CN103335596B - Tunnel convergence displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method - Google Patents

Tunnel convergence displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method Download PDF

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CN103335596B
CN103335596B CN201310259298.3A CN201310259298A CN103335596B CN 103335596 B CN103335596 B CN 103335596B CN 201310259298 A CN201310259298 A CN 201310259298A CN 103335596 B CN103335596 B CN 103335596B
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prime
tunnel
relative
measuring
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CN103335596A (en
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夏才初
张平阳
曾格华
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SHANGHAI TONGJIAN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
Tongji University
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SHANGHAI TONGJIAN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
Tongji University
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Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of tunnel convergence displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method, this measurement apparatus is installed on tunnel wall, the laser range sensor including the alignment device being fixedly installed on tunnel wall, being arranged on alignment device and the reflecting piece being installed on tunnel wall measuring point.Alignment device includes a pedestal, is provided with a ball-and-socket, ball-and-socket and a bulb rotor mating spherical surfaces in pedestal, and bulb rotor is fixing with laser range sensor to be connected, and is provided with locking device between ball-and-socket and bulb rotor.Pedestal is fixed on tunnel wall by a setscrew, and the reach of setscrew end is shorter than the length of alignment device pedestal upper screwed hole.External firing line that this device also includes being connected to laser range sensor and external trigger button.Only needing a measurement apparatus can complete the measurement to whole tunnel convergence displacement and Vault settlement, measurement result is accurate, meets the requirement that convergence monitoring survey line is many, the frequency is high, total amount is big.

Description

Tunnel convergence displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of hole walls such as tunnels and underground engineering and the relative displacement measurement apparatus of structure and measuring method of monitoring, special Do not relate to a kind of device and method measuring tunnel convergence displacement and Vault settlement.
Background technology
During constructing tunnel and operation maintenance, by the measurement to tunnel perimeter headroom change in size, i.e. tunnel perimeter is restrained The measurement of displacement, can judge the stability of tunnel surrounding or structure with ocular and clear.Therefore, during convergence displacement is tunnel monitoring Routine monitoring project, and convergence gauge and level gauge be monitoring tunnel convergence displacement topmost instrument.
Tunnel perimeter convergence displacement monitoring mainly uses bar chi formula convergence gauge or string formula convergence gauge, i.e. fixes snap fit at tunnel measuring point, Convergence gauge is hung on measuring point snap fit during measurement, read the distance between measuring point.This traditional convergence gauge is all that contact is received Holding back meter, complicated structure, need relatively complicated installation process in measurement, the error that installation process produces will cause measuring essence Degree it cannot be guaranteed that.Normal construction operation in the convergence gauge of tunnel perimeter measuring point also can affect tunnel it is suspended on during monitoring.Pass The convergence gauge of system needs reading again after tension, so needing just can be monitored after sprayed concrete strength is formed, have impact on cloth The promptness of point, causes the partial loss of convergence displacement monitoring value.
Tunnel vault settles traditional monitoring and uses level gauge.Level gauge is hung on vault measuring point snap fit during measurement, then Carry out high-rise measurement.Vault measuring point higher (more than 6 meters), hangs highly difficult, is suspended on tunnel vault measuring point during monitoring Scale is normal construction operation in also affecting tunnel.
Some tunnel convergence displacement based on laser distance measuring principle are also had to survey quantifier elimination both at home and abroad, the device tool that these researchs relate to There are more complicated structure, or bigger size.Within the whole monitoring cycle, all need the fixing device of laser range sensor It is arranged on tunnel wall, it is easy to by blasting vibration or mechanical collision, thus affect monitoring accuracy, in some instances it may even be possible to survey can be made Amount device is broken.Additionally, some laser range sensors are limited due to the structure by fixing device, to measuring point and instrument Installation position is equipped with particular requirement, and otherwise Laser emission end cannot be directed at impact point to be measured.
