CN103257382B - Based on scattering method and the poriness scattering material of refractive index difference in medium - Google Patents

Based on scattering method and the poriness scattering material of refractive index difference in medium Download PDF

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CN103257382B
CN103257382B CN201310172369.6A CN201310172369A CN103257382B CN 103257382 B CN103257382 B CN 103257382B CN 201310172369 A CN201310172369 A CN 201310172369A CN 103257382 B CN103257382 B CN 103257382B
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light
transparent medium
scatterer
medium
refractive index
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CN201310172369.6A
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CN103257382A (en
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胡建人
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杭州电子科技大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of scattering method based on refractive index difference in medium and poriness scattering material.The present invention utilizes the refraction between transparent medium or total reflection to upset the direct of travel of light, obtains the scattered light that transmissivity is high; Refraction between described transparent medium or total reflection system are dispersed in the interface that the water white scatterer surface in homogeneous transparent medium is formed, and there is different refractive indexes the both sides at interface; The refractive index of water white scatterer refractive index and homogeneous transparent medium is variant.Material therefor water white transparency of the present invention, without transmitted light restraining barrier, the refraction of water white scatterer or reflection angle large, the dimension of the water white scatterer of light experience is large, number of interfaces is few, has diffusive good, can select and adjust scatterer dimension and density, make light extraction efficiency high, to obtain satisfied dispersion effect.

Description

Based on scattering method and the poriness scattering material of refractive index difference in medium

Technical field

The invention belongs to light optics field, relate to scattering method and material, particularly based on scattering method and the poriness scattering material of refractive index difference in medium.

Background technology

Along with the development of light source technology, the specific power density of light source constantly increases, considerably beyond the limit optical ability of the mankind.The efficiency of illumination is not only relevant with light source (lamp), also relevant with light fixture.Past reduces dazzle and adopts frosted glass, corrugated glass refraction, uprises brightness, pointolite is area source.Along with the raising of people's living standard, the pursuit pay attention to day by day attractive in appearance to light fixture.The advantage that frosted glass has transmittance high, but shielding is low, still can see the blurred shapes of light source through frosted glass.In recent years, domestic light fixture trend is that frosted glass light fixture is difficult to find, replace the ivory paint at transparent glass surface screen printing thin layer, daylight lamp in light fixture or electricity-saving lamp illuminate the fitting glass of this layer of band paint, paint entire body is shinny, sensation is as the frosted glass under light, but measuring and calculating light efficiency declines huge.As, the light fixture of 3 × 55W trichromatic energy saving lamp, illuminating effect with originally adopted the brightness of the 40W of frosted glass light fixture daylight lamp ~ 55W electricity-saving lamp similar, unique difference is by painting the light fixture after covering, can't see the profile of obvious electricity-saving lamp luminous lamp tube.Table 1 is the light-transmission coefficient of various glass on certain handbook.

The light-transmission coefficient of several glass of table 1

As shown in Table 1, the light transmission extreme difference of opal glass, this is consistent with the impression in daily life.Attractive in appearancely define great contrast with energy-conserving and environment-protective, this and world's Trend of Energy Saving are incompatible with.How to change the light transmission efficiency of diffused light generating means, meet shielding again simultaneously.Analyze milky lamp shade glass or milky incandescent lamp glass bulb, all have the milky-white layer of thin layer.Titanium dioxide has the advantage that whiteness is high, reflectivity is high; but it is transmitted light that light source produces diffused light by opal glass; it not reflected light; titanium dioxide particle can stop light transmition; although intergranular reflectivity is high; this multiple reflections deep fades luminous flux, this faulty diffuse reflection methodology greatly reduces illumination efficiency for a long time.

Summary of the invention

Transmissivity for existing diffused light generation device itself is low, the defect that the screening rate of device the selection of material itself is high, the present invention, by the Optical characteristics research of basic optical analysis, natural light phenomenon analysis and research, transparent inorganic material and transparent polymer polymkeric substance, obtains the acquisition methods of the diffuse reflection rule of applicable engineer applied and the light scattering method of corresponding high-transmission rate and corresponding optical material.

