CN103291214B - Be applicable to the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of hard formation drilling well - Google Patents

Be applicable to the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of hard formation drilling well Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103291214B
CN103291214B CN201310242299.7A CN201310242299A CN103291214B CN 103291214 B CN103291214 B CN 103291214B CN 201310242299 A CN201310242299 A CN 201310242299A CN 103291214 B CN103291214 B CN 103291214B
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China
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impact
contact
swivel head
head
sleeve
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CN201310242299.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103291214A (en
Inventor
张彦廷
朱文涛
邓荣
方敏
孟德超
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中国石油大学(华东)
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Abstract

The invention discloses and a kind ofly adopt turbine and swivel head combination as the novel hard formation drilling speed hydraulical impact device of the control structure of pulse of surging.Drilling fluid produces torsional interaction through turbine group to line shaft, swivel head rotary motion is driven by the connection of line shaft and swivel head, swivel head and impact cylinder end face contact and to produce periodic runner through-flow and closed, the pressure acted on impact cylinder is changed, under the compound action of spring force, impact cylinder does axial reciprocating jarring campaign, and by bindiny mechanism, the of reciprocating vibration of axis is acted in lower contact, the pulse shock of certain frequency is produced under the control of bindiny mechanism, effect of vibration is delivered on drill bit, produces axial impact force; The shell of drill bit and impactor interacts, and transmits the moment of torsion that drilling equipment provides, and drives drill bit to complete drillng operation, meanwhile, coordinates impactor to the impact of drill bit, improves efficiency of breaking rock, complete drilling speed.

Description

Be applicable to the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of hard formation drilling well

Technical field:

The present invention relates to a kind of novel deep well hard formation drilling speed device, is that a kind of fluid power that relies on completely is to provide the hydraulic means of required drive.

Background technology:

Implement oil-gas exploration and development with petroleum industry, with Stabilizing Oil Production of Eastern China, development is western, deposit formation of marine facies in southern China sedimentary structure, petroleum industry institute drilling well is from now on more and more dark, and stratum age is more and more remote, rock is more and more hard, and ancient boring method can not meet the needs of production and engineering.When creeping into chance hard formation, drilling efficiency is low, and bit life is short, and drilling period is long, and cost is high.The problem improving deep drilling speed becomes the important topic of drilling well circle research, and ing technique solves one of most effective method of a hard-rock boring difficult problem.

In recent years, along with oil/gas drilling is to the development in deep, the difficult problem that hard formation creeps into became increasingly conspicuous, and the rock bit that in oilfield prospecting developing drilling well at present, still main employing is traditional, coordinate the rotary drilling technology of PDC drill bit and jet drilling device.When bore meet hard formation time, drilling efficiency is very low, and bit life is short, and drilling period is long, and cost is high, and ing technique is one of most effective method of a solution hard-rock boring difficult problem.At present, the impactor type of development has valve type positive interaction impactor, valve type reaction punch device, valve type doulde-action DTH hammer (containing valve type and the throttle type of living), jet flow type shocker, jet-suck impactor, air hammer, mechanical type impactor.These impactor basic modules comprise changement (piston, spring, seal, block stamp) and energy delivery mechanisms (hammering block, drill bit).In Process of Oil Well Drilling, downhole tool is in the complex working conditions such as drilling liquid pressure is high, temperature is high, solid content is high, the own motion frequency of instrument high (have up to 20Hz), solid phase particles contained by drilling fluid to the wearing and tearing of seal, kinematic pair along with well depth increases, downhole temperature raises, and the temperature arrising caused by friction adding upper piston high-frequency reciprocating motion generation also can cause seal premature failure; Equally, design unreasonable, material and technique defective, erosion damages by washing away at a high speed for liquid flow inlet or outlet, the impactor life-span general shorter (being no more than 80h).

Rotating drilling technology is the technology method that petroleum industry showed unique characteristics, can significantly improve drilling speed.This drilling technology is exactly on the basis of rotary drilling, then increases a hydraulic impacter, between drill bit and drill collar, to produce the impact force of high frequency periodic.This technology utilizes impactor high frequency hammering bit teeth to enter rock, and be aided with a kind of efficient rock-breaking that combined-breaking rock is carried out in rotation scraping.When creeping into, drill bit applies the shock loading of certain frequency on the basis of conventional the pressure of the drill and torsional interaction simultaneously to drill bit by impactor, and shaft bottom drill bit is fractured rock under impact and rotation acting in conjunction just, creeps into.Shown by test application, rotating drilling technology is advanced, practical, a reliable modern drilling technology.