The method carrying out tunnel perimeter convergence displacement measurement with existing convergence gauge or laser range sensor, every survey line all needs Convergence gauge to be installed or corresponding laser range finder fixing device, consumption is big, costly, it is impossible to meet convergence monitoring survey line Requirement many, that the frequency high, total amount is big.
Summary of the invention
The shortcoming of prior art in view of the above, the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of merely with a Laser Measuring I.e. can accurately measure whole tunnel away from sensor restrains horizontal displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method.
For realizing above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention provides the measurement apparatus of a kind of tunnel convergence displacement and Vault settlement, is installed in tunnel On road wall, including: the Laser Measuring be fixedly installed in the alignment device on described tunnel wall, being arranged on described alignment device Away from sensor and the reflecting piece being installed on described tunnel wall measuring point;Described alignment device includes a pedestal, is provided with in described pedestal One ball-and-socket, described ball-and-socket and a bulb rotor mating spherical surfaces, described bulb rotor is fixing with described laser range sensor to be connected, It is provided with locking device between described ball-and-socket and described bulb rotor.
Preferably, described bulb rotor is fixed with screw, is screw thread between described laser range sensor and described bulb rotor Connect.
It is further preferred that be provided with screwed hole bottom described laser range sensor, described screw be shorter in length than described screwed hole Length.
Preferably, described locking device is the lock-screw being installed on described pedestal, and the head of described lock-screw exposes to institute Stating pedestal, the afterbody of described lock-screw gos deep in described ball-and-socket.
Preferably, described pedestal is fixed on described tunnel wall by a setscrew.
It is further preferred that the end of described setscrew is provided with screw thread, described pedestal is provided with and the screw thread of described threaded engagement Hole, the length being shorter in length than described screwed hole of described screw thread.
Preferably, described tunnel convergence displacement and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement also include being connected to described laser range sensor External firing line and external trigger button.
The present invention also provides for the measuring method of a kind of measurement apparatus using described tunnel convergence displacement and Vault settlement, including measuring The method of tunnel vault settling amount:
Described tunnel wall is chosen three measuring points: A point, B point and C point, wherein, described A point is positioned at described tunnel wall At the vault in face, described B point and described C point lay respectively on the left and right abutment wall of described tunnel wall;
At described A point and described C point, described reflecting piece is installed, at described B point, described alignment device and described laser ranging is installed Sensor, measures length l on AB, BC limit respectivelyAB、lBC
At described B point, described reflecting piece is installed, at described C point, described alignment device and described laser range sensor is installed, survey Length l on amount AC limitAC
Described B point and the absolute altitude y of described C point is measured with level gaugeBAnd yC, calculate the relatively high of described C point and described B point Difference Δ yCB, Δ yCB=| yC-yB|;
With described B point as datum mark;
Before tunnel subsidence deformation, calculate the described A point discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to described B pointAB,
ΔyAB=lABsin(β-γ)
Wherein: γ = - arcsin = Δy CB l BC
β = arccos ( l AB 2 + l BC 2 - l AC 2 2 l AB l BC )
After tunnel subsidence deformation, the position of described A point, described B point and described C point becomes A ' point, and C ' point respectively at B ', Three limit A ' B ', length l of B ' C ' and A ' C ' is measured respectively with described laser range sensorA′B′、lB′C′、lA′C′, use described level The absolute altitude y of described B ' and described C ' measured by instrumentB′And yC′, calculate described C ' some relative relief relative to described B ' ΔyC′B′And the absolute settlement amount Δ h of described B pointB, wherein, Δ yC′B′=| yC′-yB′|, Δ hB=| yB′-yB|;
Calculate described A ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to described B ' after tunnel subsidenceA′B′, described B ' is considered as same with described B point A bit,
ΔyA′B′=lA′B′sin(β′-γ′)
Wherein: γ ′ = - arcsin Δy C ′ B ′ l B ′ C ′
β ′ = arccos ( l A ′ B ′ 2 + l B ′ C ′ 2 - l A ′ C ′ 2 2 l A ′ B ′ l B ′ C ′ )
According to A point described before tunnel subsidence relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described B pointABWith after tunnel subsidence described A ' relative to described The discrepancy in elevation Δ y of B 'A′B′Calculate the described A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to described B pointAB, Δ hAB=| Δ yA′B′-ΔyAB|;
