CN103276696A - Underwater revetment based on ecological bags and water body ecological management method - Google Patents

Underwater revetment based on ecological bags and water body ecological management method Download PDF

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CN103276696A
CN103276696A CN2012104274764A CN201210427476A CN103276696A CN 103276696 A CN103276696 A CN 103276696A CN 2012104274764 A CN2012104274764 A CN 2012104274764A CN 201210427476 A CN201210427476 A CN 201210427476A CN 103276696 A CN103276696 A CN 103276696A
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water
ecological
bag
slope
ecological bag
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CN103276696B (en
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李可为
严伟
龚明康
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CHONGQING DANHAI INDUSTRIAL Co Ltd
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CHONGQING DANHAI INDUSTRIAL Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention relates to an underwater revetment based on ecological bags and a water body ecological management method. The method comprises a first step of dredging and solidifying, a second step of establishing a water bottom foundation, a third step of clearing up the revetment surface, a fourth step of paving the ecological bags in a step-shaped lamination dislocation mode from the top of the water bottom foundation, a fifth step of planting submerged plants on the ecological bags, a sixth step of stopping river closure or beginning to coffer after the water quality conforms to or superior to the fourth scale of the national surface water environment criterion GB/3838-2002, wherein when the water quality does not conform to or inferior to the fifth scale of the GB/3838-2002, microbial preparation is added into the water according to the water quality measuring result, and a seventh step adding filter feeder fishes or/and herbivorous fishes, shrimps and demersal mussel animals. The method guarantees that floodwater can be drawn off based on the fact that the underwater revetment structure of rivers and lakes is safe, and the cooperative management capacity for the water body is improved through ecological restoration of the underwater revetment.

Description

A kind of underwater slope protection and water ecology improvement method based on ecological bag
Technical field
The present invention relates to the environmental improvement method, specifically is a kind of underwater slope protection and water ecology improvement method based on ecological bag, is the integrated system engineering of a kind of flexible ecological side slope and water body treating.
Background technology
Traditional water conservancy side slope protection scheme mainly is conceived to the requirement of functions such as flood passage, shipping, to the shore protection in river course and lake, safety and the anti-+ property of a specified duration that slope protection works is mainly considered engineering structures, therefore governance model adopts linear pattern river course and river course channelization more, adopt hardened materials such as stone-laying, concrete or steel concrete, seldom consider the ecological functions in river course.
The water conservancy side slope of above-mentioned canalization and sclerosis has been blocked river and has been exchanged with phreatic, the alkalization of soils of side slope back simultaneously causes hardening, become dead soil, lose nutrient, plant loses growing environment on the bank, lose the growth procreation environment of microbiologic population, aquatic animal disappears even becomes extinct because losing ecological chain, and aquatic organism group disappears, and the river course self-purification capacity disappears, add the acting in conjunction of domestic sewage in rural areas by using and municipal sewage, make river and lake enter the vicious circle of black stench.
The water conservancy side slope can be divided under water naturally, three the slope sections in falling zone, shore protection, because under water, falling zone, three slope sections of shore protection have different ecological functions, for underwater slope protection, solve except needs the technical problems such as edge slope structure safety and flood control, should be target to recover or to set up ecosystem also, so it also should solve following technical problem underlying:
Underwater plant can self-sow, the place that can provide animal and microorganism to perch;
The ecological revetment material that adopts should solve the etching problem of strong acid and strong base, should have the function of acid-base balance based on the aquatic ecological system of ecological revetment;
Heavy metal can be sealed or adsorb to aquatic ecological system based on ecological revetment;
Aquatic ecological system based on ecological revetment can be prevented and treated body eutrophication;
The function that has the self-purification of water based on the aquatic ecological system of ecological revetment.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of underwater slope protection and water ecology improvement method based on ecological bag, this method based on the edge slope structure under water in lake, river safely, ensure outside the flood passage demand, produce collaborative Governance Ability to water body by the restoration of the ecosystem of side slope under water.
The technical scheme that adopts is so for achieving the above object, i.e. a kind of underwater slope protection and the water ecology method of improvementing based on ecological bag, and the restoration of the ecosystem that may further comprise the steps, dam or the cofferdam before wherein constructing:
1) desilting is handled and solidified: river or lake water water quality are in the 5th class water quality of national surface water environmental standard GB/3838-2002 regulation and need carry out desilting to the riverbed of side slope bottom or lakebed when following and handle before the construction;
2) set up water-bed basis
4) begin stepped lamination dislocation by water-bed basic top and pave ecological bag
5) plant planting submerged plant at ecological bag, under water the epimere of bank protection plantation emergent aquactic plant;
6) when water quality when the 5th class of national surface water environmental standard GB/3838-2002 regulation is following, drop into microorganism formulation according to water quality measurement, treat that water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and finishes to dam or the cofferdam when above;
7), Xiang Shuizhong throws in filter-feeding fish or/and herbivorous fishes, and shrimp and the end shellfish of dwelling.