Basic functional principle is based on the light reflectivity R of transparent medium and transmissivity T relation.The computing formula of the reflectivity R on transparent medium surface

R = ( n ′ - n ) 2 ( n ′ + n ) 2 - - - ( 1 )

Such as, when refractive index n '=1.5 of glass, and the refractive index n=1.0 of air, result of calculation is R=0.04, and namely each surface reflectivity of glass plate is about 4%, and the transmissivity T of water white white glass plate only has 92.16%, therefore the total reflectivity Rt of colourless white glass plate white glass plate=1-T=1-92.16%=7.84%.The transmissivity of the colourless white glass plate of N layer only has T n.

The present invention utilizes the refraction between transparent medium or total reflection to upset the direct of travel of light, obtain the scattered light that transmissivity is high, refraction between described transparent medium or total reflection system are dispersed in the interface that the water white scatterer surface in homogeneous transparent medium is formed, and there is different refractive indexes the both sides at interface; Water white scatterer refractive index n ' is variant with the refractive index n of homogeneous transparent material, and both differences can just can be born.Described scatterer is spheroid or irregular body.

Preferably water white scatterer refractive index n ' is lower than the refractive index n of homogeneous materials, and scatterer is concavees lens effects, causes the scatterer large-area total reflection in local, improves the angle of divergence of single scatterer, reduce inner retrodirective reflection, reduce light loss; Scatterer dimension is submillimeter rank ~ 1 millimeter,

Scatterer dimension is submillimeter rank ~ 1 millimeter, the distribution of scatterer in homogeneous transparent medium is along light direct of travel, i.e. homogeneous transparent dielectric thickness direction, its density value is 2 ~ 6, be no more than 12, optimum density, between 2 ~ 4, controls scatterer dimension and density, adjustable dispersion effect.

Water white scattering (ball) body of the present invention is formed by crystallization or foaming, the specific refractivity that can limit homogeneous transparent medium and water white scatterer is more among a small circle, weaken the reflectivity between two kinds of extended medias, improve the light emission rate of scattered light.

Water white scatterer of the present invention is formed by crystallization or foaming; Can be selected by raw material and material temperature, mould temperature retention time control clear homogeneous medium in crystallite dimension, form inorganic devitrified glass or form multicrystal macromolecular material;

Water white scatterer of the present invention is formed by crystallization or foaming; Under water white transparency inorganics or water white melt polymer material state, mix gas, form the bubble of transparent medium parcel and be uniformly distributed in media as well.

Carrier of the present invention, can be hard transparent material, as the macromolecular material of flint glass, high light transmittance, as organic glass (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA), poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PBA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), Kynoar (PVDF), polyester (PET) also can be flexible high molecular material film, by the form of pad pasting at the light fixture of transparent inorganic or macromolecular material or need the place producing diffused light.

Material therefor water white transparency of the present invention, without transmitted light restraining barrier, greatly, the dimension of the water white scatterer of light experience is large for water white scatterer refraction or reflection angle, number of interfaces is few, there is diffusive good, can select and adjust scatterer dimension and density, make light extraction efficiency high, to obtain satisfied dispersion effect, and implementation is diversified, manufacture craft is ripe, with low cost.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Accompanying drawing 1 is for the present invention is about dieletric reflection rate curve figure.

Accompanying drawing 2 is light whereabouts figure in the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium of the present invention.

Accompanying drawing 3(a) be the main transmitted light schematic diagram of multi-layer transparent media plate of the present invention.

Accompanying drawing 3(b) schematic diagram is affected on emergent light for the retrodirective reflection light of multi-layer transparent media plate of the present invention.

The transparent medium spheroid that accompanying drawing 4 has a convex lens effect for the present invention affects schematic diagram to light refraction direction.

