CN103283557B - Grape planting technique - Google Patents

Grape planting technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103283557B
CN103283557B CN201310208946.2A CN201310208946A CN103283557B CN 103283557 B CN103283557 B CN 103283557B CN 201310208946 A CN201310208946 A CN 201310208946A CN 103283557 B CN103283557 B CN 103283557B
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kilogram
grape
gram
soil
straw
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CN201310208946.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103283557A (en
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胡志权
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胡志权
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Abstract

The invention discloses a grape planting technique. The technique includes that before planting grape seedings, soil and grape roots are differently treated respectively, in other words, straw is laid on the soil, germicidal constituents like quicklime, paulownia sawdust, castor bean leaf powder and distillers' grains are scattered on the soil, the soil is covered by films after deep tillage and exposed to highlight, and harmful bacteria in the soil can be effectively killed, so that a good environment is provided for grape growing; the straw play a certain role in heat insulation, so that the grape roots can be prevented from cold injury in winter; the roots are dipped in slurry prepared by nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium mixed fertilizer, calcium superphosphate, urea, attapulgite, polyacrylamide, bamboo vinegar, sea mud and the like and then coated by a layer of plant ash, and the slurry has characteristics of slow releasing of the fertilizer and water retention, so that the number of fertilizing and watering can be effectively reduced, and grape planting cost can be reduced; after planting, straw powder and vermiculite are applied at the roots, soil can be improved, loss of the slurry coated at the grape roots can be prevented, and utilization rate of the fertilizer can be increased. According to the technique, safe and environment-friendly biological prevention and control methods are adopted for preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests, so that the plant diseases and insect pests are greatly reduced and safety and freeness of pollution are realized.