Step 2) set up on root river that water-bed basis is included in underwater slope protection, the lakebed fluting, bottom land in and lay hardcore bed, throw in the reinforced gabion net, or for setting up immobilizing foundation or the fixed mount of ecological bag.
Step 5) is selected from waterweed, hydrilla verticillata, eel grass the submerged plant of ecological bag plantation,, adopt and intercut or/and press the planting patterns of broadcasting.If there is not the falling zone in this bank protection, namely water level is relatively stable, then needs the emergent aquactic plant of the epimere plantation of bank protection under water to be selected from Lythrum salicaria, aquatic canna.If there is the falling zone in this bank protection, i.e. water level big rise and fall does not then need the emergent aquactic plant of the epimere plantation of bank protection under water.
The described slope surface treatment of step 3) is the softer place of ground for bearing capacity<150kpa, uses the compacting of C20 concrete casting ground or rubble, and the compacting degree is more than 90%, removes domatic foreign material.
The method of paving ecological bag in the dislocation of the stepped lamination described in the step 4) in advance at platform or/and the barricade place builds the C20 concrete by design size, place then to connect and be buckled in two bags of head and the tail seaming positions, the stepped bag of paving layer by layer again, behind the intact one deck in every shop, with ramming iron bag and place, bag slit backfill are tamped, pave down one deck then, half bag wide of the ecological bag dislocation of adjacent layer position.
Further, build the groove of planting by laying bricks or stones at riverbed or the lakebed of side slope bottom, spread compost in the groove, water plant is implanted in the soil; Or with the water plant kind in container, again with the container submerged and reinforce.
Among the present invention, ecological bag is the important ingredient of flexible ecological SLOPE ENGINEERING SYSTEM, ecological bag has the permeable not filtering function of saturating soil, can prevent that filler (soil and nutritional labeling mixture) runs off, can realize the normal interchange of moisture in soil again, grow required soil and moisture of plant has obtained effective maintenance, makes plant pass bag and freely grows.Along with the growth of plant, root system of plant has penetrated ecological bag, has become organic whole with cyphosomatic, and the time is more long, and side slope is all the more firm.
The sack that the two-sided flatiron needle punched non-woven fabrics that ecological bag is made for raw material by polypropylene (PP) or polyester fiber (PET) processes.Have uvioresistant, anti-aging, nontoxic, not combustion-supporting, the characteristics that breach does not extend have realized that really zero pollutes.
Ecological bag has excellent physics and chemical property, the material of this formulated can be resisted ultraviolet erosion, be not subjected to the influence of chemical substance in the soil, qualitative change or rotten can not take place, permanent non-degradable also can be resisted the erosion of insect pest, anti-aging, nontoxic, antiacid alkali salt corrodes and microorganism is decomposed; Have following environment universality advantage as latest model side slope construction material:
A. moisture resistance is wet
Ecological bag raw material do not absorb moisture, can not destroy sack when moisture occurs, and sack can not be out of shape also, are insoluble to contaminated liquid (EPA Method9090 U.S. environment office).
B. resist chemical (PH)
The ecological bag of broad research test shows has very strong resistance to certain density soda acid chemical substance, can be used for most solids and severe contamination place.
C. antibiont degraded and animal are destroyed
Ecological bag adopts the special formulation material, does not support, does not absorb, do not help fungus grown, without putrefaction, not mouldy, never degenerate.Ecological bag can or not become the food of gnawing tooth animal (mouse), termite, moth, beetle, silverfish moth etc. by insect and relevant animal digestion.
D. high temperature resistance low temperature
Ecological bag can bear 150 celsius temperatures and not melt, and can bear the lowest temperature-40 degree centigrade.
E. uvioresistant (UV)
Ecological bag contains carbon ink and other anti-UV compositions, is the function that aforementioned ecological bag A and ecological bag B will increase.
The underwater slope protection ecological restoring method that gives ecological bag that the present invention adopts has following significant effect:
Ecological bag form of construction work flexibly not only satisfies hydrophilic demand; The flood passage demand is effectively satisfied in the scour resistance of ecological bag self and the acting in conjunction of root system of plant.