Accompanying drawing 5 is the optical scattering plate structure schematic diagram of band different refractivity transparent medium spheroid group of the present invention.

Accompanying drawing 6 is the projection sectional area ratio schematic diagram that homogeneous transparent medium of the present invention and air bubble interface occur to be totally reflected.

Embodiment

The present invention is set forth below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.

The theory of computation of foundation of the present invention and derivation thereof:

Accompanying drawing 1 is the dieletric reflection rate curve figure of foundation of the present invention, Figure 12-13 that home country's light taken from by material, " optics " (People's Education Publishing House, 1978.9 first publisheds) are compiled in the order of war unit.Curve I in figure, curve II, curve III are corresponding respectively: be parallel to the reflectivity Rp of plane of incidence vibration (polarized light), vibrate the reflectivity Rs of (polarized light) and natural light reflectance R perpendicular to the plane of incidence, the longitudinal axis represents reflectivity R, and transverse axis is incident angle i.Common nonpolarized light (natural light) homologous thread III.As seen from Figure 1, the reflectivity R of incident angle i within 40 ° is almost constant, and reflectivity depends on formula:

R = ( n ′ - n ) 2 ( n ′ + n ) 2 - - - ( 1 )

In formula (1), n ', n are respectively the refractive index of the different medium of both sides, interface.About refractive index n '=1.5 of general glass, and the refractive index n=1.0 of air, the refractive index R=0.0400 calculated (4.00%).

1. the reflectivity of single transparent media plate and transmissivity are derived:

Accompanying drawing 2 is that light beam irradiates transparent medium dull and stereotyped G1, the first incident light E1 with little incident angle, and be radiated at the upper surface Su of the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, reflection generation first reflected light R1 and refraction generation first come and go light D1.First comes and goes the lower surface Sd that light D1 propagates into the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, and generate second through boundary reflection and come and go light D2, reflectivity meets formula (1), reflects generation first emergent light O1 through lower surface Sd; The relative intensity of each light: the first incident light E1=100%, the first reflected light R1=[(n '-n)/(n '+n)] 2(%)=R(is according to formula (1)), first comes and goes light D1=1-R1=1-R(%), second comes and goes light D2=RD1=R (1-R) (%), the first emergent light O1=D1 2=(1-R) 2(%).

Continue to follow the tracks of the light whereabouts in the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium and intensity, second comes and goes the upper surface Su of light D2 at the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, comes and goes light D3 through reflection generation the 3rd, through refraction generation second reflected light R2; Its relative intensity: the 3rd comes and goes light D3=RD2=R 2d1=R 2(1-R) (%), the second reflected light R2=(1-R) D2=(1-R) RD1=R (1-R) 2(%).

3rd comes and goes the lower surface Sd that light D3 propagates into the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, and come and go light D4 through reflection generation the 4th, reflectivity meets formula (1), reflects generation second emergent light O2 through lower surface Sd; The relative intensity of each light: the 4th comes and goes light D4=RD3=R 2d2=R 3d1=R 3(1-R) (%), the second emergent light O2=(1-R) D3=(1-R) RD2=(1-R) R 2d1=R 2(1-R) 2.

4th comes and goes the upper surface Su of light D4 at the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, comes and goes light D5 through reflection generation the 5th, through refraction generation the 3rd reflected light R3; The relative intensity of each light: the 5th comes and goes light D5=R 4(1-R) (%), the 3rd reflected light R3=R 3(1-R) 2(%).

5th comes and goes the lower surface Sd that light D5 propagates into the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, and come and go light D6 through reflection generation the 6th, reflectivity meets formula (1), reflects generation the 3rd emergent light O3 through lower surface Sd; The relative intensity of each light: the 6th comes and goes light D6=R 5(1-R) (%), the 3rd emergent light O3=R 4(1-R) 2(%).