According to described A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of described B pointABAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with described B pointB, calculate with Described B point is absolute settlement amount h of described A point when being datum markAB, hAB=Δ hAB+ΔhB
Preferably, for reducing error, it is also possible to described C point is datum mark;
Before calculating tunnel subsidence, described A point is relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described C pointAC,
ΔyAC=lACsin(α-θ)
Wherein: θ = - arcsin = Δy CB l BC
α = arccos ( l AC 2 + l BC 2 - l AB 2 2 l AC l BC )
After tunnel subsidence, the position of described A point, described B point and described C point becomes A ' ' point, and C ' ' point at B ' ', with described Laser range sensor measures three limit A ' ' B ' ', length l of B ' ' C ' ' and A ' ' C ' ' respectivelyA′′B′′、lB′′C′′、lA′′C′′, survey with described level gauge Measure the absolute altitude y of described C ' ' and described B ' 'C′′And yB′′, calculate described C ' ' some relative relief Δ y relative to described B ' 'C′′B′′ Absolute settlement amount Δ h with described C pointC, wherein, Δ yC′′B′′=| yC′′-yB′′|, Δ hC=| yC′′-yC|;
Calculate A ' ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to C ' ' after tunnel subsidenceA′′C′′,
ΔyA′′C′′=lA′′C′′sin(α′′-θ′′)
Wherein: θ ′ ′ = - arcsin Δy C ′ ′ B ′ ′ l B ′ ′ C ′ ′
α ′ ′ = arccos ( l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 + l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 - l A ′ ′ B ′ ′ 2 2 l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ )
It is considered as same point with described C point, according to A point described before tunnel subsidence relative to the discrepancy in elevation of described C point by described C ' ' ΔyACDescribed A ' ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to described C ' ' with after tunnel subsidenceA′′C′′Calculate described A point relative to described C point Relative settlement amount Δ hAC, Δ hAC=| Δ yA′′C′′-ΔyAC|;
According to described A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of described C pointACAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with described C pointCCalculate with institute Absolute settlement amount h of described A point when stating on the basis of C pointAC, hAC=Δ hAC+ΔhC
Calculate the described A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to described B pointABWith relative heavy relative to described C point of described A point Fall amount Δ hACMeansigma methods;
Calculate absolute settlement amount h being A point described during datum mark with described B pointABWith with described C point as datum mark Absolute settlement amount h of Shi Suoshu A pointACMeansigma methods.
Preferably, the measuring method of the measurement apparatus using described tunnel convergence displacement that the present invention provides, also include measuring tunnel The method of convergence displacement: with described laser range sensor according to measuring length l on BC limit described in frequency measurementBC, measure every time Value is described tunnel convergence displacement value with the difference of first measured value.
As it has been described above, the tunnel convergence displacement of the present invention and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method, there is following useful effect Really:
1. in daily major part monitoring, it is only necessary to a measurement apparatus just can complete the Vault settlement to whole tunnel and astringent lotion The measurement that prosposition moves, measurement result is accurate, meet tunnel wall horizontal displacement and Vault settlement monitoring survey line is many, the frequency is high, The requirement that total amount is big;
2. laser range sensor is arranged on the measuring point of tunnel wall by a dismountable alignment device, when being not required to measure Alignment device and laser range sensor can be taken off from tunnel wall, can carry out at any time installing and measure, it is to avoid measurement apparatus is subject to Damage;
3., after laser range sensor is attached on alignment device, can arbitrarily be adjusted the angle of Laser emission by roating sphere head rotor Degree, it is achieved the accurate alignment of survey line between measuring point;
4. the length being shorter in length than screwed hole matched on pedestal of setscrew end thread, makes alignment device be screwed into every time To same position, it is ensured that alignment accuracy;
5., when measuring the Vault settlement in tunnel, it is not necessary to measurement apparatus be installed at tunnel vault, measuring method is simple, accurately Degree height;
6. constitute point cantact between ball-and-socket and the bulb rotor of alignment device, efficiently solve traditional infinite sum meter or laser ranging passes Sensor is asked owing to the face between measuring instrument with fixing device contacts the measurement result poor stability caused and poor repeatability etc. after installing Topic;
7. laser range sensor has external firing line and external trigger button, it is to avoid it is bigger that direct contact type button causes Measurement error.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is shown as the schematic diagram of the measurement apparatus of tunnel convergence displacement of the present invention and Vault settlement.
