CN103251014A - Method for producing northeast sauerkraut by dynamic temperature shift fermentation technology - Google Patents

Method for producing northeast sauerkraut by dynamic temperature shift fermentation technology Download PDF

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CN103251014A
CN103251014A CN2013102084505A CN201310208450A CN103251014A CN 103251014 A CN103251014 A CN 103251014A CN 2013102084505 A CN2013102084505 A CN 2013102084505A CN 201310208450 A CN201310208450 A CN 201310208450A CN 103251014 A CN103251014 A CN 103251014A
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fermentation
sauerkraut
lactic acid
zymotic fluid
temperature
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CN2013102084505A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103251014B (en
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邱兆军
刘渭萍
崔松林
谷岩
王硕
刘广福
张元�
朱兴旺
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辽宁省产品质量监督检验院
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing northeast sauerkraut by a dynamic temperature shift fermentation technology. The core technology is that in a cabbage inoculated lactobacillus fermentation or natural fermentation process, the fermentation temperature is firstly controlled to be suitable for lactic acid bacteria breeding, so that the lactic acid bacteria content increases; and then, the fermentation temperature is adjusted to be suitable for acid production by lactic acid bacteria metabolism, so that the acid production by the lactic acid bacteria is promoted, and the lactic acid content of the northeast sauerkraut increases. In a fermentation process, the inhibition of organic acid in fermentation liquid to the growth and metabolism of the lactic acid bacteria and the production of infectious microbes are alleviated by a method for dynamically circulating and replacing the fermentation liquid. Compared with a conventional sauerkraut production method, the method has the advantages that the lactic acid content and the amino acid content of the sauerkraut can increase, the production of nitrite in the fermentation process is alleviated, and the formation of flavor substances in the sauerkraut is facilitated. The sauerkraut produced by the method tastes delicious; the method is favorable for industrial operation; the quality is controllable; the difference between batches of products is small; the northeast sauerkraut production period can be shortened; and the operating cost is reduced.