Total transmitted light T1=O1+O2+O3+ ...=(1+R 2+ R 4+ ...) (1-R) 2(%) (2)

Total reflected light Rt1=R1+R2+R3+ ...=R+R (1-R) 2+ R 3(1-R) 2+ ... (%) (3)

Wherein, reflectivity R is determined by formula (1), finally depends on refractive index n ' and the n of two media.Work as n '=1.5, n=1.0, boundary reflection rate R=0.04(4%), R 410 -6the order of magnitude, R 510 -7the order of magnitude, therefore O4 and R4 can ignore as dimensionless,

Total transmitted light T1=0.923077 that the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium is corresponding.

The total reflected light Rt1=1-T1=0.076923 that the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium is corresponding.

More than calculate and all set the absorptivity of the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium as 0.

2. the transmissivity of the transparent medium platen parallel overlap that multi-layer phase is same is derived:

Accompanying drawing 3(a) for multi-layer phase with the parallel overlap of the dull and stereotyped G1 ~ G3 of transparent medium under direct transmitted light (after not considering the dull and stereotyped Gi reflection of transparent medium, by the dull and stereotyped G of last layer transparent medium i-1, G i-2the contribution of secondary reflection again), total transmitted light T1 of the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium equals the incident light E2 of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium, total transmitted light T2 of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium equals total incident light E3 of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium, total transmitted light T3 of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium equals total incident light E4 of the dull and stereotyped G4 of transparent medium, and the rest may be inferred by analogy for it.Under the contribution ignoring reflected light and the prerequisite that there is not Absorption of Medium, total transmitted light T3=E4=T1 of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium 3=0.786527(reflectivity R gets 0.04).

Because the reverse reflected light Ii advanced of the dull and stereotyped Gi of lower floor's transparent medium illuminates the dull and stereotyped G of last layer transparent medium i-1g dull and stereotyped with upper last layer transparent medium i-2, the dull and stereotyped G of transparent medium i-1g dull and stereotyped with transparent medium i-2the light of secondary reflection finally can be irradiated on the upper surface of the dull and stereotyped Gi self of transparent medium again.Due to the reversibility of light path, calculating formula (2) and formula (3) can be applied mechanically, as long as check out the reflection of light channel structure or the number of times of refraction, just can calculate final result.Accompanying drawing 3(b) E1-E2-E3-E4 and accompanying drawing 3(a) the same, be direct transmitted light.E4 ' is (reverse) reflected light of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium, through the reflection of the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium from lower surface, then through the transmission of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium and the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium, to the contribution of the emergent light T3 of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium;

E4 " be (reverse) reflected light of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium, then reflect from lower surface through the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium, reenter the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium to the contribution of emergent light T3;

E4 " ' be (reverse) reflected light of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium; after the transmission of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium, shine the lower surface of the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium; and by the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium after lower surface reflection; again through the transmission of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium and the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium, to the contribution of the emergent light T3 of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium;

The reflection of E4 ' is more than E4 dull and stereotyped G1 and G2 of twice transparent medium, therefore the intensity of E4 ': T1 3rt1 2=0.005917T1 3=0.005917E4.

E4 " reflection of dull and stereotyped G3 and G2 of more than E4 twice transparent mediums, therefore E4 " intensity identical with E4 ': T1 3rt1 2=0.005917T1 3=0.005917E4.

E4 " intensity of ' reflection of dull and stereotyped G3 and G1 of more than E4 twice transparent mediums, many again twice (forward is with reverse) is transmitted through transparent medium flat board G2, therefore E4 " ': T1 5rt1 2=0.005917T1 5=0.005917T1 2e4=0.852071 × 0.005917E4.

The dull and stereotyped G of transparent medium i-1and G i-2retrodirective reflection is to the light emission rate contribution of the dull and stereotyped Gi of the transparent medium of 3 stacked conjunctions: E '+E "+E " '=0.016876E4; Total light emission rate=1.016876E4=80.0% of 3 layers of water white transparency media plate G.E4 is wherein the direct transmitted light (%) of the dull and stereotyped G1 ~ G3 of transparent medium.