Fig. 2 is shown as the partial enlarged drawing of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is shown as the present invention with measuring point B for measuring the principle schematic of the method for Vault settlement during datum mark.
Fig. 4 is shown as the present invention with measuring point C for measuring the principle schematic of the method for Vault settlement during datum mark.
Detailed description of the invention
Below by way of specific instantiation, embodiments of the present invention being described, those skilled in the art can be by disclosed by this specification Content understand other advantages and effect of the present invention easily.The present invention can also be added by the most different detailed description of the invention To implement or application, the every details in this specification can also be based on different viewpoints and application, in the essence without departing from the present invention Various modification or change is carried out under god.
Refer to Fig. 1 to Fig. 4.It should be noted that the diagram provided in the present embodiment illustrates the present invention the most in a schematic way Basic conception, the most graphic in component count time only display with relevant assembly in the present invention rather than is implemented according to reality, shape And size drafting, during its actual enforcement, the kenel of each assembly, quantity and ratio can be a kind of random change, and its assembly layout Kenel is likely to increasingly complex.
As it is shown in figure 1, be shown as the tunnel convergence displacement of the present invention and the schematic diagram of the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement, this measurement fills Put laser range sensor 3 and including the alignment device 2 being fixedly installed on tunnel wall 1, being arranged on alignment device 2 It is installed on the reflecting piece 4 of tunnel wall 1 measuring point.Fig. 2 is the partial enlarged drawing of Fig. 1, as in figure 2 it is shown, alignment device 2 wraps Include a pedestal 21, in pedestal 21, be provided with a ball-and-socket 211, ball-and-socket 211 and bulb rotor 212 mating spherical surfaces, bulb rotor 212 fixing with laser range sensor 3 are connected, and are provided with locking device 5 between ball-and-socket 211 and bulb rotor 212.
Being fixed with screw 2121 on bulb rotor 212, laser range sensor 3 is provided with can be with the screw on bulb rotor 212 2121 screwed holes 31 coordinated, the length being shorter in length than screwed hole 31 of screw 2121.When installing laser range sensor 3, Same fixed position can be screwed into every time.In embodiment, locking device 5 is the lock-screw 51 being installed on pedestal 21, The head 511 of lock-screw 51 exposes to pedestal 21, and the afterbody 512 of lock-screw 51 is deep in ball-and-socket 211.Pedestal 21 Being fixed on tunnel wall 1 by a setscrew 6, the screw thread 61 with tunnel wall 1 is exposed in setscrew 6 end Length is fixed, and it is shorter in length than the length of screwed hole 213 matched on pedestal 21, makes pedestal 21 be installed to same every time One fixed position, therefore has higher alignment precision.