Summary of the invention:

The object of the invention is to provide a kind of novel reciprocating hydraulic impacter of drilling well speeder, low to reduce hard formation drilling efficiency, bit life is short, and drilling period is long, high in cost of production problem, improves the efficiency of drilling well.

For realizing work object, general plotting of the present invention is: many group turbine groups provide as the power of reciprocating hydraulic impacter and install side by side with transmitting device.After drilling fluid enters impactor top connection from runner, through turbine group, turbine group converts the momentum of drilling fluid the moment of torsion of line shaft to.Be that rotary motion is delivered to swivel head by interlock between hexagonal line shaft by turbine group and cross section, first of line shaft driven rotary does 360 ° of continuous rotations motions.It is on hexagonal line shaft that upper spring is sleeved on cross section, one end and back-up ring end contact, the other end and swivel head end contact, and is in compressive state all the time, in order to improve the sealing effectiveness between swivel head and impact head.Be arranged on below swivel head, and the impact head coordinated with swivel head end face is static relative to line shaft, then, when line shaft driven rotary head rotates, impact head and the sector crosssection of swivel head occur that end face overlaps and the staggered two kinds of duties of end face.When swivel head overlaps with the fan-shaped end face of impact head, two side runners outside fan-shaped end face are unimpeded, and liquid flows through from two side runners and damping hole, and swivel head and impact head are in circulation status; When swivel head and the fan-shaped end face of impact head interlock, side runner is blocked by fan-shaped end face, and liquid can only flow through from damping hole, and swivel head and impact head are in closure state.Due to the drive of line shaft, thus complete all secondary closures and the circulation of swivel head and impact head.

When swivel head and impact head rotate to closure state, drilling fluid, through top connection, turbine group, back-up ring, swivel head, impact head, inner sleeve, lower contact, flows out impactor.Because side runner is blocked, drilling fluid flows into the centre bore of impact head by means of only the damping hole that swivel head one end is opened, and area of passage suddenlys change, and crushing is comparatively large, and the pressure drop power of effect is larger.When swivel head and impact head rotate to open position, drilling fluid, through top connection, turbine group, back-up ring, swivel head, impact head, inner sleeve, lower contact, flows out impactor.Because side runner is opened, drilling fluid can flow through from the swivel head damping hole that the side runner that formed and swivel head one end open that to overlap with impact head end face simultaneously, and greatly, crushing is less, and the pressure drop power of effect is less for area of passage.Thus complete the periodic size conversion of pressure drop power.

In the annular space that lower spring is formed under being sleeved on lower contact and shell, one end and snap ring end face are movable contact, and the other end contacts with under shell.Difference force acts directly on inner sleeve, the pressure drop produced on impact head when fluid increases, exceed the support force of lower spring, compression lower spring moves downward. lower spring and inner have the snap ring of one fixed width boss to be simultaneously compressed to the multidiameter being sleeved on snap ring inside when seeing the largest end face of inner sleeve, that is: impact head movement progress snap ring compression lower spring is to extreme position, when boss in snap ring collides lower contact upper surface, transmit kinetic energy to lower contact, reciprocating hydraulic impacter is while transmission drilling rod moment of torsion, to drill bit applying impact force vertically, lower spring completes the conversion of stressed part, form percussion action.The pressure drop power produced on impact head when fluid is less, is not enough to compress lower spring, and now, lower spring realizes supporting role to device for upper end, and namely lower spring is used for the effect in axis of the deadweight of balance-impact device moving component and fluid power.Then snap ring, inner sleeve and lower contact are in non-action state, the only transmitting torque effect of reciprocating hydraulic impacter.Lower spring with under shell and lower contact is connected, realize the reset when support of lower end device and impact, upper and lower two parts complete whole impact process.Snap ring one end is spacing by impact head, and the other end relies on the boss in inner sleeve to limit its axial displacement.Inner sleeve and lower contact are that screw thread is fixedly connected with.