By that analogy, when the dull and stereotyped G of transparent medium is of five storeys, from the transmitted intensity T5=T1 of the direct outgoing of the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium 5=0.670177, the reverse reflected light of advancing that each layer produces, except the dull and stereotyped G1 of transparent medium, other contributive reflections have 10 kinds of arrangements.

The retrodirective reflection light of the dull and stereotyped G2 of transparent medium, the outgoing contribution to the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium: T1 5rt1 2;

The retrodirective reflection light of the dull and stereotyped G3 of transparent medium, outgoing contribution point 2 tunnels to the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium:

T1 5Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 2Rt1 2

The retrodirective reflection light of the dull and stereotyped G4 of transparent medium, outgoing contribution point 3 tunnels to the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium:

T1 5Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 2Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 4Rt1 2

The retrodirective reflection light of the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium, outgoing contribution point 4 tunnels to the dull and stereotyped G5 of transparent medium:

T1 5Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 2Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 4Rt1 2+T1 5·T1 6Rt1 2

The number percent that retrodirective reflection light accounts for direct emergent light is:

Rt1 2(4+3T1 2+2T1 4+T1 6)=8.626888Rt1 2=0.051046

The integral light-transmitting rate of 5 layers of water white transparency media plate G is 70.4%.

3. the medium scatters model of the transparent medium spheroid containing different refractivity

Fig. 4 shows directional light and irradiate transparent medium sphere model, according to refraction law n ' sin i '=nsin i, the side incident angle that refractive index is large or emergence angle little, emergent light is advanced to all directions.The refractive index n of spheroid refractive index n ' the ﹥ spheroid external agency in figure, spheroid presents convex lens effect, and light converges at ball interior, with reference to the accompanying drawings 1, the marginal portion of spheroid is under angle of grazing, and reflectivity R is high, when incident angle is between 80 ~ 90 °, reflectivity R is between 0.55 ~ 1.0; If the refractive index n of spheroid refractive index n ' ﹤ spheroid external agency, according to existing knowledge binding tests checking, obtain following inference: 1. spheroid presents concavees lens effect, 2. the divergence of beam of ball interior is entered, the angle that emergent light comprises is wider, scattering effect is stronger, and 3. extraneous light is radiated at spheroid edge generation total reflection phenomenon, makes the efficiency of emergent light higher.

4. improve the method for transparent medium transmissivity

According to derivation and the result of calculation of the transmissivity after aforementioned transparent media plate G1 ~ Gi multiple-layer stacked, often through the water white transparency media plate Gi of one piece of refractive index n '=1.5, the transmissivity Ti=92.3% of the dull and stereotyped Gi of each block transparent medium, reflectivity Ri=1-Ti, the dull and stereotyped G of transparent medium of experience is more, total transmittance is lower, and total reflectivity is higher.According to formula (1), following inference can be obtained: work as n ', n value more close, namely reflectivity R is less, and also the transmissivity T=1-R of the dull and stereotyped Gi of transparent medium is higher.Therefore, select the refractive index n ' of medium 1 closer to the refractive index n of medium 2, through the dull and stereotyped Gj of transparent medium of same multilayer, its total transmittance must than large apart from the dull and stereotyped Gi of large transparent medium of the refringence of two media.

5. transparent medium spheroid group's scattering model of different refractivity and scattering material