When using the tunnel convergence displacement of present invention offer and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement to carry out restraining displacement measurement, according to tunnel The position of tested point selected by convergence survey line in monitoring section, installs setscrew 6 wherein, other treated at a tested point Tunnel wall 1 leveling at measuring point arranges reflecting piece 4, makes reflective surface be perpendicular to survey line as far as possible.Laser ranging is had to pass connection The alignment device 2 of sensor 3 is screwed on the setscrew 6 that is fixed on tunnel wall 1, can be appointed by roating sphere head rotor 212 Meaning adjusts the angle of Laser emission, it is achieved the accurate alignment of survey line between measuring point.Laser spots is sighted at tested point in reflecting piece 4 Behind centre, the head 511 of rotational lock screw 51, make the afterbody 512 of lock-screw 51 be deep into ball-and-socket 211 inside and hold out against ball Head rotor 212, thus lock the position of laser range sensor 3.Owing to constituting point between ball-and-socket 211 and bulb rotor 212 Contact, efficiently solves after traditional infinite sum meter or laser range sensor are installed due to the face between measuring instrument and fixing device Contact the problems such as the measurement result poor stability caused and poor repeatability.
When being made without measuring, alignment device 2 and laser range sensor 3 can be taken off from tunnel wall 1, and need Time, then measurement can be installed at any time, do not affect tunnel normal construction, measurement apparatus also can be avoided to be damaged.Tunnel convergence displacement The external firing line also including being connected to laser range sensor 3 with the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement and measuring method and external triggering Button, can eliminate the measurement error that the triggering device with laser range sensor 3 direct contact type causes when button.When swashing When the laser spots of ligh-ranging sensor 3 sights reflecting piece 4 at tested point central, press external trigger button record reading.Swash Ligh-ranging sensor 3 has numbering memory function and clock timing function to measurement result, has enough internal memories, and data-interface is permissible Importing data to computer, data resolution is 0.1mm.
When measuring tunnel vault sedimentation, the method measured according to traditional level gauge, owing to vault distance ground is higher, no It is beneficial to the suspension of scale, and certainty of measurement also can be affected.The tunnel convergence displacement of present invention offer and the survey of Vault settlement Amount device is without hanging measurement apparatus at tunnel vault, and has only to a set of measurement apparatus and can complete the sedimentation of whole tunnel vault The measurement work of amount.
Measuring method is as follows:
In tunnel, it is arranged through the survey line of vault triangle, in conjunction with the sedimentation value at the base survey line end points that level gauge is measured, surveys The settling amount of amount tunnel vault.As it is shown on figure 3, choose three measuring points on tunnel wall 1: A point, B point and C point, its In, A point is positioned at the vault of tunnel wall 1, and B point and C point lay respectively on the left and right abutment wall of tunnel wall 1.
Paste reflecting piece 4 at A point and C point, install setscrew 6 at B point, setscrew 6 is installed alignment device 2 With laser range sensor 3, measure length l on AB, BC limit respectively with laser range sensor 3AB、lBC
At C point, installing setscrew 6, alignment device 2 and laser range sensor 3 are installed, measure length l on AC limitAC
B point and the absolute altitude y of C point is measured with level gaugeBAnd yC, calculate the relative relief Δ y of C point and B pointCB, ΔyCB=| yC-yB|。
With B point as datum mark:
Before tunnel deformation, before calculating tunnel subsidence, A point is relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of B pointAB,
ΔyAB=lABsin(β-γ)
Wherein: γ = - arcsin = Δy CB l BC
β = arccos ( l AB 2 + l BC 2 - l AC 2 2 l AB l BC )
In formula: γ is the initial angle of BC limit and trunnion axis;β is the initial angle on BC limit and AB limit.
After tunnel deformation, the position of A point, B point and C point becomes A ' point, and C ' point respectively at B ', uses laser range sensor 3 measure three limit A ' B ', length l of B ' C ' and A ' C ' respectivelyA′B′、lB′C′、lA′C′, the absolute altitude of and is measured at B ' at C ' with level gauge yB′And yC′, calculate C ' some relative relief Δ y relative to B 'C′B′Absolute settlement amount Δ h with B pointB, wherein, ΔyC′B′=| yC′-yB′|, Δ hB=| yB′-yB|。
To triangle Δ ABC, triangle Δ A ' B ' C ' is moved to B point overlap with B ', B point and B ' is considered as same point, Calculate A ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to B ' after tunnel subsidenceA′B′,
ΔyA′B′=lA′B′sin(β′-γ′)
Wherein: γ ′ = - arcsin Δy C ′ B ′ l B ′ C ′
β ′ = arccos ( l A ′ B ′ 2 + l B ′ C ′ 2 - l A ′ C ′ 2 2 l A ′ B ′ l B ′ C ′ )
In formula: γ ' is the angle of B ' C ' limit and trunnion axis;β ' is B ' C ' limit and the angle on A ' B ' limit after deformation.