Root system of plant penetrates ecological bag, becomes organic whole with cyphosomatic, makes sloping body more firm;
The medium-and-large-sized vegetation of water can be strengthened water-bed degree of roughness, slows down water velocity, promotes the noxious material sedimentation; Root, stem, leaf can slow down water velocity and eliminate turbulent flow, filtration and glar sand grain, organic fine particles;
The beneficial microorganism growing environment is provided, the food of Herbivore is provided;
Emergent aquactic plant is everlasting and forms the varying environment of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobism near the root system of plant, for absorption and the metabolism of various microorganisms provides good living environment;
Submerged plant can form barrier one at the lake low layer, and the low layer nutriment speed of overflowing is suppressed; Simultaneously, the CO2 in the submerged plant photosynthesis consume water rises the pH value of water body, promotes the removal of nitrogen;
Water plant has the absorption enrichment to the heavy metal in the water body, heavy metal can be accumulated some position in plant with the form of metallo-chelate, reaches the phytoremediation to sewage;
Some water plant can also discharge the growth that allelochemical suppresses phytoplankton in water body; Floating plant, emergent aquactic plant, submerged plant can be made something perfect even more perfect for landscape diversity.
It is better that the present invention is applied to syllogic bank protection improvement method effect.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 is the ecological restoring method schematic diagram of underwater slope protection of the present invention;
Among the figure: A-2 is ecological bag; A-3 is for connecting button; A-4 is the reinforced gabion net; A-5 is the rubble basis; A-6 is planting soil; A-7 is the river, lakebed;
Accompanying drawing 2 is for being the position view of the present invention in syllogic bank protection improvement method;
The block diagram of three big index disposal abilities among the accompanying drawing 3 Pan Xi river embodiment.
The specific embodiment
Below the present invention will be described in detail by accompanying drawing and the non-limiting embodiment that provides thereof.
At characteristics and the functional requirement of underwater slope protection restoration of the ecosystem, the protective slope structure of the ecological bag of employing can satisfy the needs of river lakeside slope safety, can also satisfy the needs that different plants grow aspect ecological.Solved existing flexible ecological slope protection system adopt the expensive low quality, the plant survival rate that bring with lakeside slope, a kind of product supporting river low, can't recover self-purification of water power, execution control difficulty, water body and repair problems such as difficulty.
Construction process
Dam in the lake, river or handle in the cofferdam
Construction section is dammed construction beginning cause or handle in the cofferdam, do not have the execution conditions of large tracts of land ponding or current for the ecological slope construction section in lake, river.
Whether need desilting to handle
Whether needs carry out desilting handles according to working design in advance, and river or lake water water quality need be carried out desilting to the bottom in the 5th class water quality of national surface water environmental standard (GB/3838-2002) regulation and following river course and lake and handled before the general construction.
Desilting is handled and is solidified
Remove bed-silt and bed-silt is carried out by tool press filtration mode or natural air drying mode, 24~48 hours natural air dryings make moisture percentage in sewage sludge be reduced to 50%~60% from 80%~95%.
The ground slope surface treatment
To carry out ground (domatic) before ecological bag is paved and handle, for the softer place of ground (bearing capacity<150kpa), can use C20 concrete casting ground or rubble compacting (the compacting degree is more than 90%) basis.Remove domatic bark, tree root, rubbish, foreign material, turquoise, mantle rock, accomplish domatic clean and tidy.Domatic finishing back arranges interim catchwater on the top, slope, and ponding compiles the sloping body of impact when preventing rainfall.
Planting soil is prepared
The scene has the planting soil of suitable plant growth then can be directly used in pack, when not being fit to planting soil, then mix for pack with the 3:7 ratio with sand and clay, the control wettability 10%/-tightly landing scatters is advisable 20%(to hold), mud acid alkalescence is joined in adjusting, requires pH value and local P in soil H value to depart from less than 0.5.
Fill ecological bag
Ready soil is packed into ecological bag, carries out drawing three of the sub-capacity of every pack/a period of time with rammed earth (step on reality more than three times, it is full to reach filling) at every turn.Be filled to the beautiful faery apart from sack 15cm-20cm( Ecological bag sack label position) it is full to be considered as bag, is close to native face locking sack with the tying band then.
Pack requires:
Full: bag is filled full, with the outer label of bag for adorning native standard;
Real: pack is filled earth material and will be adorned closely knitly, whenever during pack adorns 1/3rd will to carry out pier real;
Tightly: tying will be strained, not loose tying when guaranteeing to carry at the scene and assemble.Sack length 5-7cm behind the tying.
After packed the getting well, it is safe to place, and during carrying, liftoff carrying or rolling, does not drag on ground, prevents from galling and causes spillage of material.The bag that installs assembled the same day as far as possible, was sure not to drench with rain for a long time and be exposed to the sun installing the bag that does not assemble, and should hide in advance as rainy weather, assembled in order to go into operation at any time behind the rain.
