CN103284225A - Method for rapidly pickling fish by mixed fermentation of microorganisms - Google Patents

Method for rapidly pickling fish by mixed fermentation of microorganisms Download PDF

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CN103284225A
CN103284225A CN2013102276416A CN201310227641A CN103284225A CN 103284225 A CN103284225 A CN 103284225A CN 2013102276416 A CN2013102276416 A CN 2013102276416A CN 201310227641 A CN201310227641 A CN 201310227641A CN 103284225 A CN103284225 A CN 103284225A
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fish
low
pickling
mixed culture
temperature
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CN2013102276416A
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CN103284225B (en
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吴燕燕
李来好
杨贤庆
游刚
胡晓
黄卉
岑剑伟
马海霞
周婉君
邓建朝
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中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for rapidly pickling fish by mixed fermentation of microorganisms. According to the method, fresh fish or frozen fish is rapidly prepared into the pickled fish by the procedures of pre-treating fish bodies, pickling by a low-temperature wet pickling method, rinsing, inoculating a mixed microorganism fermenting agent, carrying out gradient low-temperature drying and the like, so that the time for pickling and processing the fishes can be shortened and the flavor of fish pickled products can be improved; nitrite and nitro compounds are prevented from being generated in a process of pickling the fish products, and the edible safety of the fish pickled products is guaranteed; the pickled fish processed by the method is good in flavor, is short in pickling time, low in salt content and free of the nitro compounds; the operation method is simple, the production cost is low, the energy consumption is low, the environmental pollution is small and the product quality is stable; and the economic benefits of manufacturing enterprises can be improved.

Description

A kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of leavening of mixed microorganism that utilizes and prepare the method that dry-cures the flesh of fish fast, belong to biotechnology in ocean Application in Food technical field.
Background technology
Existing fish curing food is the traditional aquatic products processing food of China, because unique flavor is liked by the consumer deeply.And the fish of pickling of China all is to adopt traditional method for salting at present, mainly be that salt by high concentration carries out the pickling of long period, dries and form, product exists the production cycle long, salt content height, fat oxidation excessively, contain harmful substances such as more nitrite, nitroso compound, make product have certain potential safety hazard, also do not meet the theory of modern healthy food.
Because the existence of problems such as security is low, easy affected by environment, the fish of pickling that has caused providing on the China market is mainly processed with traditional manufacturing technique by workshop-based manufacturing enterprise, and little in batches, productivity effect and product competitiveness are low.In order to change this present situation, be necessary to further investigate pickling the fish processing technology, need the improvement research of carrying out traditional pickling process fish process technology badly, develop and have traditional pickling process fish local flavor but the healthy and safe modern times are pickled the fish New Machining Technology.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention, just provide a kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish, this method can shorten the time that fish are pickled processing, improve the local flavor of fish curing food, prevent from pickling the generation of nitrite and nitroso compound in the fish products, guarantee to pickle the edible safety of fish products.
For achieving the above object, the present invention is by the following technical solutions:
A kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish may further comprise the steps:
(1) formulating low-temperature pickling liquid: with frozen water, salt and trehalose preparation pickling liquid, the salt mass concentration is 8-12% in the pickling liquid, and the trehalose mass concentration is 2-5%, and the pickling liquid temperature is controlled below 10 ℃;
(2) low-temperature salting: the stacked fish body that is wiped with low-diet salt of putting in the curing container middle level; Low-temperature salting liquid is slowly poured in the curing container up to flooding the fish body fully; Temperature conditions at 4-10 ℃ is pickled;
(3) embathe: the fish that low-temperature salting is good is embathed with clear water; Embathe finish after, take out and drain surface moisture, fish body salt content is at 6%-9%(W/W);
(4) configuration mixed culture fermentation agent and inoculation fermentation: respectively each fermented bacterium is cultivated through overactivation and expansion earlier, making bacteria containing amount with sterilized water again behind the medium centrifugal is 10 10-10 12The bacteria suspension of cfu/ml; Be that 4:4:2:3:4 is mixedly configured into the fish body inoculation fermentation to embathing behind the mixed culture fermentation agent by Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pediococcus pentosaceus), goldbeater's skin face beading bacterium (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus), Lactobacillus brevis (Lactobacillus brevis) volume ratio again;
(5) drying: adopt the gradient cold drying, the fish that ferments is placed 28-30 ℃ low temperature drying air blast, dry 3-10 hour, be placed into then in 35 ℃~45 ℃ the dryer, be dried to the fish body water content between 40%~45%, namely get product.