Description

A kind of wine-growing technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of wine-growing technology, belong to agricultural planting technique field.
Background technology
Grape is one of popular fruit, and its nutritive value is very high, can be made into must, raisins and wine.Chinese cultivated grape has more than 2000 year history, in recent years along with the planting benefit of grape improves constantly, increasing orchard worker plants grape, but due to the unreasonable of planting technology and science not, cause grape damage by disease and insect more, thereby extensively execute chemical pesticide, make plantation grape quality out very different, residue of pesticide composition exceeds standard, and does not meet the requirement of safety nuisance free grape.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of new wine-growing technology is provided, can effectively prevent and treat the damage by disease and insect of grape, improve the quality of grape, safety nuisance free.
The technical solution used in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of wine-growing technology, comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of seedling
Select the qualified nursery stock of pure, the robust growth of kind, well developed root system, adaptive capacity and strong stress resistance, then with soaking 2-3 hour in the warm water of 25-30 DEG C, then pull out and put into bactericidal liquid and soak 10-15 minute, after immersion, pull out and dry plantation; The compound method of wherein said bactericidal liquid: every kg water adds the 60-80 gram of head of garlic, 40-50 gram ginger, 30-50 gram balsampear leaf, 20-30 gram orange peel, the above-mentioned head of garlic, ginger, balsampear leaf, orange peel are smash into mud shape, add water to stir evenly and soak 10-15 hour, after filtering, in filtrate, add 100-150 gram of potassium permanganate and 30-40ml hydrogen peroxide, mixing and stirring;
(2) the whole ground of selection of land
Select soil layer deep, the sandy loam matter that the soil is porous is for well, then every mu with straw 1000-1500 kilogram, be spread on ground, then on straw, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields livestock waste 1000-1500 kilogram, quicklime 50-100 kilogram, 40-60 kilogram, paulownia sawdust, 30-50 kilogram, castor bean leaf powder, vinasse 20-30 kilogram; Plough deeply ground 20-30 centimetre, wheat straw is turned over to subterranean layer as far as possible, break into pieces rolling up the soil coming, be made into the furrow of high 30-50 centimetre, wide 60-80 centimetre, ground diaphragm seal, surrounding covers tightly, and between furrow, pours water, and watering foot irrigates, canopy chamber seals completely with new canopy film, and vexed canopy 20-30 days under high temperature high light, after vexed canopy finishes takes canopy film, mulch film off, plough, airing, can plant;
(3) field planting
Before field planting, get nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, superphosphate 4-8 kilogram, urea 2-3 kilogram, attapulgite 4-6 kilogram, polyacrylamide 3-5 kilogram, bamboo vinegar 2-3 kilogram, ooze 10-15 kilogram for every mu, add appropriate water mix and blend pulping, evenly dip in after grape nursery stock root with this mud, dip in last layer rice-straw ash, every mu of consumption is 3-5 kilogram again; Then by the above-mentioned nursery stock of handling well by seeding row spacing (0.5-2m) × (1.5-2) m carries out field planting, root is executed rice straw powder 40-60 gram, vermiculite 50-80 gram, with watering sufficient normal root water after the compacting of loess earthing, thickness of earth-fill cover is to outside long root, acrial part has 3-4 eye;
(4) administrative skill
1. before and after grape germinates, a lime sulfur 15-20 times liquid of orchard and surrounding spraying, every mu of spray 40-50 kilogram;
2. germinate to duration of flowering, prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
3. bear fruit before bagging, add in humidifier atomization according to grape trellis area with 2-3 milliliter/square metre get Chinese medicine fumigant thin up 10-15 after doubly or add in vessel directly heating evaporation with control mosquito the moth pests, 3-5 days once, each 20-30 minute, bagging after smoked 3-4 week of medicine, after bagging, every kg water adds 10-15 gram of honey and 2-4 gram of chitin, after stirring, be sprayed at equably on leaf, every mu is sprayed 40-50 kilogram.
Described Chinese medicine fumigant preparation method is as follows: get 10-15 part rhizoma atractylodis, 15-20 part wrinkled giant hyssop, 5-10 part root of Dahurain angelica, 8-12 part castor bean leaf, 10-15 part tarragon, 5-10 part Walnut Leaves, 8-12 part grass-leaved sweetflag, 10-20 part Siberian cocklebur grass, 5-10 part Chinese honey locust and add after crushed 10-15 and doubly measure 80% alcohol heating reflux and extract twice, merge the phegma of collecting, be condensed into the extract containing crude drug 1-2 grams per milliliter.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