Ecological bag is paved in stepped lamination dislocation
Paving ecological bag needs by design bench toe to be set, and backguy is as the sloping reference line of paving that rises, place then to connect and be buckled in two bags of the first seaming positions, arrange the bag of paving of (one deck) then along the line one that draws, spread row's (one deck) available ramming iron with the backfill compacting of bag and bag slit place, afterwards smooth bag and guarantee the bag edge and institute's backguy coincides.Will in time finishing of drainage system arranged on the plan.
Ecological bag paves whether meet construction requirement
After engineering construction was finished, overall leveling was attractive in appearance, paved straightly, and the fissure of displacement is even; The strong no sedimentation in basis; There is discharge structure need meet peripheral four-way in the design drawing and do not have the ponding requirement.
Detection method: observe control design drawing and detection technique processing scheme.
The flexible side slope support process construction allowable variation project of ecological bag and detection method table
Finishing is handled
According to detecting the result who checks and accepts, the engineering variation establishment finishing processing scheme at occurring up to reaching the design and construction requirement, meets, and then enters next flow process.
Greening is prepared
After structure construction is finished, the plant of selecting water-bed lake to select.In addition, plant need be with specific process (needing to plant with container in advance such as part plant in the water-bed bank protection) plantation at having, the construction equipment that need be ready to be correlated with.
Underwater slope protection section greening vegetation
The ecological bag C that the underwater slope protection section is paved requires can bearing structure safety, anti-long-time immersion and functional requirements such as submerged plant growth and restoration of the ecosystem, and product self has following main feature:
Erosion resistibility height: 〉=6m/s
Uvioresistant strength retention (xenon lamp 500h): vertically: 〉=75%, laterally: 〉=75%
Anti-immersion: 〉=80 years
Ecological bag is beneficial to submerged plant growth
Anti-chemical thing and microbiologic(al) corrosion
Strong alkali-acid resistance: ph=4~11
Greening construction and maintenance
The kind method for planting of water plant
Water plant is planted according to the habit of variety classes or kind.The water plant of planting is adopted two kinds of different technological approaches: intercut or/and press and broadcast.
Soil
Select that clean garden mould is fine to be sieved for use, remove twig in the soil, weeds, dead leaf etc., avoid with the sposh in the pool, in order to avoid mix seed or other harmful organism bacterium of aquatic weed.As main material, add a small amount of skeleton soil and some slow release nitrogenous fertilizer again.
Rhizome is cut breeding
Dig out subterranean stem, clean earth and old root, be cut into bulk with sharp knife, every 3-4 bud is bred.The method of planting is the requirement according to afforestation, about general seeding row spacing 40cm, plants into various how much formula patterns and is advisable.Should keep shallow water at the initial stage water level of planting, in order to improve soil temperature, water temperature, impel the long-living of plant.
The plant apolegamy
When carrying out the option of species of vegetation, according to conditions such as the weather of locality and geology, the apolegamy of suggestion plant is as shown in the table:
The apolegamy of underwater slope protection section plant:
1, Lythrum salicaria
The Lythraceae Lythrum.Claim water willow, water branch willow and Shui Zhijin again.Like warm and illumination is sufficient, breezy environment, happiness water is wet, and various places, China north and south all have wild, are grown in swamp land, the other wetland of water and river bank, limes marginis more.Extensively cultivate existing various places.More cold-resistant, but equal open country is survived the winter in various places, China north and south.The cultivation growing way is best in shallow water, but also dry-land cultivation.Soil is required not tight, spend gorgeously in the fertile pond sludge matrix of soil property, growing way is strong.
2, aquatic canna
Aquatic canna is perennial large-scale herbaceous plant, and root-like stock is tiny, elongation of internode, and water-fast flooding can normal growth in the dark water of 20cm, and pattern is gorgeous; Compliance is strong.
3, waterweed
Waterweed originates in America, is that a kind of high-quality, speed are given birth to, the submerged plant of high yield, belongs to Hydrocharctaceae together with the black algae, the eel grass that distribute in China freshwater.From Japan introduce with lake research institute through the Chinese Academy of Sciences's Nanjing geography nineties.
A kind of high-quality, speed are given birth to, the submerged plant of high yield, are called as the submerged plant favourite son, and the waterweed stem is 2 meters, the tool branch.Compliance is strong, the output height, and nutritious, it is strong to have very strong power of regeneration, and has the effect of water purification.
4, hydrilla verticillata
Hydrilla verticillata is commonly called as ciliate desert-grass, WEMSI grass, lantern common vetch, the common vetch etc. of walking around, happiness high temperature, and growth period is long, and compliance is good, has very strong vitality, and can not ruin water quality.
5, eel grass
The heavy pasture and water of perennial acaulescence originally have stolon.Breeding is fast, can effectively reduce amount of algae, can administer lake eutrophication.
