CN103319003A - Method for water ecological-restoration by Wuta-tsai - Google Patents

Method for water ecological-restoration by Wuta-tsai Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103319003A
CN103319003A CN2013102065203A CN201310206520A CN103319003A CN 103319003 A CN103319003 A CN 103319003A CN 2013102065203 A CN2013102065203 A CN 2013102065203A CN 201310206520 A CN201310206520 A CN 201310206520A CN 103319003 A CN103319003 A CN 103319003A
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China
Prior art keywords
wuta
water
tsai
floating bed
biological floating
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CN2013102065203A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
贾成霞
张清靖
刘盼
朱华
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北京市水产科学研究所
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Priority to CN2013102065203A priority Critical patent/CN103319003A/en
Publication of CN103319003A publication Critical patent/CN103319003A/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for water ecological-restoration by Wuta-tsai. The method comprises the following steps of planting Wuta-tsai on an ecological floating bed, and putting the ecological floating bed with the Wuta-tsai into water needing to be restored so that ecological-restoration of the water is realized. Through Wuta-tsai, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic water are absorbed so that water eutrophication is prevented and nitrogen and phosphorus content of aquatic water is reduced. Through regular harvest and selling of Wuta-tsai, economic benefits are obtained. The method can effectively solve aquatic water deterioration problems and restore a breeding ecological environment. Through harvest of Wuta-tsai as a high-economic value vegetable, unification of environmental benefits and economic benefits is realized.

Description

Utilize Wuta-tsai to carry out the method that water ecology is repaired
Technical field
The present invention relates to the method that a kind of water ecology is repaired, particularly a kind of method of utilizing Wuta-tsai aquaculture system to be carried out restoration of the ecosystem.
Background technology
China's culture fishery develops rapidly in recent decades, and the negative effect of thereupon bringing is that aquaculture water eutrophication phenomenon also is on the rise.Traditional pattern of breeding fish needs a large amount of water bodys of changing, and has both wasted valuable water resources, easily causes again environmental pollution.Therefore, the major issue that adopts effective, safe method regulation and control and purifying aquatic water water quality to become the culture fishery Sustainable development.At present, aquaculture system regulation and control and purifying method mainly contain three kinds of Physical, chemical method and biological processes.What commonly use in the Physical is directly to change water, this method instant effect, but water resource waste is serious, and surrounding enviroment are polluted in institute's effluent meeting.Chemical process is utilized the reactions such as chemical agent and pollutent generation oxidation, reduction, precipitation, polymerization, pollutent is separated or Degradation and Transformation becomes nontoxic, harmless chemical form from water body, but the expense of chemical Treatment is high, easily causes secondary pollution.Biological process is to utilize microorganism, plant, animal etc., with the contaminant degradation in the water body, be converted into other innoxious substances.With respect to other recovery techniques, biological process meets the viewpoint of ecology and Sustainable development, have expense low, process simple to operate and the advantage such as security is high, be large, an eco-friendly treatment technology of development potentiality.Wherein, artificial ecology floating bed technology was widely applied in the aquaculture system regulation and control in recent years owing to having the advantages such as good purification, simple to operate, landscape effect is good.The selection of floating bed waterplant must have the characteristics such as enhanced water resistance, high water purification ability, ease for operation concurrently as the core of this technology.Because the aquaculture system pollutent mainly is to come from nitrogen that residual bait, ight soil etc. discharge, phosphorus etc., these materials are the necessary nutritive elements of plant-growth, therefore the waterplant that is used for the aquaculture system reparation is pollution-free, edible, but regularly gather to obtain certain economic benefit in the repair process.