According to A point before tunnel subsidence deformation relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of B pointABWith after tunnel subsidence A ' the discrepancy in elevation relative to B ' ΔyA′B′Calculate the A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to B pointAB, Δ hAB=| Δ yA′B′-ΔyAB|。
According to A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of B pointABAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with B pointB, calculate with B point for measuring base Absolute settlement amount h of A point time on scheduleAB, hAB=Δ hAB+ΔhB
In order to reduce measurement error, also the A point settling amount Δ h relative to C point can be obtained again with C point as datum markAC。 Concrete grammar is as follows, as shown in Figure 4:
Paste reflecting piece 4 at C point, install setscrew 6 at B point, alignment device 2 and laser range sensor 3 are pacified It is contained on setscrew 6.When point on the basis of B point, the length of side on each limit of tunnel subsidence first three dihedral Δ ABC, B are recorded Point and the absolute altitude y of C pointBAnd yC, the relative relief Δ y of C point and B pointCB=| yC-yB|, calculate tunnel subsidence on this basis Front A point is relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of C pointAC,
ΔyAC=lCAsin(α-θ)
Wherein: θ = - arcsin = Δy CB l BC
α = arccos ( l AC 2 + l BC 2 - l AB 2 2 l AC l BC )
In formula: θ is the initial angle of BC limit and trunnion axis;α is the initial angle on BC limit and AC limit.
After tunnel subsidence deformation, the position of A point, B point and C point becomes A ' ' point, and C ' ' point at B ' ', senses with laser ranging Device 3 measures three limit A ' ' B ' ', length l of B ' ' C ' ' and A ' ' C ' ' respectivelyA′′B′′、lB′′C′′、lA′′C′′, measure and B ' ' point at C ' ' with level gauge Absolute altitude yC′′And yB′′, calculate C ' ' some relative relief Δ y relative to B ' 'B′′C′′Absolute settlement amount Δ h with C pointC, wherein, ΔyC′′B′′=| yC′′-yB′′|, Δ hC=| yC′′-yC|;
Calculate A ' ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to C ' ' after tunnel subsidence deformationA′′C′′,
ΔyA′′C′′=lA′′C′′sin(α′′-θ′′)
Wherein: θ ′ ′ = - arcsin Δy C ′ ′ B ′ ′ l B ′ ′ C ′ ′
α ′ ′ = arccos ( l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 + l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 - l A ′ ′ B ′ ′ 2 2 l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ )
In formula: θ ' ' is B ' ' C ' ' limit and the angle of trunnion axis after tunnel subsidence deformation;α ' ' is B ' ' C ' ' limit and A ' ' C ' ' limit after tunnel subsidence Angle.
To triangle Δ ABC, triangle Δ A ' ' B ' ' C ' ' is moved at C ' ' overlap with C point, is considered as same point by C ' ' with C point, According to A point before tunnel subsidence relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of C pointACWith A ' ' after tunnel subsidence the discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to C ' 'A′′C′′Meter Calculate the A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to C pointAC, Δ hAC=| Δ yA′′C′′-ΔyAC|。
According to A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of C pointACAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with C pointC, it is calculated with C point as base Absolute settlement amount h of punctual A pointAC, hAC=Δ hAC+ΔhC
Calculate the A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to B pointABWith A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of C pointACMeansigma methods.
Calculate with B point for absolute settlement amount h of A point during datum markABWith with C point for A point absolute during datum mark Settling amount hACMeansigma methods.