6, strike water hyacinth
The strike water hyacinth is to utilize GPIT targetedly to the characteristic of water hyacinth induction regulating controlling in addition, the improving the breed of the water hyacinth of successfully cultivating.Strike stalklet leaf water hyacinth has increased nearly 20 times than light water cucurbit root cap, and root is not perishable, can secrete allelochemical, but adsorbs fast and the blue-green algae of going out, and aspect the removal heavy metal arsenic, is about 52 times of " king of drug abuse " ciliate desert-grass.Can obviously consume dissolved oxygen in water simultaneously, but have the oxygen supply function, water purification function improves greatly.Huge strike stalklet leaf water hyacinth effect in the pollution problem of processing blue algae water is obvious, and it also has bioenergy and can make the value of secondary utilizations such as fiberboard simultaneously.
Throw in microorganism formulation
The microorganism formulation (be appointed as Shenzhen radically reform the QYB special efficacy microorganism formulation of precious Science and Technology Ltd.) that drop into to be fit to ratio according to water quality measurement improves water quality.Major function is to remove the organic substance of body eutrophication, decomposing soluble, remove stench, degraded suspended particulate, improve water transparency etc., reaches pollutant indexs such as reducing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) BOD, chemical oxygen demand COD at last.
Finish to dam or the cofferdam
To damming or after the water source in cofferdam carries out artificial microbiological treatment, treat that water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and finishes to dam or the cofferdam when above.The initial stage vegetation root system is infirm as yet, because noting the control water velocity, wants vegetation and falling zone vegetation under the timely curing water after water level is normal when discharging water.
Aquatic animal is thrown in
And the different maintenances of selecting according to season and vegetation began to drop into the aquatic toy (all kinds of fishes, shrimp etc.) of constructure scheme design after 3-6 months.After waiting for that the proprietor checks and accepts engineering, construction finishes.
Carrying out animal, living species when selecting, according to conditions such as the weather of locality and water quality, the apolegamy of suggestion species is as shown in the table:
1, silver carp
Silver carp cries silver carp, water silver carp again, jumps silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, belongs to Cypriniformes, and Cyprinidae is one of four famous large Chinese carps.Silver carp is typical filter-feeding fish, mainly eats zooplankter in the fry stage, transfers to gradually when reaching more than 1.5 centimetres and eats phytoplankton, also eats soya-bean milk, okara powder, wheat bran and rice bran etc., and more artificial microparticle mixed feed is eaten in happiness.Suit in rich water, to culture.
Ecological functions:
Under certain density, put the filter-feeding silver carp in a suitable place to breed and can play the effect of control algae;
The yaito tuna of certain density and water plant are united breed also can play the effect of control algae;
Putting in a suitable place to breed of fish makes the ratio increase of blue-green algae in phytoplankton in the water body.
2, bighead
Bighead cries variegated carp, big head, packet header fish again, bullhead, black silver carp (place that also has is numb silver carp).Outer likeness in form silver carp.Flat-sided.Be a kind of of fresh-water fishes.
Ecological functions:
Can play the effect of control algae;
The bighead of certain density and water plant are united breed also can play the effect of control algae;
Putting in a suitable place to breed of fish makes the ratio increase of blue-green algae in phytoplankton in the water body.
3, grass carp
Grass carp, the little green of health, the squama dusky is lived in the fresh water, is one of important fish of special product of China.Also cry grass carp, claim ctenopharyngodon idellus again, grass roots fish, thick fish.Peculiar fish for Guangxi, Eastern China to plains regions such as Heilungkiang.
Ecological functions:
Grass carp is food with the planktonic organism, is the natural enemy of algae and duckweed;
Can slow down the eutrophication of water body effectively.
4, pond crayfish
Pond crayfish claims the big river prawn in river, Portugal, Baihe shrimp, tong shrimp again, and it mainly is distributed in the coastal south, and Portugal, Zhejiang river middle and lower reaches are abounded with this shrimp, and it is individual big, can compare favourably with Macrobrachium rosenbergii, find that maximum male reaches 200 grams, but meat flavour is more delicious.The pond crayfish body colour is transparent with white to be many, but can be along with environment and water colour and change, and comfort zone is wide, all can survive for 5 ℃~35 ℃, and thermophilic is 20 ℃~28 ℃, and the pH value is 6.3~7.5.
Ecological functions:
Pond crayfish is Omnivore, is food with the planktonic organism mainly, can reduce planktonic organism and breed in a large number;
Can obviously improve the transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body;
Can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Can slow down the eutrophication of water body effectively.
5, oppossum shrimp
Oppossum shrimp, body shrimp shape.The many kinds of oppossum shrimp class can be lived in low-solids water or the brackish water.Many kinds are the life of swimming, but have many kinds to perch activity in the seabed, often slip in the silt.