Described step (2) is in curing container, and one deck low-diet salt is spread in the bottom, and low-diet salt is smeared in the fish body surface layer and the abdominal cavity that clean up equably, in layer stacks then in the curing container, and upper strata fish body is layer overlay low-diet salt also, and use the weight compacting;
Embathe three times in the described step (3), the time of embathing is 5-10 minute for the first time, and the time of embathing is 10-15 minute for the second time, and the time of embathing is 30-60 minute for the third time.Remove for the first time the salt of fish surface, second and for the third time, be for salinity excessive in the fish body being steeped, make the salinity in the fish body reach the product salt content that needs, and the suitable growth of this salinity; The too high bacteria growing that also is not suitable for of salinity.
The time of pickling in the described step (4) is divided into according to fish body size: (a) fish or the fish piece of fish body weight≤300 grams, and salting period is 15-22 hour, (b) fish of fish body weight>300 grams, salting period is 40-60 hour;
In order to guarantee that Mixed Microbes has enough bacterium amounts that the fish body is fermented, the bacterium amount is too high, and the flesh of fish can turn sour, and the bacterium amount is too low, does not reach local flavor effect preferably; The consumption of mixed culture fermentation agent is the 2%-5% of fish body gross mass in the described step (5).
Vaccination ways adopts and directly evenly sprays mixed bacteria liquid on the body surface and abdominal cavity of fish in the described step (5); Perhaps adopt injection system that mixed bacteria liquid evenly is seeded in the whole piece fish; Perhaps fish soaking is gone into to pull out after mixed bacteria liquid 2-5 minute and drain.
Fermentation condition is in the described step (5): place 30 ℃ ± 2 ℃ ferment at constant temperature case to ferment 18-24 hour postvaccinal fish.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effect that has of the present invention is:
1) shorten salting period, and the salt content of product is low.Adopt adding trehalose is pickling liquid, has guaranteed fish quick cure under certain sufficient condition of salinity, and the infiltration of salt is accelerated in sex change that can CKIs matter, shortens salting period, improves the salted fish quality.Traditional pickling process fish salting period is long, product salt content height, salt content 13% and more than, adopt this method to pickle fish, can bigger shortening pickle required time, salt content is 6%~9%.
2) Product Safety improves, and does not contain nitroso compound.Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus contain nitrite reductase in the mixed culture fermentation agent, can suppress the growth of putrefactive microorganisms, also can reduce the content of nitrite, thereby prevent to have the nitroso compounds such as nitrosamine of health risk, guarantee security of products.The product that adopts patent of the present invention to produce, content of nitrite does not contain nitroso compounds such as nitrosamine less than 0.3mg/kg in the product.
3) local flavor of raising product.Unique these five kinds of mixed microorganism bacterium leavening agents of selecting for use all have stronger salt tolerance, compossibility is good, and can have complementary advantages, synergy, multiple bacteria compound fermentation can remedy the monotonicity of single strain fermentation, discharge the material with salted fish local flavor fast, obtain to pickle the distinctive local flavor of fish at short notice.
4) quality of raising product.The relevant enzyme that these five kinds of bacterium not only have the generation of general Institute of Micro-biology is, but also can produce some special enzyme systems, as decompose organic acid enzyme system, the enzyme system of the enzyme system of the acid that reduces fat, decomposing nitrosamine, the endotoxic enzyme of control system etc., these enzymes are except having the special physiological function, can also improve the local flavor of product, promote fermented fish meat products maturation, can decompose aliphatic acid in the meat products as these enzymes, make it to become volatile fatty acid and the ester class of short chain, thereby give product distinctive fragrance; The lactic acid that fermentation produces not only makes the sex change of part fish protein, forms tela gelatinosa, and hardness, elasticity and the section that can improve meat products.