Grape nursery stock of the present invention adopts the bactericidal liquid of being made up of the head of garlic, ginger, balsampear leaf, orange peel, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide to carry out sterilization processing, safe and efficient, can effectively suppress the breeding of root bacterium, the generation of prevention root rot; Before field planting, respectively soil and grape root are carried out to different processing: soil is first spread straw, spread again livestock waste, quicklime, paulownia sawdust, castor bean leaf powder, vinasse etc., plough deeply rear overlay film strong illumination, utilize the bactericidal action of quicklime, paulownia sawdust, castor bean leaf powder, vinasse, can effectively kill the noxious bacteria in soil, for the growth of grape provides a good environment, straw has certain insulation effect simultaneously, prevents grape root frostbite in winter; Root is first dipped in to the mud of being made by nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, superphosphate, urea, attapulgite, polyacrylamide, bamboo vinegar, ooze etc., coated one deck ash again, the characteristic that wherein mud contains slow release fertilizer and water conservation, can effectively reduce the number of times that topdresses and water, reduce wine-growing cost; After field planting, root is executed rice straw powder and vermiculite, can improve soil, prevents the loss of the mud of grape root coating, improves the availability of fertilizer; Prevention and elimination of disease and pests of the present invention all adopts the biological control method of safety and environmental protection, does not use any chemical pesticide, and damage by disease and insect greatly reduces, safety nuisance free.Implantation methods of the present invention is simple, and cost is low, and convenient management is applicable to extensive cultivation, can improve significantly and the quality and yield of stable grape, has significant social benefit, economic benefit and ecological benefits.
Embodiment
A kind of wine-growing technology, comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of seedling
Select the qualified nursery stock of pure, the robust growth of kind, well developed root system, adaptive capacity and strong stress resistance, then put into bactericidal liquid and soak 15 minutes with soaking in the warm water of 30 DEG C 2 hours, then pulling out, after immersion, pull out and dry plantation; The compound method of wherein said bactericidal liquid: every kg water adds 70 grams of heads of garlic, 45 grams of gingers, 40 grams of balsampear leafs, 20 grams of orange peels, the above-mentioned head of garlic, ginger, balsampear leaf, orange peel are smash into mud shape, add water to stir evenly and soak 12 hours, after filtering, in filtrate, add 120 grams of potassium permanganate and 30ml hydrogen peroxide, mixing and stirring;
(2) the whole ground of selection of land
Select soil layer deep, the sandy loam matter that the soil is porous is for well, then every mu with 1500 kilograms of straw, is spread on ground, then on straw, evenly spreads fertilizer over the fields 1500 kilograms of livestock wastes, 80 kilograms of quicklimes, 50 kilograms, paulownia sawdust, 40 kilograms, castor bean leaf powder, 25 kilograms, vinasse; Plough deeply 25 centimetres, ground, wheat straw is turned over to subterranean layer as far as possible, break into pieces rolling up the soil coming, be made into furrow high 40 centimetres, wide 80 centimetres, ground diaphragm seal, surrounding covers tightly, and between furrow, pours water, and watering foot irrigates, canopy chamber seals completely with new canopy film, and under high temperature high light, vexed canopy 20 days, after vexed canopy finishes takes canopy film, mulch film off, plough, airing, can plant;
(3) field planting
Before field planting, get 20 kilograms of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizers, 6 kilograms of superphosphate, 2.5 kilograms, urea, 5 kilograms of attapulgites, 4 kilograms of polyacrylamides, 2.5 kilograms of bamboo vinegars, 12 kilograms of oozes for every mu, add appropriate water mix and blend pulping, evenly dip in after grape nursery stock root with this mud, dip in last layer rice-straw ash, every mu of consumption is 4 kilograms again; Then the above-mentioned nursery stock of handling well is carried out to field planting by seeding row spacing 1m × 2m, root is executed 50 grams of rice straw powders, 60 grams of vermiculites, and with watering sufficient normal root water after the compacting of loess earthing, thickness of earth-fill cover is outside long root, and acrial part has 3 eyes;
(4) administrative skill
1. before and after grape germinates, 15 times of liquid of an orchard and surrounding lime sulfur of spraying, 50 kilograms of every mu of sprays;
2. germinate to duration of flowering, prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
3. bear fruit before bagging, get and add in humidifier atomization after 10 times of Chinese medicine fumigant thin ups or add in vessel directly heating evaporation with control mosquito the moth pests with 2 milliliters/square metre according to grape trellis area, 4 days once, each 30 minutes, medicine is bagging after smoked 3 weeks, and after bagging, every kg water adds 15 grams of honey and 3 grams of chitins, after stirring, be sprayed at equably on leaf, every mu is sprayed 40 kilograms; Wherein Chinese medicine fumigant preparation method is as follows: get the alcohol heating reflux that 10-15 gram of rhizoma atractylodis, 15-20 gram wrinkled giant hyssop, the 5-10 gram root of Dahurain angelica, 8-12 gram castor bean leaf, 10-15 gram tarragon, 5-10 gram Walnut Leaves, 8-12 gram grass-leaved sweetflag, 10-20 gram Siberian cocklebur grass, 5-10 gram part Chinese honey locust add 10 times of amounts 80% after crushed and extract twice, merge the phegma of collecting, be condensed into the extract containing crude drug 1 grams per milliliter.
Utilize compared with the grape that grape that above-mentioned complex art is produced plants out with conventional method, there is following advantage:
? Target level of product quality Output (kg/acre) Input/output Sick worm incidence (%)
The present invention's plantation Nuisanceless 1815 1:3.3 1
Tradition plantation Remains of pesticide is many 1220 1:2.1 5