The technical solution used in the present invention is the characteristic according to formation rock in drilling process, the pressure acted on Interleaved control liquid stream on impact head is closed by the periodicity of swivel head and impact head, coordinate the effect of lower spring again, for drill bit provides pulsatile impact power, reach the effect improving broken rock and detritus.Turbine group can adopt different groups to count up to into the conversion of drilling fluid kinetic energy to mechanical rotation function as required; Cross section is that hexagonal line shaft upper end is connected turbine group with by key, and lower end is connected by hexagon square hole groove with swivel head, completes the transmission of power; Swivel head and impact head end contact, sector crosssection execution cycle property closed in relatively rotating, realizes the pulsation rule of hydraulic pressure, provides dynamic impact problem; Impact head moves up and down, by having clashed into the transmission of mid portion power; The gravity of lower spring part balance lower mechanical structure, a part offsets the pressure effect because fluid pressure drop produces in mechanism, periodically provides the required power effect that resets time in working order simultaneously.

The present invention compared with prior art, has following beneficial effect:

1. adopt turbine group as the driving source of rotary motion, can different rotation rates be realized by the combination of different turbine group number, meet different drilling stratum rock to the demand of frequency of impact.

2. in the middle of impact head, damping hole is set, while ensureing normal required pressure drop, reduces the generation of the runner stopping state when revolving swivel head card and turning.

3. swivel head adopts spring compression, make it operationally can ensure good contact condition with impact head, avoid unnecessary getting loose to cause idle work or duty extremely.

4. lower contact and shell adopt spring supporting to be connected, and can prevent the disconnection of lower contact, can also provide effective reset force when jerk when normally working and carry brill.

5. whole device adopts frame for movement, reliable transmission and cost is low, can the validity of assurance device work and safety under the drilling environment that down-hole is severe.

Accompanying drawing illustrates:

Further describe the present invention by reference to the accompanying drawings.

The internal construction schematic diagram of the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of Fig. 1;

The reciprocating hydraulic impacter of Fig. 2 spins mating part swivel head lower surface structural representation;

The reciprocating hydraulic impacter of Fig. 3 spins mating part impact head upper end surface structure schematic diagram.

In figure: on 1-top connection, 2-flow guide sleeve, 3-turbine stator, 4-sealing ring, 5-turbine rotor, 6-line shaft, 7-baffle ring, 8-back-up ring, 9-upper spring, 10-swivel head, 11-slide key, 12-shell, under 13-impact head, 14-snap ring, 15-inner sleeve, 16-lower spring, 17-sealing ring, 18-shell, 19-lower contact.

specific works principle:

When reciprocating hydraulic impacter is fit into well, lower drill, above connects drill collar, and two ends all connect, without the need to additional auxiliary connecting tool by the tapered thread that drilling tool matches with it.

See accompanying drawing, the operating principle of reciprocating formula hydraulic impacter is described in detail:

Under normal operating conditions, drilling fluid flows into inner chamber through drilling rod from reciprocating hydraulic impacter upper port, impact the turbine rotor 5 of many group turbine groups, turbine rotor 5 rotates under liquid flow impact, line shaft 6 is driven to rotate, the rotation of turbine group is converted to the moment of torsion of itself by line shaft 6, and moment of torsion is passed to swivel head 10, and the fitting face structure of swivel head 10 and impact head 13 as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.When line shaft 6 driven rotary 10 is rotated, impact head 13 and the sector crosssection of swivel head 10 occur that end face overlaps two kinds of duties of interlocking with end face.When swivel head 10 overlaps with the fan-shaped end face of impact head 13, two side runners outside fan-shaped end face are unimpeded, and liquid flows through from two side runners and damping hole, and swivel head 10 and impact head 13 are in circulation status; When swivel head 10 interlocks with the fan-shaped end face of impact head 13, side runner is blocked by fan-shaped end face, and liquid can only flow through from damping hole, and impact head 13 is fixing by slide key 11 circumference, slides axially, and swivel head 10 rotation relative to impact head 13 produces periodically closed.