Description

Utilize the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of preparation method of sauerkraut, particularly a kind of method of utilizing temperature-variable fermentation technology and zymotic fluid to dynamically update the technology fermenting and producing northeast sauerkraut of circulation.
Background technology
Acid Chinese cabbage is the vegetable product that the people of the Northeast like a kind of unique flavor of food.The salty acid of sauerkraut taste, mouthfeel is tender and crisp, and color and luster is vivid, and is with fragrance striking the nose.According to the literature, sauerkraut has appetizing refreshes oneself, and deoils and separates greasy effect, not only can improve a poor appetite, and helps digest, and can also promote human body to the absorption of ferro element.Owing to be rich in lactic acid, sauerkraut reduces the effect of cholesterol in addition.Sauerkraut is not only the good merchantable brand of going with rice or bread, and also has plurality kinds of health care and medical functions.Achievement in research shows, often eating sauerkraut can increase beneficial bacterium in the stomach, suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the enteron aisle, adjusts gut flora, is conducive to intestinal health, increases passive protective physical fitness.Sauerkraut is rich in dietary fiber, has prevention constipation and enteritis, the effect of colitis class disease.Sauerkraut also produces effect to the prevention of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cancer in digestive system.Sauerkraut can reduce blood middle cholesterol content, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as prevention of arterial sclerosis can also play the effect that reduces the liver fatty consistency.Sauerkraut has antiacidization active, aging remarkable result is arranged to what suppress skin, can crease-resistantly improve looks, and sour Chinese cabbage also has the effect that suppresses growth of cancer cells, and the calcium lactate in the sauerkraut can also promote children's growth to grow.
Though the northeast sauerkraut has plurality of advantages, the improper bad reaction that may cause the people of preparation method.Almost annual have because edible sauerkraut causes the event of food poisoning take place, its main cause is that the nitrite in the sauerkraut causes, also has certainly because of other composition variation in the sauerkraut to cause food poisoning.Sauerkraut has particularity, need carry out normalized production to the northeast sauerkraut, product is carried out strict quality, to guarantee food security.
Summary of the invention
It is good to the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of pickled sauerkraut mouthfeel, with short production cycle, the lactic acid content height, amino acid in the sauerkraut (especially 8 seed amino acids of needed by human) content height, reduce the generation of nitrite, be easy to the industrialization operation, the product batches differences is little, the quality controllable method of utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut.
The technical solution used in the present invention is: utilize the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut, its step is as follows:
1) cleans arrangement Chinese cabbage;
2) will clean, arrangement, the Chinese cabbage that drains is arranged in the round, adds zymotic fluid, floods Chinese cabbage; Described zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 0.5%~30% sodium chloride solution; Preferably, the mass concentration of sodium chloride solution is 0.5%~5%;
3) inoculation or not inoculating lactic acid bacterium: when adopting inoculating lactic acid bacterium, the inoculum concentration of lactic acid bacteria is 0.01%~50% of fermentating liquid volume, and preferred, the inoculum concentration of lactic acid bacteria is 0.05%~10%, and is preferred, and the inoculum concentration of lactic acid bacteria is 0.5%~3%; When employing is not inoculated, directly enter temperature-variable fermentation;
4) temperature-variable fermentation: the sealed fermenting container, circulation makes and mixes in the zymotic fluid, and the control temperature makes suitable strain growth at 15~25 ℃ earlier, ferment 2~7 days, adjusts temperature to 18~40 ℃ again, and it is sour that suitable bacterial strain metabolism is produced, and fermented 2~7 days; Change 20~50% zymotic fluid then, replenish the sodium chloride solution of equivalent, equitemperature simultaneously, repetitive operation 1~4 time in whole fermentation process, was carried out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid in per 1~3 day.The speed of circulation is 0.1~20L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and is preferred, and the speed of circulation is 5~10L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Preferably lactic acid bacteria of the present invention is one or more mixing of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, streptococcus, Leuconostoc, lactococcus or Sporolactobacillus, temperature-variable fermentation is preferably, the control temperature is at 15~21 ℃ earlier, make suitable strain growth, fermented 2~7 days, adjust temperature to 22~40 ℃ again, make suitable bacterial strain metabolism produce acid, fermented 2~7 days.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: method of the present invention, at first, utilize the temperature-variable fermentation technology, that is, under oxygen free condition, to the fermentation of Chinese cabbage inoculating lactic acid bacterium or spontaneous fermentation, adjust fermentation temperature earlier to the temperature that is fit to the lactic acid bacteria breeding, lactic acid bacteria is bred rapidly, adjust fermentation temperature then and produce the temperature of acid to being fit to the lactic acid bacteria metabolism, make the lactic acid bacteria metabolism produce acid, improve lactic acid content.Secondly, utilize zymotic fluid to dynamically update the technology of circulation, that is, the organic acid that produces in the method minimizing zymotic fluid by dynamic circulation and replacing zymotic fluid reduces the generation of assorted bacterium to the inhibition of lactobacter growth breeding during the fermentation.Therefore method of the present invention is compared with traditional sauerkraut production method, and the pickled sauerkraut mouthfeel of this law is good, with short production cycle, and lactic acid is higher, and amino acid in the sauerkraut (especially 8 seed amino acids of needed by human) content is higher, and can reduce the generation of nitrite.This law is easy to the industrialization operation, and the product batches differences is little, and is quality controllable.The present invention is by the adjustment control to production technology key point (as fermentation temperature, incubation time, sodium chloride addition, bacterial classification addition, zymotic fluid cycle-index, zymotic fluid renewal ratio etc.), optimize production technology, shortened the production cycle, improved product quality, the sauerkraut product of production meets the developing direction of " less salt, low sugar and health careization ".
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the content of nitrite variation diagram that constant temperature aging process and alternating temperature inoculation fermentation method of the present invention are produced sauerkraut.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 3% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, and the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, and the speed of circulation is 6L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
2) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 14 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 2 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 6L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 20 ℃ to be cultivated 4 days, made lactic acid bacteria propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, promote the lactic acid bacteria metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Changed 20% zymotic fluid at the 7th day, and the mass concentration of additional equivalent, isothermal is 3% aseptic sodium chloride solution, and then carry out circulating in the one time fermentation liquid, zymotic fluid is mixed, be 20 ℃ and cultivated 4 days in that fermentation temperature is readjusted, and then fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Embodiment 2 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) bacterial classification is cultivated: lactobacillus acidophilus is added in the adequate nutrition liquid 37 ℃ cultivated about 48 hours, be not less than 10 to bacterial classification concentration 8CFU/ml;
2) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 5% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, insert the lactobacillus acidophilus of fermentating liquid volume 0.5%, the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, the speed of circulation is 5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
3) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 12 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 2 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 20 ℃ to be cultivated 3 days, made lactobacillus acidophilus propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, promote the lactobacillus acidophilus metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Change 30% zymotic fluid at the 6th day, and 5% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 20 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Embodiment 3 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) bacterial classification is cultivated: Bifidobacterium and lactobacillus acidophilus by about 48 hours of the 37 ℃ of cultivations in nutrient solution of the ratio of 1:3, are not less than 10 to mixed bacteria concentration 8CFU/ml, standby;
2) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 1.5% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, insert the Mixed Microbes of fermentating liquid volume 1%, the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, the speed of circulation is 8L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
3) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 12 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 2 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 8L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 18 ℃ to be cultivated 4 days, made lactic acid bacteria propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 2 days, promote the lactic acid bacteria metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Changed 40% zymotic fluid at the 6th day, and 1.5% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 18 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Embodiment 4 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) bacterial classification is cultivated: lactobacillus acidophilus and leukonid by about 48 hours of the 37 ℃ of cultivations in nutrient solution of the ratio of 1:1, are not less than 10 to mixed bacteria concentration 8CFU/ml;
2) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 2% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, insert the Mixed Microbes of fermentating liquid volume 1.5%, the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, the speed of circulation is 10L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
3) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 15 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 2 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 10L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 18 ℃ to be cultivated 3 days, made lactic acid bacteria propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 22 ℃ and cultivated 2 days, promote the lactic acid bacteria metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Changed 30% zymotic fluid at the 5th day, and 2% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 18 ℃ and cultivated 2 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 22 ℃ and cultivated 2 days, finish fermentation circulation for the second time; Change 30% zymotic fluid at the 9th day, and 2% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 18 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 22 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Embodiment 5 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) bacterial classification is cultivated: Bacillus acidi lactici, streptococcus and galactococcus by about 48 hours of the 37 ℃ of cultivations in adding adequate nutrition liquid of the ratio of 1:0.5:0.5, are not less than 10 to bacterial classification concentration 8CFU/ml;
2) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 2.5% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, insert the Mixed Microbes of fermentating liquid volume 1.0%, the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, the speed of circulation is 7.5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
3) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 12 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 2 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 7.5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 18 ℃ to be cultivated 3 days, made Mixed Microbes propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 23 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, promote the Mixed Microbes metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Changed 40% zymotic fluid at the 6th day, and 2.5% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 18 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 23 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Embodiment 6 utilizes the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut
Concrete grammar is as follows:
1) bacterial classification is cultivated: Bacillus acidi lactici and lactobacillus by about 48 hours of the 37 ℃ of cultivations in adding adequate nutrition liquid of the ratio of 1:3, are not less than 10 to bacterial classification concentration 8CFU/ml;
2) Chinese cabbage is removed bad leaf of mashed group, clean draining will vertically be cut into the fritter that is no more than 1kg above the Chinese cabbage of 1kg, and be relative end to end, put into round and discharge, compacting.Pour into zymotic fluid, Chinese cabbage is flooded, zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 1.5% aseptic sodium-chloride water solution, insert the Mixed Microbes of fermentating liquid volume 2.0%, the sealed fermenting container carries out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid, the speed of circulation is 5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid, and zymotic fluid is mixed;
3) temperature-variable fermentation: fermentation period is 16 days, carries out 1 zymotic fluid circulation in per 3 days in the sweat, and the speed of circulation is 5L/ hour in the zymotic fluid.Fermentation initial stage control fermentation temperature is 16 ℃ to be cultivated 5 days, made Mixed Microbes propagation.Again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, promote the Mixed Microbes metabolism to produce acid, finish the one time fermentation circulation; Changed 30% zymotic fluid at the 8th day, and 1.5% aseptic sodium chloride solution of additional equivalent, isothermal, and then carry out circulation in the one time fermentation liquid, fermentation temperature is readjusted be 16 ℃ and cultivated 5 days, again fermentation temperature is adjusted into 25 ℃ and cultivated 3 days, namely get the sauerkraut finished product.
Comparative Examples
With (20 ℃ of constant temperature aging processes, 15 days) fermentation sauerkraut for the contrast, to studying according to the sauerkraut physicochemical property of embodiment 4 methods fermentation, the sauerkraut mouthfeel that the result produces according to embodiment 4 methods is good, lactic acid content height in the sauerkraut, higher amino acid content (the especially content of 8 seed amino acids of needed by human) is arranged in the sauerkraut, and the nitrite generation is less in the sweat, concrete outcome is as follows.
1) organic acid: total organic acids content is more or less the same in the sauerkraut that two methods are produced, but the content difference of lactic acid is obvious, and to account for the percentage composition of total acid be 52.04% to lactic acid in the ferment at constant temperature method, and be 70.87% in the temperature-variable fermentation method.Because lactic acid is the leading indicator composition of sauerkraut effect, and clear and definite physiological action is arranged.The higher production technology of lactic acid percentage can be improved the quality of products in the employing organic acid, and the method for this patent has superiority on this point.Citric acid has gentleness, frankness and fraicheur tart flavour in addition, can produce tasty and refreshing sensation, the percentage of citric acid is 8.06% in the ferment at constant temperature method, citric acid accounts for 10.49% in the temperature-variable fermentation method, a small amount of butanedioic acid that also has of lactobacillus inoculum fermentation method produces in addition, and aging process do not have, and the results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 constant temperature aging process and alternating temperature inoculation fermentation method are produced the organic acid content (g/kg) of sauerkraut
2) amino acid: 18 seed amino acids in the sauerkraut of two methods production are detected, observe the content in the production process.The results are shown in Table 2.The result shows that total amino acid content presents first increase in two methods, and the situation that the back maintains an equal level after 12 days, no longer increases.In the sauerkraut that ferments total amino acid content constant temperature aging process for 28.23mg/kg, alternating temperature inoculation fermentation method be 35.77mg/kg, the temperature-variable fermentation method be better than control group.
Table 2 constant temperature aging process and alternating temperature inoculation fermentation method produce sauerkraut 18 seed amino acid content (mg/kg)
3) nitrite: the nitrite situation of change in the two method production processes is seen Fig. 1, and the result shows that the nitrite in two methods changes the trend that raises and afterwards reduce earlier that is, and peak value appears at fermentation about 5 days.The content of nitrite of temperature-variable fermentation method is about half of constant temperature aging process in the production process.Nitrite the 15th day temperature-variable fermentation method disappears substantially, and nitrite is reduced to after same concentration need arrive 25 days in the ferment at constant temperature method, the results are shown in Figure 1.Compare with the method for traditional spontaneous fermentation production sauerkraut as seen from the figure, the sauerkraut content of nitrite of the present invention's fermentation is in lower state always, and nitrite almost disappears when short fermentation time finishes.