In rock tunnel, the absolute settlement amount Δ h of B point and C pointBWith Δ hCSmaller, so need not measure every time, Can measure once after surveying certain time, as a means of correction.
The method using the tunnel convergence displacement of present invention offer and the measurement apparatus of Vault settlement to measure also includes measuring tunnel The method of convergence displacement: install setscrew 6 at B point, installs alignment device 2 and laser ranging sensing on setscrew 6 Device 3, with laser range sensor 3 according to length l measuring frequency measurement BC limitBC, each measured value and first measured value Difference is Tunnel week convergence shift value.Measure frequency the most once a day.
In sum, the present invention effectively overcomes various shortcoming of the prior art and has high industrial utilization.
The principle of above-described embodiment only illustrative present invention and effect thereof, not for limiting the present invention.Any it is familiar with this skill Above-described embodiment all can be modified under the spirit and the scope of the present invention or change by the personage of art.Therefore, such as All that in art, tool usually intellectual is completed under without departing from disclosed spirit and technological thought etc. Effect is modified or changes, and must be contained by the claim of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a tunnel convergence displacement and the measuring method of Vault settlement, it is characterised in that the tunnel convergence that described measuring method uses The measurement apparatus of displacement and Vault settlement is installed on tunnel wall (1), and measurement apparatus includes: be fixedly installed in described tunnel Alignment device (2) on road wall (1), the laser range sensor (3) being arranged on described alignment device (2) With the reflecting piece (4) being installed on described tunnel wall (1) measuring point;Described alignment device (2) includes a pedestal (21), A ball-and-socket (211), described ball-and-socket (211) and bulb rotor (212) mating spherical surfaces it is provided with in described pedestal, described Bulb rotor (212) is fixing with described laser range sensor (3) to be connected, and described ball-and-socket (211) turns with described bulb It is provided with locking device (5) between son (212);Described locking device (5) is for be installed in the lock on described pedestal (21) Tight screw (51), the head (511) of described lock-screw (51) exposes to described pedestal (21), described locking screw The afterbody (512) of nail (51) gos deep in described ball-and-socket (211);
The method that described measuring method includes measuring tunnel vault settling amount:
Described tunnel wall (1) is chosen three measuring points: A point, B point and C point, wherein, described A point is positioned at institute Stating at the vault of tunnel wall (1), described B point and described C point lay respectively at the limit, left and right in described tunnel wall (1) On wall;
At described A point and described C point, described reflecting piece (4) is installed, at the described B point described alignment device of installation (2) and Described laser range sensor (3), measures length l on AB, BC limit respectivelyAB、lBC
At described B point, described reflecting piece (4) is installed, at described C point, described alignment device (2) and described Laser Measuring is installed Away from sensor (3), measure length l on AC limitAC
Described B point and the absolute altitude y of described C point is measured with level gaugeBAnd yC, calculate the phase of described C point and described B point To discrepancy in elevation Δ yCB, Δ yCB=| yC-yB|;
With described B point as datum mark;
Before tunnel subsidence deformation, calculate the described A point discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to described B pointAB,
ΔyAB=lAB sin(β-γ)
Wherein:
β = a r c c o s ( l A B 2 + l B C 2 - l A C 2 2 l A B l B C )
After tunnel subsidence deformation, the position of described A point, described B point and described C point becomes A ' point, and C ' respectively at B ' Point, measures three limit A ' B ', length l of B ' C ' and A ' C ' respectively with described laser range sensor (3)A′B′、lB′C′、lA′C′, The absolute altitude y of described B ' and described C ' is measured with described level gaugeB′And yC′, calculate described C ' relative to described B ' point Relative relief Δ yC′B′And the absolute settlement amount Δ h of described B pointB, wherein, Δ yC′B′=| yC′-yB′|, ΔhB=| yB′-yB|;
Calculate described A ' some discrepancy in elevation Δ y relative to described B ' after tunnel subsidenceA′B′, described B ' is regarded with described B point For same point,
ΔyA′B′=lA′B′sin(β′-γ′)
Wherein:
β ′ = a r c c o s ( l A ′ B ′ 2 + l B ′ C ′ 2 - l A ′ C ′ 2 2 l A ′ B ′ l B ′ C ′ )
According to A point described before tunnel subsidence relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described B pointABWith after tunnel subsidence described A ' relative to The discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described B 'A′B′Calculate the described A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to described B pointAB, ΔhAB=| Δ yA′B′-ΔyAB|;
According to described A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of described B pointABAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with described B pointB, meter Calculate absolute settlement amount h being A point described during datum mark with described B pointAB, hAB=Δ hAB+ΔhB
The method that described measuring method also includes measuring tunnel convergence displacement:
With described laser range sensor (3) according to measuring length l on BC limit described in frequency measurementBC, each measured value with The difference of first measured value is tunnel convergence displacement value.