Claims (2)

1. a wine-growing technology, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1) selection of seedling
Select the qualified nursery stock of pure, the robust growth of kind, well developed root system, adaptive capacity and strong stress resistance, with the emerge in worm water 2-3 hour of 25-30 DEG C, then pull out and put into bactericidal liquid and soak 10-15 minute, after immersion, pull out and dry plantation; The compound method of wherein said bactericidal liquid: every kg water adds the 60-80 gram of head of garlic, 40-50 gram ginger, 30-50 gram balsampear leaf, 20-30 gram orange peel, the above-mentioned head of garlic, ginger, balsampear leaf, orange peel are smash into mud shape, add water to stir evenly and soak 10-15 hour, after filtering, in filtrate, add 100-150 gram of potassium permanganate and 30-40ml hydrogen peroxide, mixing and stirring;
(2) the whole ground of selection of land
Select soil layer deep, the sandy loam matter that the soil is porous is for well, then every mu with straw 1000-1500 kilogram, be spread on ground, then on straw, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields livestock waste 1000-1500 kilogram, quicklime 50-100 kilogram, 40-60 kilogram, paulownia sawdust, 30-50 kilogram, castor bean leaf powder, vinasse 20-30 kilogram; Plough deeply ground 20-30 centimetre, straw is turned over to subterranean layer as far as possible, break into pieces rolling up the soil coming, be made into the furrow of high 30-50 centimetre, wide 60-80 centimetre, ground diaphragm seal, surrounding covers tightly, and between furrow, pours water, and watering foot irrigates, canopy chamber seals completely with new canopy film, and vexed canopy 20-30 days under high temperature high light, after vexed canopy finishes takes canopy film, mulch film off, plough, airing, can plant;
(3) field planting
Before field planting, get nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, superphosphate 4-8 kilogram, urea 2-3 kilogram, attapulgite 4-6 kilogram, polyacrylamide 3-5 kilogram, bamboo vinegar 2-3 kilogram, ooze 10-15 kilogram for every mu, add appropriate water mix and blend pulping, evenly dip this mud with grape nursery stock root, dip in last layer rice-straw ash, every mu of consumption is 3-5 kilogram again; Then by the above-mentioned nursery stock of handling well by seeding row spacing (0.5-2m) × (1.5-2) m carries out field planting, root is executed rice straw powder 40-60 gram, vermiculite 50-80 gram, with watering sufficient normal root water after the compacting of loess earthing, thickness of earth-fill cover is to outside long root, acrial part has 3-4 eye;
(4) administrative skill
1. before and after grape germinates, a lime sulfur 15-20 times liquid of orchard and surrounding spraying, every mu of spray 40-50 kilogram;
2. germinate to duration of flowering, prevention and elimination of disease and pests;
3. bear fruit before bagging, add in humidifier atomization according to grape trellis area with 2-3 milliliter/square metre get Chinese medicine fumigant thin up 10-15 after doubly or add in vessel directly heating evaporation with control mosquito the moth pests, 3-5 days once, each 20-30 minute, bagging after smoked 3-4 week of medicine, after bagging, every kg water adds 10-15 gram of honey and 2-4 gram of chitin, after stirring, be sprayed at equably on leaf, every mu is sprayed 40-50 kilogram.
2. a kind of wine-growing technology according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described Chinese medicine fumigant preparation method is as follows: get 10-15 part rhizoma atractylodis, 15-20 part wrinkled giant hyssop, 5-10 part root of Dahurain angelica, 8-12 part castor bean leaf, 10-15 part tarragon, 5-10 part Walnut Leaves, 8-12 part grass-leaved sweetflag, 10-20 part Siberian cocklebur grass, 5-10 part Chinese honey locust and add after crushed 10-15 and doubly measure 80% alcohol heating reflux and extract twice, merge the phegma of collecting, be condensed into the extract containing crude drug 1-2 grams per milliliter.
CN201310208946.2A 2013-05-30 2013-05-30 Grape planting technique CN103283557B (en)

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