Wuta-tsai has another name called the dish that collapses, broadbeaked mustard, collapse ground pine, black dish etc., is a mutation of Cruciferae Btassica rape kind Chinese cabbage subspecies.For food, its blade fertilizer is tender, can stir-fry and eat, do soup, cold and dressed with sauce with blackish green blade for Wuta-tsai, and look delicious is bright, nutritious.Wuta-tsai is generally cultivated at In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River, and its quality is fresh and tender, good looking appearance, enter winter delicious behind frost, cold-resistant with it, look dark green, and be loved by the people in the winter time, but very few at cultivated in north, only in the suburbs, big city fragmentary cultivation is arranged, be rare special vegetables always.Wuta-tsai is also referred to as " vitamin b6 usp " dish and is subject to the domestic and international people to be liked, the edible portion of per 100 gram Wuta-tsais contains protein 1.56~3.0 grams, reducing sugar 0.80 gram, fat 0.4 gram, Mierocrystalline cellulose 2.63 grams, 43~75 milligrams of vitamins Cs, 1.52~3.5 milligrams of carotene, vitamins B 10.02 milligram, vitamins B 20.14 milligram, 382.6 milligrams in potassium, 42.6 milligrams in sodium, 154~241 milligrams of calcium, 46.3 milligrams in phosphorus, 0.111 milligram of copper, 0.319 milligram in manganese, 2.39 milligrams on selenium, 1.25~3.30 milligrams of iron, 0.306 milligram on zinc, 1.03 milligrams in strontium.Wuta-tsai also has certain pharmaceutical use, and carry in " food book on Chinese herbal medicine ": " Wuta-tsai is sweet, flat, nontoxic." energy " laxation, soothing the liver, sharp the five internal organs ".Often eat Wuta-tsai and can prevent constipation, strengthen human body disease resistance ability, damp skin is vigorous and graceful.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of Wuta-tsai that utilizes and carry out the method that water ecology is repaired.The method mainly be for Water, phosphorus content in the present aquaculture process exceed standard, the serious problems of water quality deterioration, the waterplant control technique that a kind of operability is high, detergent power is strong, economic worth is high of proposition.
The Wuta-tsai that utilizes provided by the present invention carries out the method that water ecology is repaired, and specifically can comprise the steps: Wuta-tsai is planted on biological floating bed, places water body to be repaired, thereby realizes the restoration of the ecosystem to described water body to be repaired.
In described method, described biological floating bed 20~40% of the described coverage of water to be repaired that accounts for is such as 30%.
In described method, planting in the spacing in the rows of described described Wuta-tsai on biological floating bed is 20~35cm, such as 25cm.
In described method, described Wuta-tsai is planted in the described biological floating bed long Wuta-tsai seedling that has more than 7 leaves (7 are launched leaf fully) that was when upper.In one embodiment of the invention, described Wuta-tsai is planted in the described biological floating bed long Wuta-tsai seedling that 7~10 leaves (launching leaf fully) arranged that was when upper.
In described method, described Wuta-tsai was planted in described biological floating bed when upper, the plant root is immersed in the water, cauline leaf expose to described biological floating bed on.
Concrete, treat that water body to be repaired (such as cultivating pool) temperature is more than 10 ℃ the time, choose launch fully leaf more than 7, robust plant, well-grown, uniform Wuta-tsai seedling, be transplanted to biological floating bed on, earth culture seedling and Rooted Cuttings all can, the earth culture seedling needs its bottom sediment is cleaned up, the plant root is immersed in the water, cauline leaf exposes on the carrier, foundation section and floating bed contact part can wrap with absorbent cotton, prevent that seedling from skewing, but parcel can not affect later on Wuta-tsai root system development by tension.
In described method, described biological floating bed can being made by polystyrene or polyethylene foam sheet etc.
In described method, the pore size of described implantation hole on biological floating bed is 4~5cm.
In described method, described water body to be repaired can be eutrophication water.
Described eutrophication water is compared with the water body before the eutrophication, and the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the water body obviously increases, so that water body is produced pollution.
In one embodiment of the invention, described water body to be repaired is specially the simulation eutrophication water.
The content of total nitrogen is 2~10mg/L in the described simulation eutrophication water, and is concrete such as 2mg/L such as 2~5mg/L or 5~10mg/L, or 5mg/L, or 10mg/L; The content of total phosphorus (take phosphoric acid salt) is 0.2~0.80mg/L in the described simulation eutrophication water, and is concrete such as 0.2mg/L such as 0.2~0.4mg/L or 0.4~0.8mg/L, or 0.4mg/L, or 0.8mg/L
Described simulation eutrophication water is to form add nitrogen, phosphorus and other element in distilled water after; The various elements that contain in the described simulation eutrophication water and the final concentration in described simulation eutrophication water thereof are specifically as shown in table 1.
Described water body to be repaired is after method provided by the present invention is carried out restoration of the ecosystem, and the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the water body obviously reduces.
In the present invention, above all described nitrogen all can be total nitrogen (nitrogen element); Above all described phosphorus all can be total phosphorus (phosphoric).
Described method also can comprise regularly the step of gathering in described described Wuta-tsai on biological floating bed to planting.
In described method, generally be transplanted to after described biological floating bed upper 40~50 days whole strain and gather.