Ecological functions:
Be food with the planktonic organism mainly, can reduce planktonic organism and breed in a large number;
Can obviously improve the transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body
Can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Can slow down the eutrophication of water body effectively.
6, patina ring rib spiral shell
High 25 millimeter of one shell of shell adult, wide 15 millimeter of shell.
Ecological functions:
Patina ring rib spiral shell can obviously improve the transparency (SD) of algal tufa water body. and the existence of ring rib spiral shell can directly or indirectly reduce water body DO concentration;
Patina ring rib spiral shell put the growth that can suppress zooplankter to a certain extent in a suitable place to breed;
Putting in a suitable place to breed of patina ring rib spiral shell can produce certain influence to eutrophication algal tufa water body, and the spiral shell of putting suitable density in a suitable place to breed can slow down to a certain extent that species are tending towards monistic speed in the algal tufa water body, and can reduce the abundance ratio of blue-green algae in the algal tufa water body;
The consumption rate of patina ring rib spiral shell increases earlier gradually with the rising of producing malicious blue-green algae concentration, and after acquiring a certain degree, its consumption rate reduces;
Patina ring rib spiral shell also has certain degradation to the turbidity of water body, promotes the transparency of water body; Can reduce the content of phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen in the water body in addition significantly, alleviate the eutrophication in lake;
Patina ring rib spiral shell liver pancreas all has stronger accumulation to Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn and Mn and does
With.
7, bay scallop
Bay scallop belongs to lamellibranchiata, Anisomyaria, and Pectenidae, scallop belongs to.Scallop is filter feeder, and main food is organic debris, is suspended in minitype particle and planktonic organism in the seawater, as Diatomeae, two Flagellatae, Copepods etc.; Secondly also have the spore, bacterium of algae etc.Its food species is formed consistent with the kind in the environment.
Ecological functions:
Has very strong drainage capacity;
Can reduce the concentration of particulate organic matter in the water body (algae and organic debris), control nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient concentration indirectly;
Obtain food by the digestive system filtering sea, when being lived by the waters of industrial wastewater or sewer pollution, toxic chemical substance can be accumulated in vivo;
If shellfish is increased, just can effectively filter oxide and algae;
Shellfish has good filtration and enriched character, can adsorb and consume multiple noxious materials such as benzene, phenol, consumes superfluous organic matter in the seawater, plays the purifying sea water effect;
Shellfish can provide a kind of ecosystems services, is famous ecologically clean worker, can filter out the sediment in the water, increases water quality, and allows water become limpider.The more important thing is that they can remove the noxious material in the water.
The underwater slope protection case history
Pan Xi river ecological revetment engineering
The Pan Xi river is located in Chongqing City's Yubei District, and peripheral high building stands in great numbers, and is densely populated, before improvement, is a notorious sewage ditch, has a strong impact on resident living and city image.
The major measure that ecological management is administered comprises:
At first, dammed in the Pan Xi river, handle the black stench mud in original river bed, remove 230,000 tons in mud altogether;
Secondly, the bank protection part is squeezed into 0.5 meter dark pine stake earlier in the river bed under water, is used for stable and the water-bed ecological bag of compacting.
Then, bank protection is afforested, bank protection is mainly planted eel grass, black two kinds of submerged plants of algae under water, plants reed, vetiver, aquatic canna for about 0.5 meter about ordinary water level, and the mode of broadcasting of pressing has mainly been adopted in the greening of underwater slope protection, near the ordinary water level plant is adopted the mode of intercutting, treat can discharge water after sowing is finished, the river course recovers normal morphology, according to analysis of water, the water surface in the river course has been thrown in floating plant, mainly is floating lotus.
At last, carry out ecology construction, throw in fry according to following standard to the river course: silver carp: 600-800 tail/hectare, bighead: 250-350 tail/hectare, treat to throw in after the submerged vegetation maturation grass carp: 180-300 tail/hectare.
By greening and ecological construction, make the Pan Xi river progressively recover due ecosystem, by to total phosphorus, total nitrogen and the equal monitoring analysis of COD three big indexs, the unit efficiency that Pan Xi river river course slope protection is afforested is shown in Figure 3:
Unit: 24h * mg/m 2
By above-mentioned improvement, the afforestation vegetation of Pan Xi river ecological revetment is being brought into play significant effect aspect aquatic ecological system and the water self-cleaning ability.At present, black stench has been eliminated in the Pan Xi river substantially, and water quality reverts to the V class from bad IV 2, is the IV class in the part period in spring, and the part period two season of autumn in summer can reach the III class.
