气体及膨胀的等离子体的相互作用,在表2给出,其中这些相互作用以类型表征,而对光束作用的评估被给出。 [0079] The laser plasma interaction with gas and expanded, are given in Table 2, wherein the types interact to characterize, and evaluation of the effect of the light beam is given. 大多数作用已被充分理解,并与实际靶气体混合物和温度环境有关。 Most action have been well understood, and is associated with the actual target and the gas mixture temperature environment. 应当指出的是,光束的主要损耗机理,似乎是包围靶的等离子体球中电离的气体。 It should be noted that the main beam loss mechanisms, appears to be the target of the plasma sphere surrounding the ionized gas. 该透射率损耗作为与靶距离的函数,在图1lA中示出,并且在351nm上引起0.5%的可忽略损耗。 The transmittance loss as a function of the distance to the target, illustrated in FIG. 1lA, and 0.5% caused a negligible loss on 351nm. 在其中整个室被保持在电离的极端情形下,该损耗对6 ug/cm3的情形,只增加到1.5%。 Wherein the entire chamber is held in the extreme case of ionization, the case of 6 ug / cm3 the loss increased only 1.5%. 感兴趣的第二种损耗机理,是来自靶空腔铅气体的受激喇曼散射。 The second loss mechanism of interest, is SRS lead from the target gas cavity. 电子受激喇曼散射(从束缚电子的散射)过去已经用热管(碱蒸汽)中的染料激光被广泛研究。 Electronic stimulated Raman scattering (scattered from the bound electrons) dye laser has been past the heat pipe (alkali vapors) are used extensively studied. >60%的转换效率已对约Itorr的铅蒸汽被观察到。 > 60% conversion efficiency has been observed to lead the steam to about Itorr. 发明人已经确定,LIFE小光束的强度-长度结果(product)是这样大,以致在该激光脉冲的Ins之后,相关增益指数将达到阈值的10倍(G〜30)。 The inventors have determined that the intensity of the beamlets LIFE - length of the result (product) is so great that after the laser pulse Ins, correlation gain index will reach a threshold value of 10 times (G~30). 这将导致SRS介质的完全饱和。 This will lead to a fully saturated SRS media.

[0080] 参考图11B,在0.02torr上的SRS的lmj,对应于每原子〜I个光子。 [0080] Referring to FIG 11B, lmj SRS in 0.02torr, the photons corresponding to each ~I atoms. 这样,如果在靶区域的激光照明体积中的所有可用铅原子都被激发,结果等于整个LIFE激光系统(所有光束)的〜20kJ,它将等效于使激光脉冲形状上的第一“前哨脉冲”能量加倍。 Thus, if all of the available volume of lead atoms in the laser illumination in the target area are excited, the result is equal to the entire laser system LIFE (all beams) ~20kJ, it is equivalent to the first "sentinel pulse shape of the laser pulse "energy is doubled. SRS损耗等于〜0.83%的光束线损耗。 SRS ~0.83% loss is equal to the loss of the beam line. 根据这些值,入射光束的表观损耗,对本文讨论的6 ug/cm3的所有作用情形下,是非常合理的〜1,33-2.33%。 From these values, the apparent loss of the incident light beam, all of the situations discussed herein action 6 ug / cm3, it is very reasonable ~1,33-2.33%. 应当指出,以前的分析不包含光束开始重叠地传播(在空腔LEH附近)的最后一厘米,这部分是用动能分析(energetics analysis)解决的。 It should be noted that the analysis does not include the previous start to overlap beams propagate the last centimeter (in the vicinity of the cavity LEH), which is part of the kinetic energy analysis (energetics analysis) solved.

[0081] [0081]

Figure CN103339683AD00151

[0082] 表2.激光焦点与靶气体的相互作用 [0082] Table 2. Interaction laser focus to the target gas,

[0083] 还应当理解,本文描述的例子和实施例只为说明的目的,借鉴它们,各种修改或变化将向本领域熟练技术人员提出,而这些修改或变化,被包含在本申请的精神及权限与所附权利要求书的范围之内。 [0083] It should also be understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only, they learn that various modifications or changes will be presented to those skilled in the art, and such modifications or variations are included in the spirit of the present disclosure books and permissions within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (22)