In described method, described Wuta-tsai kind can be evil mind crow or gold zone crow, and it has, and plant is large, well developed root system, the characteristic such as cold-resistant.
The present invention adopts high economic worth waterplant Wuta-tsai that aquaculture water water quality is purified, by nutritive substances such as the nitrogen in the Wuta-tsai absorption aquaculture water, phosphorus, the control body eutrophication, reduce the content of nitrogen and phosphorous in the aquaculture water, sell Wuta-tsai by regularly gathering simultaneously and obtain economic benefit.As seen, the present invention can not only solve the aquaculture water deterioration problem effectively, improves the water body environment quality, and can by the harvesting Wuta-tsai as high economic worth vegetables, realize the harmony of environmental benefit and economic benefit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is biological floating bed.A and B are biological floating bed.
Fig. 2 be total nitrogen in the water purification simulation test of Wuta-tsai laboratory concentration over time.Wherein, the total nitrogen starting point concentration is 2.0mg/L among the A; The total nitrogen starting point concentration is 5.0mg/L among the B; The total nitrogen starting point concentration is 10.0mg/L among the C.
Fig. 3 be total phosphorus in the water purification simulation test of Wuta-tsai laboratory concentration over time.Wherein, the total phosphorus starting point concentration is 0.2mg/L among the A; The total phosphorus starting point concentration is 0.4mg/L among the B; The total phosphorus starting point concentration is 0.8mg/L among the C.
Embodiment
Employed experimental technique is ordinary method if no special instructions among the following embodiment.
Used material, reagent etc. if no special instructions, all can obtain from commercial channels among the following embodiment.
Wuta-tsai: kind is the evil mind crow, buys from Xiao Tangshan special vegetable base, Beijing." Shu Yingjie; Zhou Yuli. the Research Progress of Wuta-cai of China. Anhui Technology Normal College's journal; 2005; 19:15-18. ", " Wang Mingxia; Fang Ling, Yan Congsheng etc. Anhui crow dish resource and research .2008 Horticulture progress (the 8th volume) thereof---Chinese Horticulture can the 8th young academic discussion and modern horticultural forum collection of thesis " all record the evil mind crow in the literary composition.
Biological floating bed with polystyrene foam plate as carrier (as shown in Figure 1).The spacing in the rows that it is Wuta-tsai on biological floating bed that plantation is spaced apart 25cm(), the aperture is the circular hole of 4~5cm, and size is inserted test plant just.
Embodiment 1, the test of Wuta-tsai analog culture water body purification
One, biological floating bed preparation
Select polystyrene foam plate as biological floating bed carrier (shown in A among Fig. 1).Plantation is spaced apart 25cm, and the aperture is the circular hole of 4~5cm, and size is inserted test plant just.
Two, the plantation of Wuta-tsai seedling on biological floating bed
Treat that cultivating pool temperature is more than 10 ℃ the time, choose launch fully leaf 7~10 Wuta-tsai seedling (kind is the evil mind crow) be transplanted to biological floating bed on, require robust plant, well-grown, big or small homogeneous, earth culture seedling and Rooted Cuttings all can, the earth culture seedling needs its bottom sediment is cleaned up, and the plant root is immersed in the water, cauline leaf exposes on the carrier, the available absorbent cotton of foundation section wraps, and prevents that seedling from skewing, but parcel can not affect later on Wuta-tsai root system development by tension.
Three, Wuta-tsai laboratory water purification simulation test
1, the making of laboratory simulation water body
Add distilled water in cylinder, middle nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutritive element of adding made eutrophication simulation water body to be repaired again.According to " water environment quality standard GB3838-2002 " 3 different total nitrogens and total phosphorus concentration gradient are set, other nutritive substance concentration is according to Huo Gelan nutrient solution formulated (table 1).
Each nutritive substance concentration unit: mg/L of table 1 simulation water body
2, the grouping setting of experiment
According to the concentration gradient that above-mentioned nitrogen and phosphoric arrange, be divided into three large groups (low concentration group, middle concentration group and high density group), each concentration gradient is one group, every group establish two parallel, establish simultaneously a control group.Place in the test group cylinder and readyly in the step 2 planted the biological floating bed of Wuta-tsai, biological floating bed area accounts for 30% of coverage of water.Place identical polystyrene foam plate, not kind of plant in the control group cylinder.Test duration 42 days, water temperature maintains 16~18 ℃, adopts plant growth lamp to carry out light filling in the process of the test, and light application time is 8h/ days, regularly adds weekly distilled water and replenishes drain evaporation.Observe weekly on the one hand the Wuta-tsai Reducing sugar, monitor weekly the content of total phosphorus in water and total nitrogen on the other hand when the experiment beginning, measuring method is according to " water and effluent monitoring analytical procedure (the 4th edition) ".Experiment repeats 3 times, results averaged.