5) existing salted fish is too hard or apt to deteriorate, and normally baking temperature is too high, and surface moisture has been done, and moisture can't get out in the flesh of fish, thereby influences the later stage product quality.Patent of the present invention adopts gradient low temperature drying technology, and unique process that combines fermentation, phase I relies on warm braw to take away the moisture of fish body under the temperature about 30 ℃, allow the moisture in the fish body evenly come out, nutriments such as the protein in the fish body and fat are not damaged, also be the process of follow-up fermentation simultaneously, make product special flavour better; Be elevated to again under 35-45 ℃ after the phase I drying and dry, can receive the solid carbon dioxide branch under this temperature, promote fragrance, can prevent that also oppressing fat oxidation becomes sour, produce harmful substance, can keep the quality of product preferably.
The specific embodiment
The present invention is described further below in conjunction with embodiment.
The used fermented bacterium of the present invention is all available from microorganism fungus kind preservation center, Guangdong Province;
Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lp, numbering: GIM1.051) be homofermentative lactic bacteria, only producing lactic acid during the fermentation, is typical facultative anaerobe, and the ability of very strong fermentable carbohydrates is arranged, than salt tolerant, with other lactic acid bacteria synergy is arranged.Its main effect is to produce lactic acid by the EMP Embden Meyerbof Parnas pathway fermentable carbohydrates, control the growth of most of spoilage organisms and pathogenic bacteria, and because very low pH has reduced the water holding capacity of protein, favourable drying, its local flavor to product, matter structure and stability thereof play a decisive role.
Leuconostoc mesenteroides (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lm, numbering: GIM1.357) can produce multiple acid and alcohol by fermenting carbohydrate, have high acid ability, oxidation resistance and antagonism pathogenic bacteria, produce the characteristic flavor on basis material.
Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus, La, numbering: GIM1.208) can stop pathogenic bacteria decide grow and invade, the adhesion of the growth of antagonism pathogenic bacteria and harmful microbe and toxin thereof is at meat sweat generation characteristic flavor on basis material.Simultaneously, because fermentation and acid is conducive to NO -2Be decomposed into NO, thereby reduce the generation of nitrite and nitrosamines in the product.
Lactobacillus brevis (Lactobacillus brevis, Lb, numbering: GIM1.288) have high acid ability and detoxifcation, antibacterial, improve multiple functional characteristic such as body immunity, Lactobacillus brevis has removes the nitrite ability more by force.
Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pp, numbering: GIM1.269) have high strength and produce sour characteristic, can under lower temperature, make sugar fermentation fast, metabolite can make meat protein that special variation takes place during the fermentation, make meat products have peculiar flavour, this local flavor is can not be redeployed with chemical reagent.
Embodiment 1
A kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish may further comprise the steps:
(1) fish body pre-treatment: earlier with fresh fish or the frozen fish after thawing remove fish scale, cut fish maw open and remove clean internal organ, with draining surface moisture after the clear water flushing, select the fish of weight≤300 grams for use, wherein the both sides that the fish body is cut apart or scratched to the fish body that restrain for fish body weight 〉=250;
(2) formulating low-temperature pickling liquid: with frozen water, salt and trehalose preparation pickling liquid, the salt mass concentration is 8% in the pickling liquid, and the trehalose mass concentration is 2%, and the pickling liquid temperature is controlled below 10 ℃;
(3) low-temperature salting: in curing container, one deck low-diet salt is spread in the bottom, and fish body surface layer and abdominal cavity are smeared low-diet salt equably, in layer stacks then in the curing container, and upper strata fish body fluid layer overlay low-diet salt, and use the weight compacting; Low-temperature salting liquid is slowly poured in the pickler up to flooding the fish body fully; Temperature conditions at 4 ℃ is pickled; The time of pickling is 20 hours;
(4) embathe: the fish that low-temperature salting is good is embathed three times with clear water, and the time of embathing is 5 minutes for the first time, and the time of embathing is 10 minutes for the second time, and the time of embathing is 30 minutes for the third time; Embathe finish after fish body salt content at 6%-9%(W/W), take out, drain surface moisture;
(5) configuration mixed culture fermentation agent and inoculation fermentation: earlier fermented bacterium is cultivated through overactivation and expansion, made the bacteria suspension that bacteria containing amount is 1010cfu/ml with sterilized water again behind the medium centrifugal; Again with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pediococcus pentosaceus), goldbeater's skin face beading bacterium (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus), Lactobacillus brevis (Lactobacillus brevis) is mixedly configured into mixed culture fermentation agent for 4:4:2:3:4 by volume, the mixed culture fermentation agent of getting fish body gross mass 2% directly evenly sprays bacteria suspension on the body surface and abdominal cavity of fish by the method that sprays bacteria suspension, postvaccinal fish is placed 30 ℃ ± 2 ℃ ferment at constant temperature case, fermented 18 hours;
(6) drying: adopt the gradient cold drying, the fish that ferments placed 28 ℃ low temperature drying air blast, dry 4 hours, be placed into then in 45 ℃ the dryer, be dried to the fish body water content between 40%~45%, namely get product, the product that obtains can carry out packing and storing or edible.