When the dull and stereotyped G of transparent medium changes irregular spheroid into, incident illumination is mapped to surrounding scattering after spheroid, and the reverse ratio of advancing of light is little, greatly reduces the optical attenuation of propagated forward, improves scattering efficiency.Because irregular transparent medium spheroid is not only dispersed in the plane vertical with irradiating light course, and there is certain thickness distribution along irradiating light course.Connect the impact of subparallel irradiation light by irregular first transparent medium spheroid, as the irregular transparent medium spheroid of accompanying drawing 4, define scattering, propagate towards different directions, luminous energy starts dispersion, after travelling a bit of distance, meet again the second irregular transparent medium spheroid, due to the radiation direction dispersion of incident second irregular transparent medium spheroid, through refraction or the total reflection of the second irregular transparent medium spheroid, its emergent light is more extensive on directional spreding, then the 3rd irregular transparent medium spheroid may be run into, 4th irregular transparent medium spheroid, after the refraction or total reflection of the irregular transparent medium spheroid of several times, well directional light can be changed into scattered light, obtain the scattered light that in ± 90 ° of angular regions, uniform illumination degree is good.

Accompanying drawing 5 is the sheet material of the transparent medium spheroid including different refractivity in clear homogeneous medium, and wherein the transparent medium spheroid of different refractivity is at spatial stochastically distribution, and macroscopic statistics is evenly distributed; The wavelength X of the dimension ﹥ ﹥ visible ray of transparent medium spheroid particularly ruddiness.The density of transparent medium spheroid in sheet material has 2 ~ 10 transparent medium spheroids with sheet metal thickness direction and is advisable.3(b with reference to the accompanying drawings) analysis of model, as Δ n=0.5, the transmittance penetrating 5 layers of water white transparency media plate G1 ~ G5 is 70.4%, and too much, the overstocked transmissivity of transparent medium spheroid group on equipment constitutes impact and challenge, needs to find equilibrium point between dispersion effect and transmittance.

According to Such analysis discussion, the method for scattering efficiency and transmissivity that the present invention improves transparent medium spheroid can be generalized into:

1. the scattering efficiency of single transparent medium spheroid is improved---expand scattering angle and distribution; 2. the transparent medium spheroid number of process in scattering approach is reduced; 3. the reflected energy between extended media is reduced; 4. total reflection environment is created.

1. improve the scattering efficiency of single transparent medium spheroid, require from the angular distribution of single transparent medium spheroid emergent light large, so only need to penetrate a small amount of transparent medium spheroid and just can reach scattering requirement.The angle of view of convex lens group composition is less, bugeye lens, fish-eye first all adopt concavees lens, the telescope be made up of convex lens and concavees lens, after light path is turned around, see into from objective end (convex lens end), seen field angle is large more than the field angle seen in the eyepiece (concavees lens end) when telescope.Analyze concavees lens light paths, when directional light irradiates concavees lens, acquisition be the light outwards dispersed.If the mode of thinking to be changed an angle, the transparent medium spheroid of the refractive index n of refractive index n ' ﹤ clear homogeneous medium is added in clear homogeneous medium, light enters the less transparent medium spheroid of refractive index n ' through the clear homogeneous medium of refractive index n, and the transparent medium spheroid that at this time refractive index n ' is less just becomes concavees lens.According to the feature of concavees lens, the light entered in it will be refracted in more wide spatial dimension.

2. reduce the transparent medium spheroid number of process in scattering approach, can reduce interface abruptness number, namely decrease order of reflection, known each reflectivity R is constant (within the scope of angle 0 ° ~ 40 °), total transmittance and (1-R) krelevant, total reflectivity is 1-(1-R) k, wherein k is order of reflection; In addition, the dimension of transparent medium spheroid is large, and the travel distance of the light after every a branch of refraction in ball is far away, and the spacing pulled open between each deflecting light beams is large, and scattering properties is good, and the transparent medium number of spheres of the same scattering index of demand fulfillment is just few.

3. the reflected energy between extended media is reduced.According to formula (1), reflectivity R ∝ Δ n 2, as the glass of n '=1.5 and the air of n=1.0, Δ n=0.5, by formula (1) R=0.04, and if use the interface that the water of n '=1.33 and air formed instead, reflectivity R=(0.33/2.33) 2=0.02006, be almost the half of glass and air interface reflections rate.Therefore reduce the difference of the refractive index of two media, light can be reduced at every turn by the reflected energy at interface, improve the intensity of transmitted light.