3, result
(1) Wuta-tsai growth conditions
In whole process of the test, the Wuta-tsai well-grown, every strain plant has a large amount of young leaves to send, blade increases because Wuta-tsai is the type that collapses, thus plant in height rangeability is less, but its in plant week the width of cloth obviously increase.The plant root well-grown, after transplanting, grow very soon new root, before the root system of plant Length Ratio test obvious increase is arranged under three concentration gradients, root length is advanced the speed and is respectively 0.371,0.396 and 0.403cm/ days, average out to 0.390 ± 0.017cm/ days (table 2).Root system of plant is the important channel of plant purification eutrophication water to absorption and the adsorption of pollutent, its root system position can provide a good pollutent absorption to transform the interface, and huge root system of plant provides good habitat for microorganism, therefore can improve the purification efficiency to eutrophication water.Observe and find, the Wuta-tsai well developed root system, the root hair is abundant, and this may be the high major reason of its detergent power.
Table 2 Wuta-tsai growth conditions statistics
? Low concentration group Middle concentration group The high density group Mean+SD
Root system rate of rise (cm/ days) 0.371 0.396 0.403 0.390±0.017
(2) water body purification effect
The concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus over time situation such as Fig. 2~shown in Figure 3 in the water purification simulation test of Wuta-tsai laboratory.As seen from the figure, Wuta-tsai all has preferably removal effect to total nitrogen and total phosphorus.(C under three concentration 0=2,5,10mg/L) Wuta-tsai is respectively 47.0%, 55.37% and 41.88% to the clearance of total nitrogen, and average out to 48.08 ± 6.81% is removed ability the strongest (Fig. 2) when starting point concentration is 5.0mg/L.(C under three concentration 0=0.2,0.4,0.8mg/L) Wuta-tsai is respectively 35.5%, 37.93% and 41.82% to the clearance of total phosphorus, average out to 38.42 ± 3.19%, when starting point concentration is 0.8mg/L to the removal ability the strongest (Fig. 3) of total phosphorus.Comparison was without considerable change when total nitrogen and total phosphorous were initial with experiment in the control group when experiment finished.Above-mentioned data show, biological floating bed total nitrogen and the total phosphorus that can well absorb in the water body of Wuta-tsai reduces its concentration.The table 3 clearance result that total nitrogen and total phosphorus calculate in the water body when finishing according to 42d experiment.
Table 3 Wuta-tsai laboratory water purification analog reslt
? Low concentration group Middle concentration group The high density group Mean+SD
The clean clearance of total nitrogen (%) 47.0 55.37 41.88 48.08±6.81
The clean clearance of total phosphorus (%) 35.5 37.93 41.82 38.42±3.19
Annotate: value before clearance=(value before the experiment-measured value after testing)/experiment.

Claims (8)

1. utilize Wuta-tsai to carry out the method that water ecology is repaired, comprise the steps: Wuta-tsai is planted on biological floating bed, place water body to be repaired, thereby realize the restoration of the ecosystem to described water body to be repaired.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described biological floating bed 20~40% of the described coverage of water to be repaired that accounts for.
3. method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: in the described method, planting in the spacing in the rows of described described Wuta-tsai on biological floating bed is 20~35cm.
4. arbitrary described method according to claim 1-3 is characterized in that: in the described method, described Wuta-tsai plant in described biological floating bed be 7 above Wuta-tsai seedlings of leaf when upper.
5. arbitrary described method according to claim 1-4 is characterized in that: in the described method, described Wuta-tsai was planted in described biological floating bed when upper, the plant root is immersed in the water, cauline leaf expose to described biological floating bed on.
6. arbitrary described method according to claim 1-5 is characterized in that: described biological floating bedly made by polystyrene or polyethylene foam sheet.
7. arbitrary described method according to claim 1-6 is characterized in that: described water body to be repaired is eutrophication water.
8. arbitrary described method according to claim 1-7 is characterized in that: the kind of described Wuta-tsai is evil mind crow or gold zone crow.
CN2013102065203A 2013-05-29 2013-05-29 Method for water ecological-restoration by Wuta-tsai CN103319003A (en)

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