Along with the growth of plant, root system of plant has penetrated ecological bag, has become organic whole with cyphosomatic, side slope is more and more safer, and greening is more and more beautiful, and water quality is more and more clear, near the ecological revetment of Pan Xi river resident took a walk to here again after the leisure, liked that the old man who fishes comes fishing here again.Sewage ditch has once become the Bin He park, and the river bank greenweed is spreaded and sink in, egression is had a rest, citizen fish, and becomes the place to go of having lain fallow.
Application in three sections comprehensive processing methods of river lakeside slope ecology
Concentric lake, Chongqing comprehensive administration project
Concentric lake, Chongqing is located in the Chongqing Yubei District, lake surface area 48.76 ten thousand sides, be accompanied by exploitation and the construction in newly developed area, two rivers, the farmland of lake periphery is just progressively replaced by high building and factory building with one heart, if do not take measures in the lake with one heart, along with the remittance of municipal sewage, the water quality in lake will become bad VI 2 classes from the III class at short notice with one heart.
At the beginning of the concentric lake of exploitation, decision-making and manager have just drawn the experiences and lessons of similar item, and it is secure that power will is forged into a safety with territory, concentric lake region, environmental beauty, the lake, city of the ecological homeostasis specifically, is that the water quality of wishing concentric lake remains on the III class for a long time.
Three sections improvement methods of the ecological side slope in lake, river of the present invention are adopted in the lake with one heart, and loke shore is divided into three slope sections.
At first loke shore is carried out paving of ecological bag bank protection, the bank protection part is squeezed into 0.5 meter dark pine stake earlier in the river bed under water, is used for stable and the water-bed ecological bag of compacting, and the ecological bag of underwater slope protection part adopts ecological bag C.Meanwhile, constructed in falling zone and shore protection synchronously, ecological bag B is adopted in the falling zone, and shore protection adopts ecological bag A.
After slope protection ecological bag is paved end, ecological revetment can ensure structural safety in the early stage, domatic by ecological bag covering, can when also not forming, vegetation just can effectively contain soil erosion (lake water washes away, heavy rain wash away), simultaneously, ecological bag has the permeable not characteristics of saturating soil, can also effectively prevent owing to caving in that ponding in the slope causes.
Then, three slope sections are carried out greening vegetation respectively:
The slope section is planted submerged plants such as eel grass, black algae under water;
In slope, falling zone section, plant reed, vetiver, aquatic canna under the normal pool level, plant plants such as cattail, reed, calamus, vetiver on the normal pool level;
In loke shore slope section, can plant grass planting, shrub, arbor, grass seed selection rye grass, coreopsis, Bermuda grass etc.; Shrub and arbor are then arranged in pairs or groups according to the view needs.
At lake surface, floating plants such as plantation water lettuce when blue algae bloom, can also be done and put the strike water hyacinth.
Behind the plant seeding, ecological bag can provide plant grow necessary soil, moisture and nutrient, and along with growth and the maturation of plant, root system can pass bag and become organic whole with cyphosomatic, and the time, root system more of a specified duration reached all the more, and sloping body is more firm.At the loke shore bank protection, grass is irritated Qiao and can be grown, and satisfies the landscape diversity demand, forms good ecosystem.
At last, carry out ecology construction, throw in fry according to following standard to the river course: silver carp: 600-800 tail/hectare, bighead: 250-350 tail/hectare, treat to throw in after the submerged vegetation maturation grass carp: 180-300 tail/hectare.
By ecological management, make concentric lake possess good ecosystem and water body self-purification ability at the very start.The design storage capacity in lake is 48.76 ten thousand sides with one heart, at ordinary times inflow 0.004m3/s, water yield 0.0025m3/s at ordinary times.With one heart lake current is gone into water quality and need be controlled in the IV class, and management goal is the III class, and the demand of three big indexs is as follows so:
Unit: mg
With one heart there are 12708 square meter underwater slope protections in the lake, and 1470 square meter falling zone bank protections add the lake surface plant of about 1000 square meters.Vegetation is respectively shown in Figure 3 in the ability of handling three big indexs:
Unit: mg/24h
As can be seen from Figure 3, on the disposal ability of three big indexs, the actual treatment ability in lake is compared with processing demands with one heart, and bigger surplus is all arranged.On this leading indicator of the self-purification of water, the lake adopts the comprehensive regulation based on ecological revetment to obtain remarkable effect with one heart.
In addition, the lake also has following distinguishing feature with one heart:
Bio-diversity and the self-purification of water comprise
Formed the optimum ecosystem of many integration
The body self-purification capacity is strong, can make water quality remain on the III class for a long time
Ecological revetment and vegetation can effectively be adsorbed heavy metal
Total nitrogen, total phosphorus are controlled, can prevent blue algae bloom.
Safety and flood passage
Root system of plant makes sloping body more firm
The flood passage demand is effectively satisfied in scour resistance and the root system of plant acting in conjunction of ecological bag self.