4. total reflection environment is created.Light is from optically denser medium to optically thinner medium, and the light that incident angle exceedes critical angle is totally reflected.Such as calculate by refraction law, water (n '=1.33) is to cirtical angle of total reflection i '=48.7535 ° of air, the glass of n '=1.5 and cirtical angle of total reflection i '=41.81 ° of air, after wrapping up air bubble in transparent medium, directional light exceedes critical angle part under irradiating and is totally reflected, accompanying drawing 6 is the relative area projection relation of total reflection, the air bubble Air in figure, the view field FR of the total reflection of cirtical angle of total reflection i ' and correspondence thereof.The view field FR(top view that air bubble (spheroid) produces total reflection is ring-type), its relative cross-section amasss

S=1-sin 2i’(4)

Wherein i ' the critical angle of incidence that is optically denser medium, the geometric relationship with reference to accompanying drawing 6 is derived and is drawn.To air bubble and water, the relative cross-section of total reflection amasss S=43.46%, and to medium and the air bubble of n '=1.5, the relative cross-section of total reflection amasss S=55.55%.

The present invention adopts distributing transparent medium spheroid in the clear homogeneous medium of accompanying drawing 5 form, during light traverses clear homogeneous medium, repeatedly can run into the transparent medium spheroid with clear homogeneous medium different refractivity, present scattered light after refraction.The present invention can be transparent medium spheroid refractive index n ' ﹥ clear homogeneous medium refraction index n, also can transparent medium spheroid refractive index n ' ﹤ clear homogeneous medium refraction index n, but the dispersion angle of the refraction emergent light of latter event is larger, dispersion effect is better, and forward light loss is less.

The preparation method of different refractivity transparent medium spheroid group of the present invention

The spectacle glass of optical glass class, optical lens glass transparent, but after placing more than 10 years or decades, lens element inside meeting crystallization body, causes lens element muddy; The light transmission of devitrified glass, not as the material of glassy state, analyzes reason, tiny crystal refractive index and the medium refraction index of surrounding variant, cause light disturbance.The light transmission of some engineering plastics and processing technology relation are very big, as polypropylene (PP) plastics, and the plastic body band milky of direct mold injection molding, muddy; The transparent state of Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film, has the different of essence from the outward appearance of injection mo(u)lding; The outward appearance adding the pp material injection mo(u)lding of micritization treating agent is high more than untreated pp material transparency; Analyze reason, crystalling propylene is extremely strong, shaping rear formation polycrystal, and crystal diameter is little and quantity is extremely many, and cause trans-reflective number of times between crystal grain too much, light transmission is naturally poor.Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film cooling is fast, and it is large that crystal grain has little time growth, and natural light transmission is splendid.The light transmission of polystyrene (PS) is splendid, and conventional vibration-absorptive material expanded polystyrene (EPS) is creamy white, and reflecting rate is high, and transmittance is extremely low, greatly differs from each other with the true qualities that polystyrene near colorless is transparent.

Printing opacity scattering material of the present invention can be obtained by two kinds of approach:

1. transparent material sheet material recrystallization obtains the transparent medium spheroid group of the different refractivity in uniform dielectric, crystallization control size and number, obtains the equilibrium point of scattering and transmittance; Industrial by selecting raw material and temperature, initiating agent, mold temperature and burn close time to control scattering effect.

2. before transparent material solidifies, be filled with air bubble, the miniature air ball bubble of formation is uniformly suspended in transparent medium, and dimension, the density of air balls bubble are adjustable, thus adjustment scattering and transmittance; From the calculating of boundary reflection rate, light beam penetrates astigmatism plate and should not cross and be refracted in multiple times or reflect, to improve transmittance.The dimension submillimeter order of magnitude ~ 1 millimeter of bubble or transparent (ball) body, its density in transparent medium is light is 2 ~ 6 along direct of travel (thickness of slab direction) scattering (ball) body mean value, and be no more than 12, optimum density is between 2 ~ 4.