Measuring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
With described C point as datum mark;
Before calculating tunnel subsidence, described A point is relative to the discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described C pointAC,
ΔyAC=lAC sin(α-θ)
Wherein:
α = a r c c o s ( l A C 2 + l B C 2 - l A B 2 2 l A C l B C )
After tunnel subsidence, the position of described A point, described B point and described C point becomes A " point, B " point and C, and " point is used Described laser range sensor (3) measures length l of three limit A " B ", B " C " and A " C " respectivelyA″B″、lB″C″、lA″C″, use Described level gauge measures the absolute altitude y of described C " point and described B " pointC″And yB″, calculate described C " point is relative to described B " point Relative relief Δ yC″B″Absolute settlement amount Δ h with described C pointC, wherein, Δ yC″B″=| yC″-yB″|,ΔhC=| yC″-yC|;
The discrepancy in elevation Δ y that after calculating tunnel subsidence, A " point is relative to C " putsA″C″,
ΔyA″C″=lA″C″sin(α″-θ″)
Wherein:
α ′ ′ = a r c c o s ( l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 + l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ 2 - l A ′ ′ B ′ ′ 2 2 l A ′ ′ C ′ ′ l B ′ ′ C ′ ′ )
By described C, " point and described C point are considered as same point, according to A point described before tunnel subsidence relative to the height of described C point Difference Δ yACThe discrepancy in elevation Δ y of described A " point is relative to described C " point with after tunnel subsidenceA″C″Calculate described A point relative to described C The relative settlement amount Δ h of pointAC, Δ hAC=| Δ yA″C″-ΔyAC|;
According to described A point relative to the relative settlement amount Δ h of described C pointACAbsolute settlement amount Δ h with described C pointCCalculate Absolute settlement amount h of described A point time on the basis of described C pointAC, hAC=Δ hAC+ΔhC
Calculate the described A point relative settlement amount Δ h relative to described B pointABWith relative relative to described C point of described A point Settling amount Δ hACMeansigma methods;
Calculate absolute settlement amount h being A point described during datum mark with described B pointABWith with described C point for measure base Absolute settlement amount h of described A point time on scheduleACMeansigma methods.
Measuring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: it is fixed with screw (2121) on described bulb rotor (212), For threadeding between described laser range sensor (3) with described bulb rotor (212).
Measuring method the most according to claim 3, it is characterised in that: described laser range sensor (3) bottom is provided with screw thread Hole (31), the length being shorter in length than described screwed hole (31) of described screw (2121).
Measuring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described pedestal (21) is solid by a setscrew (6) Surely it is installed on described tunnel wall (1).
Measuring method the most according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: the end of described setscrew (6) is provided with screw thread (61), Described pedestal (21) is provided with the screwed hole (213) coordinated with described screw thread (61), the length of described screw thread (61) It is shorter than the length of described screwed hole (213).
Measuring method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described measurement apparatus also includes: be connected to described laser The external firing line of distance measuring sensor (3) and external trigger button.
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