1.一种替换被放置在高辐射环境中的光学元件的方法,该方法包括: 暂停光束线的操作; 拉动缆线,以便使光学元件通过辐射墙转移; 用替换光学元件交换该光学元件; 拉动缆线,以便使该替换光学元件通过该辐射墙转移; 把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处; 把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上; 把该替换光学元件安置在运动元件上; 检验该替换光学元件的光学对准。 1. A method for an optical element is placed in a high radiation environment alternative, the method comprising: pausing operation of the beamline; cable pulls, so that the optical element is transferred by radiation wall; by replacement of the optical element of the optical switching element; pulling the cable, so that the replacement optical element through which the radiation transfer wall; the replacement optical element is placed adjacent to a first end face of the telescope; the replacement of the first end surface of the optical element arranged in the telescope; the replacement optical element disposed on the moving member; test the replacement optical element is optically aligned. 和恢复光束线的操作。 Beamline and recovery operations.
2.权利要求1的方法,还包括: 使望远镜通气,达到室压强;和添加气体,使光学元件与望远镜的第一端面分开,其中把该替换光学元件安置在运动元件上包括抽真空,以便安置该替换光学元件。 The method of claim 1, further comprising: a breather telescope, reaches the pressure chamber; and additional gas, the first end surface of the optical element and telescope apart, wherein the replacement optical element disposed on the moving element comprises a vacuum to Alternatively the optical element is disposed.
3.权利要求1的方法,其中该光学元件包括透镜。 The method of claim 1, wherein the optical element comprises a lens.
4.权利要求3的方法,其中该透镜包括菲涅尔透镜。 The method of claim 3, wherein the lens comprises a Fresnel lens.
5.权利要求1的方法,其中该气体包括Xe气。 The method of claim 1, wherein the gas comprises Xe gas.
6.权利要求1的方法,其中该替换光学元件包括透镜。 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the optical element comprises a lens replacement.
7.权利要求6的方法,其中该透镜包括菲涅尔透镜。 The method of claim 6, wherein the lens comprises a Fresnel lens.
8.权利要求1的方法,其中把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处,包括使用运动磁体使该替换光学元件定位。 The method of claim 1, wherein the replacing the first surface of the optical element is placed adjacent to the telescope, so that the movement of the magnet including the use of alternative optical element is positioned.
9.权利要求8的方法,其中该运动磁体包括基于Nd的磁体或基于Sm的磁体中的至少一种。 9. The method of claim 8, wherein the movement of the magnet comprises at least one magnet or Nd-based and Sm-based magnets.
10.权利要求1的方法,其中把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上,包括对望远镜抽真空。 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the first end face of the replacement optical element disposed in telescope comprising a telescope evacuated.
11.一种光学系统,包括: 有第一端和第二端的真空室; 光学装置支架,被安装到该真空室的第一端,其中该光学装置支架有安装表面; 菲涅尔光学装置,被安装到该安装表面; 缆线,附着于该光学装置支架;和第二光学元件,被安装到该真空室的第二端。 11. An optical system, comprising: a first end and a second end of the vacuum chamber; an optical device holder is mounted to the first end of the vacuum chamber, wherein the optical device holder has a mounting surface; Fresnel optic, is mounted to the mounting surface; cable, the optical device is attached to the holder; and a second optical element mounted to the second end of the vacuum chamber.
12.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该光学装置支架被放置在第一区中,该第一区以第一中子通量为特征,而该第二光学元件被放置在第二区中,该第二区以小于第一中子通量的第二中子通量为特征。 12. The optical system of claim 11, wherein the optical device holder is placed in the first region, the first region is characterized by a first neutron flux, and the second optical element is disposed in the second region, the second zone to a second neutron flux is smaller than the first neutron flux characteristics.
13.权利要求12的光学系统,其中该第一区通过包含多个狭长孔的屏蔽墙与该第二区分开。 13. The optical system of claim 12, wherein the first region and the second region are separated by a shielding wall comprises a plurality of elongated holes.
14.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该缆线穿过屏蔽墙中的狭长孔,到达以降低的中子通量为特征的区。 14. The optical system of claim 11, wherein the cable shield through the narrow aperture in the wall, to decrease a neutron flux region features.
15.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该菲涅尔光学装置包括熔融石英光学装置。 15. The optical system as claimed in claim 11, wherein the optical means comprises a Fresnel molten quartz optical device.
16.—种系统,包括: 激光器系统,可操作以便提供沿光路的激光束; 聚变室,被耦接到该光路; 中子小孔,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间;和中子衰减区,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间。 16.- such systems, comprising: a laser system operable to provide a laser beam along an optical path; fusion chamber is coupled to the optical path; neutron pinhole, is disposed between the laser system and the fusion chamber along the optical path; and neutron decay zone, disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber.
17.权利要求16的系统,其中该聚变系统包括激光惯性聚变能量室。 17. The system of claim 16, wherein the fusion system comprises a laser chamber inertial fusion energy.
18.权利要求16的系统,其中该激光器系统包括相对于聚变室排列的多个激光放大器模块。 18. The system of claim 16, wherein the laser system comprises a laser amplifier with respect to a plurality of modules arranged in the fusion chamber.
19.权利要求16的系统,其中该系统还至少包括反射镜或衍射光栅,沿光路被布置在中子小孔和聚变室之间。 19. The system of claim 16, wherein the system further comprises at least a mirror or a diffraction grating is disposed between the apertures and fusion neutron chamber along the optical path.
20.权利要求16的系统,其中该中子衰减区包括附加的中子小孔。 20. The system of claim 16, wherein the region comprises an additional neutron decay neutron pinholes.
21.权利要求20的系统,还包括转向反射镜,沿光路被布置在中子小孔和该附加的中子小孔之间。 21. The system as claimed in claim 20, further comprising a turning mirror, is disposed between the apertures and the additional neutron neutron aperture along the optical path.
22.权利要求16的系统,其中该中子衰减区包括曲径。 22. The system of claim 16, wherein the region comprises a labyrinth neutron decay.
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