Specific embodiment of the invention method is as follows:

Water white scattering (ball) body of the present invention is formed by crystallization or foaming; Can be selected by raw material and material temperature, mould temperature retention time control clear homogeneous medium in crystallite dimension, form inorganic devitrified glass or form multicrystal macromolecular material; Under water white transparency inorganics or water white melt polymer material state, mix gas, form the bubble of transparent medium parcel and be uniformly distributed in media as well.Carrier of the present invention, it can be hard transparent material, as the glass with uniform bubble, foam layer, the macromolecular material of flint glass, high light transmittance, as organic glass (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA), poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PBA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), Kynoar (PVDF), also can be flexible high molecular material film, by the form of pad pasting at the light fixture of transparent inorganic or macromolecular material or need the place producing diffused light.The dimension of foam volume is submillimeter rank ~ 1 millimeter, through-thickness 2 ~ 6, is generally no more than 10 bubbles., optimum density is between 2 ~ 4.

Claims (5)

1., based on the scattering method of refractive index difference in medium, it is characterized in that the method utilizes the refraction between transparent medium or total reflection to upset the direct of travel of light, obtain the scattered light that transmissivity is high;
Refraction between described transparent medium or total reflection system are dispersed in the interface that the water white scatterer surface in homogeneous transparent medium is formed, and there is different refractive indexes the both sides at interface; Water white scatterer refractive index n ' is variant with the refractive index n of homogeneous transparent medium; Described scatterer is spheroid or irregular body;
Water white scatterer refractive index n ' is lower than the refractive index n of homogeneous transparent medium, and scatterer is concavees lens effects, causes the scatterer large-area total reflection in local, improves the angle of divergence of single scatterer, reduce inner retrodirective reflection, reduce light loss; Scatterer dimension is submillimeter rank, the distribution of scatterer in homogeneous transparent medium along light direct of travel, i.e. homogeneous transparent dielectric thickness direction, the scatterer number in thickness range is 2 ~ 6, controls scatterer dimension and density, adjustable dispersion effect; Described density is along homogeneous transparent dielectric thickness direction, the number of the scatterer in thickness range.
2. the scattering method based on refractive index difference in medium according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the scatterer number of scatterer within the scope of homogeneous transparent dielectric thickness is 2 ~ 4.
3. utilize the poriness scattering material that the scattering method based on refractive index difference in medium described in claim 1 manufactures, it is characterized in that: this poriness scattering material is formed by crystallization or foaming, the specific refractivity of homogeneous transparent medium and water white scatterer can be limited between 0.1-0.4, weaken the reflectivity between two kinds of extended medias, improve the light emission rate of scattered light.
4. utilize the poriness scattering material that the scattering method based on refractive index difference in medium described in claim 1 manufactures, it is characterized in that: this poriness scattering material is formed by crystallization or foaming, selected by raw material and material temperature, mould temperature retention time control clear homogeneous medium in crystallite dimension, form inorganic devitrified glass or form multicrystal macromolecular material.
5. utilize the poriness scattering material that the scattering method based on refractive index difference in medium described in claim 1 manufactures, it is characterized in that: this poriness scattering material is formed by crystallization or foaming, under water white transparency inorganics or water white melt polymer material state, mix gas, form the bubble of transparent medium parcel and be uniformly distributed in media as well.
CN201310172369.6A 2013-05-09 2013-05-09 Based on scattering method and the poriness scattering material of refractive index difference in medium CN103257382B (en)

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EP3347699A4 (en) * 2015-09-09 2019-02-13 Dalian Tiandao Marine Technology Co., Ltd The calculation method of wave reflective index on interface
CN105785644B (en) * 2016-03-25 2019-09-17 青岛海信电器股份有限公司 Backlight module and liquid crystal display device
CN107123747A (en) * 2017-06-14 2017-09-01 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Transparency carrier and preparation method thereof and OLED display device

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