Economy and the feature of environmental protection
Ecological bag divides three kinds of colors, the convenient construction management
Bed mud can be made ecological bag inserts, can reduce construction cost
Construction technology is simple, and cost is relatively low
The material low-carbon environment-friendly that uses, energy-saving and emission-reduction can not cause secondary pollution.
Landscape diversity and hydrophily
Grass, filling, Qiao can freely arrange in pairs or groups
Water front need not cut-off, ecological bag can with collocation such as sash, shelter bridge, platform.

Claims (6)

1. underwater slope protection and the water ecology method of improvementing based on an ecological bag, the restoration of the ecosystem that may further comprise the steps, dam or the cofferdam before wherein constructing:
1) desilting is handled and solidified: river or lake water water quality are in the 5th class water quality of national surface water environmental standard GB/3838-2002 regulation and need carry out desilting to the riverbed of side slope bottom or lakebed when following and handle before the construction;
2) set up water-bed basis;
3) slope surface treatment;
4) begin stepped lamination dislocation by water-bed basic top and pave ecological bag
5) plant planting submerged plant at ecological bag;
6) when water quality when the 5th class of national surface water environmental standard GB/3838-2002 regulation is following, drop into microorganism formulation according to water quality measurement, treat that water quality reaches GB/3838-2002 the 4th class standard and finishes to dam or the cofferdam when above;
7), Xiang Shuizhong throws in filter-feeding fish or/and herbivorous fishes, and shrimp and the end shellfish of dwelling.
2. a kind of river lakeside slope ecology restorative procedure based on ecological bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: step 2) set up on root river that water-bed basis is included in underwater slope protection, the lakebed fluting, bottom land and lay hardcore bed, throw in the reinforced gabion net, or for setting up immobilizing foundation or the fixed mount of ecological bag.
3. a kind of river lakeside slope ecology restorative procedure based on ecological bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: step 5) is selected from waterweed, hydrilla verticillata, eel grass the submerged plant of ecological bag plantation, adopts and intercuts or/and press the planting patterns of broadcasting.
4. a kind of river lakeside slope ecology restorative procedure based on ecological bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the described slope surface treatment of step 3) is the softer place of ground for bearing capacity<150kpa, use the compacting of C20 concrete casting ground or rubble, the compacting degree is more than 90%, removes domatic foreign material.
5. a kind of underwater slope protection and water ecology improvement method based on ecological bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the method for paving ecological bag in the dislocation of the stepped lamination described in the step 4) in advance at platform or/and the barricade place builds the C20 concrete by design size, place then to connect and be buckled in two bags of head and the tail seaming positions, the stepped bag of paving layer by layer again, behind the intact one deck in every shop, with ramming iron bag and place, bag slit backfill are tamped, pave down one deck then, half bag wide of the ecological bag dislocation of adjacent layer position.
6. a kind of river lakeside slope ecology restorative procedure based on ecological bag according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: riverbed or lakebed in the side slope bottom are built the groove of planting by laying bricks or stones, spread compost in the groove, and water plant is implanted in the soil; Or with the water plant kind in container, again with the container submerged and reinforce.
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CN106917383A (en) * 2017-03-02 2017-07-04 中钢集团鞍山热能研究院有限公司 The absorption that preventing and treating river course river interacts migration stain with riverbank heavy metal in soil intercepts wall
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CN110029626A (en) * 2019-03-20 2019-07-19 中水电第十一工程局(郑州)有限公司 A kind of bank revetment foundation consolidation process technology in soft formation side slope
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CN103548529A (en) * 2013-10-28 2014-02-05 上海海洋大学 Method for building ecological slope protection by reasonably mixing and matching spiral shells with water plants
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CN110029626A (en) * 2019-03-20 2019-07-19 中水电第十一工程局(郑州)有限公司 A kind of bank revetment foundation consolidation process technology in soft formation side slope
CN110029626B (en) * 2019-03-20 2020-12-01 中电建十一局工程有限公司 Reinforcing treatment method for revetment foundation on soft stratum slope
CN111576339A (en) * 2020-05-12 2020-08-25 中国城市建设研究院有限公司 Ecological revetment for strengthening treatment of black and odorous water body by microorganisms
CN111547858A (en) * 2020-05-20 2020-08-18 北京林业大学 Method for treating water eutrophication by using various submerged plants and aquatic animals
CN112219485A (en) * 2020-10-12 2021-01-15 昆明理工大学 Soil microorganism culture method for improving soil in alpine and high-altitude areas
CN112219485B (en) * 2020-10-12 2021-08-20 昆明理工大学 Soil microorganism culture method for improving soil in alpine and high-altitude areas

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