When opening stream work, drilling fluid flows through back-up ring 8 through turbine group and enters, because side runner is opened, drilling fluid can flow through from swivel head 10 damping hole that the side runner that formed and swivel head 10 one end open that to overlap with impact head 13 end face simultaneously, is then flowed out from lower contact by impactor inner chamber Lower Half intermediate flow channel.Now, whole area of passage is large, crushing is less, the pressure drop power that fluid produces on impact head 13 is less, be not enough to compress lower spring 16, now, lower spring 16 realizes the supporting role to device for upper end, then snap ring 14, inner sleeve 15 and lower contact 19 are in non-action state, the only transmitting torque effect of reciprocating hydraulic impacter.When swivel head 10 and impact head 13 are in closure state, drilling fluid, through top connection, turbine group, back-up ring, swivel head 10, impact head 13, inner sleeve 15, lower contact 19, flows out impactor.Because side runner is blocked, drilling fluid flows into the middle damping hole of impact head 10 by means of only the damping hole that swivel head one end is opened, area of passage reduces, and crushing is comparatively large, and the pressure drop power of effect is larger, exceed the support force of lower spring 16, then compress lower spring 16 to move downward, when impact head 13 moves to shock inner sleeve 15, transmit kinetic energy to lower contact 19, reciprocating hydraulic impacter, while transmission drilling rod moment of torsion, applies axial impact force to drill bit.Along with the continuous flowing of drilling fluid, the continuous rotation of turbine group, the periodicity of swivel head and impact head closes, the snap ring of reciprocating hydraulic impacter, inner sleeve and lower contact are mutually moved and are constantly realized percussion action, apply impulsive force to drill bit, complete the whole process of rotation and reciprocating impact compound rock-breaking and well-drilling.

Claims (6)

1. one kind is applicable to the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of hard formation drilling well, comprise: top connection (1), flow guide sleeve (2), turbine stator (3), sealing ring (4), turbine rotor (5), line shaft (6), baffle ring (7), back-up ring (8), upper spring (9), swivel head (10), slide key (11), on shell (12), impact head (13), snap ring (14), inner sleeve (15), lower spring (16), sealing ring (17), under shell (18), lower contact (19), it is characterized in that: top connection (1) is threaded with (12) on shell, flow guide sleeve (2) is installed in top connection (1), line shaft (6) is connected with turbine rotor (5) key, line shaft (6) lower end and back-up ring (8) end contact, swivel head (10) is connected with line shaft (6) and compresses upper spring (9), impact head (13) is slidably matched by slide key (11) and (12) on shell, the bottom of impact head (13) and snap ring (14) end contact, inner sleeve (15) and lower contact (19) are threaded connection, and coordinate with snap ring (14) inner convex platform upper surface, compression lower spring (16), under shell, (18) are threaded with (12) on shell.
2. reciprocating hydraulic impacter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: turbine rotor (5) coordinates with turbine stator (3) end face locates, at the upper axial float of line shaft (6), turbine rotor number and turbine stator is several increases and decreases according to drilling liquid flow weight range, meets the demand of the different frequency of impact of impactor.
3. reciprocating hydraulic impacter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: upper spring (9) upper end is sitting on back-up ring (8) end face, lower end and swivel head (10) end contact, and be in compressive state all the time, in order to ensure that the end face between swivel head (10) and impact head (13) coordinates.
4. reciprocating hydraulic impacter according to claim 3, is characterized in that: impact head (13) is positioned at arranged concentric immediately below swivel head (10), and both end faces are sector crosssection and plane cooperation; Impact head (13) upper and lower side is all middle has cross section to be circular runner; Swivel head (10) one end has hexagon installing hole, and line shaft (6) is inserted in hexagonal hole, transmitting torque.
5. reciprocating hydraulic impacter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: lower spring (16) is sleeved in the annular space that (18) under lower contact (19) and shell formed, upper end and snap ring (14) end contact, lower end contacts with (18) under shell, for load-bearing and the reset of impactor moving component.
6. reciprocating hydraulic impacter according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: snap ring (14) inside is provided with boss, inner sleeve (15) is ladder shaft member, it is inner that inner sleeve (15) is sleeved on snap ring (14), snap ring (14) one end is spacing by impact head (13), the other end relies on the boss in inner sleeve (15) to limit its axial displacement, inner sleeve (15) with lower contact (19) for screw thread is fixedly connected with.
CN201310242299.7A 2013-06-19 2013-06-19 Be applicable to the reciprocating hydraulic impacter of hard formation drilling well CN103291214B (en)

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