Embodiment 2
A kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish may further comprise the steps:
(1) fish body pre-treatment: earlier with fresh fish or the frozen fish after thawing remove fish scale, cut fish maw open and remove clean internal organ, with draining surface moisture after the clear water flushing, select the fish about fish body weight 600 grams for use, the both sides of the fish body being cut apart or scratching the fish body;
(2) formulating low-temperature pickling liquid: with frozen water, salt and trehalose preparation pickling liquid, the salt mass concentration is 10% in the pickling liquid, and the trehalose mass concentration is 4%, and the pickling liquid temperature is controlled below 10 ℃;
(3) low-temperature salting: in curing container, one deck low-diet salt is spread in the bottom, and fish body surface layer and abdominal cavity are smeared low-diet salt equably, in layer stacks then in the curing container, and upper strata fish body fluid layer overlay low-diet salt, and use the weight compacting; Low-temperature salting liquid is slowly poured in the pickler up to flooding the fish body fully; Temperature conditions at 6 ℃ is pickled; Salting period is 48 hours;
(4) embathe: the fish that low-temperature salting is good is embathed three times with clear water, and the time of embathing is 8 minutes for the first time, and the time of embathing is 12 minutes for the second time, and the time of embathing is 50 minutes for the third time; Embathe finish after fish body salt content at 6%-9%(W/W), take out, drain surface moisture;
(5) configuration mixed culture fermentation agent and inoculation fermentation: earlier fermented bacterium is cultivated through overactivation and expansion, making bacteria containing amount with sterilized water again behind the medium centrifugal is 10 11The bacteria suspension of cfu/ml; Again with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pediococcus pentosaceus), goldbeater's skin face beading bacterium (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus), Lactobacillus brevis (Lactobacillus brevis) is mixedly configured into mixed culture fermentation agent for 4:4:2:3:4 by volume, the mixed culture fermentation agent of getting fish body gross mass 3% evenly is seeded to mixed bacteria liquid in the whole piece fish by the mode of injecting to be inoculated fish, postvaccinal fish is placed 30 ℃ ± 2 ℃ ferment at constant temperature case, fermented 20 hours;
(6) drying: adopt the gradient cold drying, the fish that ferments placed 28-30 ℃ low temperature drying air blast, dry 5 hours, be placed into then in 40 ℃ the dryer, be dried to the fish body water content between 40%~45%, namely get product, the product that obtains can carry out packing and storing or edible etc.
Embodiment 3
A kind of method of the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish may further comprise the steps:
(1) fish body pre-treatment: earlier with fresh fish or the frozen fish after thawing remove fish scale, cut fish maw open and remove clean internal organ, with draining surface moisture after the clear water flushing, select the fish about fish body weight 1500 grams for use, the both sides of the fish body being cut apart or scratching the fish body;
(2) formulating low-temperature pickling liquid: with frozen water, salt and trehalose preparation pickling liquid, the salt mass concentration is 12% in the pickling liquid, and the trehalose mass concentration is 5%, and the pickling liquid temperature is controlled below 10 ℃;
(3) low-temperature salting: in curing container, one deck low-diet salt is spread in the bottom, and fish body surface layer and abdominal cavity are smeared low-diet salt equably, in layer stacks then in the curing container, and upper strata fish body fluid layer overlay low-diet salt, and use the weight compacting; Low-temperature salting liquid is slowly poured in the pickler up to flooding the fish body fully; Temperature conditions at 10 ℃ is pickled; Salting period is 60 hours;
(4) embathe: the fish that low-temperature salting is good is embathed three times with clear water, and the time of embathing is 10 minutes for the first time, and the time of embathing is 15 minutes for the second time, and the time of embathing is 60 minutes for the third time; Embathe finish after fish body salt content at 6%-9%(W/W), take out, drain surface moisture;
(5) configuration mixed culture fermentation agent and inoculation fermentation: earlier fermented bacterium is cultivated through overactivation and expansion, making bacteria containing amount with sterilized water again behind the medium centrifugal is 10 12The bacteria suspension of cfu/ml; Again with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillus plantarum), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pediococcus pentosaceus), goldbeater's skin face beading bacterium (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), lactobacillus acidophilus (Lactobacillus acidophilus), Lactobacillus brevis (Lactobacillus brevis) is mixedly configured into mixed culture fermentation agent for 4:4:2:3:4 by volume, get the mixed culture fermentation agent of fish body gross mass 5%, fish soaking is gone into to pull the mode that drains out after mixed culture fermentation agent 2-5 minute fish is inoculated, postvaccinal fish is placed 30 ℃ ± 2 ℃ ferment at constant temperature case, fermented 24 hours;
(6) drying: adopt the gradient cold drying, the fish that ferments placed 28-30 ℃ low temperature drying air blast, dry 10 hours, be placed into then in 35 ℃ the dryer, be dried to the fish body water content between 40%~45%, namely get product, the product that obtains can carry out packing and storing or subsequent operation such as edible.