Claims (8)

1. utilize the method for dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut, it is characterized in that step is as follows:
1) cleans arrangement Chinese cabbage;
2) will clean, arrangement, the Chinese cabbage that drains is arranged in the round, adds zymotic fluid, floods Chinese cabbage; Described zymotic fluid is that mass concentration is 0.5%~30% sodium chloride solution;
3) inoculation or not inoculating lactic acid bacterium: when adopting inoculating lactic acid bacterium, the inoculum concentration of lactic acid bacteria is 0.01%~50% of fermentating liquid volume; When employing is not inoculated, directly enter temperature-variable fermentation;
4) temperature-variable fermentation: the sealed fermenting container, circulation makes and mixes in the zymotic fluid, and the control temperature makes suitable strain growth at 15~25 ℃ earlier, ferment 2~7 days, adjusts temperature to 18~40 ℃ again, and it is sour that suitable bacterial strain metabolism is produced, and fermented 2~7 days; Change 20~50% zymotic fluid then, replenish the sodium chloride solution of equivalent, equitemperature simultaneously, repetitive operation 1~4 time in whole fermentation process, was carried out circulating in 1 zymotic fluid in per 1~3 day.
2. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 1, the mass concentration that it is characterized in that described sodium chloride solution is 0.5%~5%.
3. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 1, the inoculum concentration that it is characterized in that lactic acid bacteria is 0.05%~10%.
4. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 3, the inoculum concentration that it is characterized in that lactic acid bacteria is 0.5%~3%.
5. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that in the temperature-variable fermentation step, the control temperature is at 15~21 ℃ earlier, make suitable strain growth, fermented 2~7 days, adjust temperature to 22~40 ℃ again, make suitable bacterial strain metabolism produce acid, fermented 2~7 days.
6. as claim 1,2,3, the 4 or 5 described methods of utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut, it is characterized in that described lactic acid bacteria is one or more mixing of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, streptococcus, Leuconostoc, lactococcus or Sporolactobacillus.
7. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the speed of circulation in the zymotic fluid is 0.1~20L/ hour.
8. the method for utilizing dynamic temperature change fermentation technique production northeast sauerkraut as claimed in claim 7 is characterized in that the speed of circulation in the zymotic fluid is 5~10L/ hour.
CN201310208450.5A 2013-05-29 2013-05-29 Method for producing northeast sauerkraut by dynamic temperature shift fermentation technology CN103251014B (en)

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