The above embodiment has only expressed part kind embodiment of the present invention, and it describes comparatively concrete and detailed, but can not therefore be interpreted as the restriction to claim of the present invention.Should be pointed out that for the person of ordinary skill of the art without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, can also make some distortion and improvement, these all belong to protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. the method for the microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
(1) formulating low-temperature pickling liquid: with frozen water, salt and trehalose preparation pickling liquid, the salt mass concentration is 8-12% in the pickling liquid, and the trehalose mass concentration is 2-5%, and the pickling liquid temperature is controlled below 10 ℃;
(2) low-temperature salting: the stacked fish body that is wiped with low-diet salt of putting in the curing container middle level; Low-temperature salting liquid is slowly poured in the curing container up to flooding the fish body fully; Temperature conditions at 4-10 ℃ is pickled;
(3) embathe: the fish that low-temperature salting is good is embathed with clear water; Embathe finish after, take out and drain surface moisture;
(4) configuration mixed culture fermentation agent and inoculation fermentation: respectively each fermented bacterium is cultivated through overactivation and expansion earlier, making bacteria containing amount with sterilized water again behind the medium centrifugal is 10 10~10 12The bacteria suspension of cfu/ml; Be that 4:4:2:3:4 is mixedly configured into behind the mixed culture fermentation agent the fish body inoculation fermentation after embathing by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, goldbeater's skin face beading bacterium, lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis volume ratio again;
(5) drying: adopt the gradient cold drying, the fish that ferments is placed 28-30 ℃ low temperature drying air blast, dry 3-10 hour, be placed into then in 35 ℃~45 ℃ the dryer, be dried to the fish body water content between 40%~45%, namely get product.
2. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described step (2) is in curing container, one deck low-diet salt is spread in the bottom, low-diet salt is smeared in the fish body surface layer and the abdominal cavity that clean up equably, in layer stack in the curing container then, upper strata fish body is layer overlay low-diet salt also, and use the weight compacting.
3. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 1, embathe three times in the described step (3), the time of embathing is 5-10 minute for the first time, and the time of embathing is 10-15 minute for the second time, and the time of embathing is 30-60 minute for the third time.
4. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 1, the time of pickling in the described step (4) is divided into according to fish body size: (a) fish or the fish piece of fish body weight≤300 grams, salting period is 15-22 hour, (b) fish of fish body weight>300 grams, salting period is 40-60 hour.
5. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 1, the consumption of mixed culture fermentation agent is the 2%-5% of fish body gross mass in the described step (5).
6. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 1 or 5, vaccination ways adopts directly evenly the spray mixed bacteria liquid on the body surface and abdominal cavity of fish in the described step (5); Perhaps adopt injection system that mixed bacteria liquid evenly is seeded in the whole piece fish; Perhaps fish soaking is gone into to pull out after mixed bacteria liquid 2-5 minute and drain.
7. the method for a kind of microorganism mixed culture fermentation quick cure flesh of fish according to claim 6, fermentation condition is in the described step (5): ferment at constant temperature case fermentation 18-24 hour that postvaccinal fish is placed 30 ℃ ± 2 ℃.
CN201310227641.6A 2013-06-08 2013-06-08 Method for rapidly pickling fish by mixed fermentation of microorganisms CN103284225B (en)

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