CN103236806A - Four-pole bearingless switched reluctance motor - Google Patents

Four-pole bearingless switched reluctance motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103236806A
CN103236806A CN2013101683561A CN201310168356A CN103236806A CN 103236806 A CN103236806 A CN 103236806A CN 2013101683561 A CN2013101683561 A CN 2013101683561A CN 201310168356 A CN201310168356 A CN 201310168356A CN 103236806 A CN103236806 A CN 103236806A
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stator
motor
winding
tooth
rotor
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CN103236806B (en
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花为
华浩
鹿泉峰
程明
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Southeast University
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Southeast University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a four-pole bearingless switched reluctance motor. An even number of salient pole teeth are arranged on a stator and can be divided into main teeth and secondary teeth according to different functions; two kinds of different windings are nested on the stator teeth; torque windings are used for outputting mechanical torque and are sequentially nested on all the main teeth of the motor; and four phases of levitation force windings are available and are nested on four secondary teeth at vertical orthogonal positions of the motor for controlling the displacements of the motor rotor in the horizontal X axis direction and the vertical Y axis direction respectively. According to the motor, the advantage of simple and firm structure of the switched reluctance motor is kept, the full rate of each motor winding slot is high, and the reliability is good; each motor torque winding is of a half-tooth winding structure, and different phases of windings are not placed in the same stator slot, so that the electric, magnetic and thermal coupling among the phases are obviously weakened, and the fault tolerance is improved; and meanwhile, bearingless operation of the switched reluctance motor is realized through skillful change of the winding mode, so that the switched reluctance motor can bring the advantage of suitability for high speed and ultra-high speed work into play.

Description

A kind of four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor
Technical field
The invention belongs to motor and make applied technical field, relate to a kind of novel bearing-free switch reluctance motor.
Background technology
Use magneto manufacturing cost and the maintenance cost of rare earth permanent-magnetic material higher, and because the use of permanent magnet, reliability and the temperature extremes of motor obviously reduce.Especially in recent years, the price fluctuation of rare earth permanent-magnetic material is violent, has limited the large-scale promotion of this type of motor.Meanwhile, do not need the switched reluctance machines drive system of permanent magnet just obtaining more and more widely concern.Switched reluctance machines is the biconvex electrode structure, rotor is pressed folded making by the ordinary silicon steel disc, both do not had permanent magnet on the rotor and do not had winding yet, has only centralized winding on the stator, its operation principle is very simple, give motor each energising respectively mutually in regular turn, rotor can continue rotation to specific direction and get up according to " magnetic resistance minimum principle ".Switched reluctance machines make and maintenance cost low, simple in structure firm, robustness good, starting current is little, torque is big, speed-regulating range width, dynamic response is fast, and good redundancy fault-tolerant and reliability are arranged.In addition, owing to no permanent magnet and winding on this rotor, moment of inertia is little, fixing is high, is fit to very much high-speed cruising.The switched reluctance machines range of application is very extensive, has shown powerful competitiveness at aspects such as industrial speed governing, household electrical appliance, Aero-Space, electric automobile, power tractions.
On the other hand, driving with ultrahigh speed at a high speed, sealing fields such as transmission and Aero-Space, the no bearing running technology of motor has huge using value.Because the restriction of mechanical bearing, common electric machine can't satisfy the requirement of long-term high-speed cruising; The control appliance of air supporting and liquid bearing is huger, the cost height, and reliability is low; Magnetic suspension bearing has does not have the machinery wearing and tearing, need not lubricated and system sealing, advantages such as adaptive capacity to environment is strong, but magnetic bearing electric system overall structure is complicated, and axial occupation space, power density are not high, critical whirling speed and power capacity are difficult to increase substantially, and cost is higher.1985, the appearance of quick and jumbo device for power switching and high-performance digital signal processor made the alternating current machine vector control technology that has proposed more than 20 year be able to practical application, efficiently solves the numerically controlled difficult problem of bearing-free motor like this.The Bick that of the federal engineering college of Zurich, SUI produces bearing-free motor first in the later stage eighties 20th century on the basis of these scientific and technological progresses.Bearing-free motor can be simple as the motor of mechanical bearing supporting, and electrical system is very not complicated, adopts bearing-free motor to have excellent economy in a lot of fields.
Bearing-free motor integrates rotation and drives and magnetic bearing suspension function, it utilizes the similitude on magnetic bearing and the electric machine structure, with the suspending power winding in the magnetic bearing and motor winding together lap wound in stator core, size and Orientation by control suspending power winding current makes the magnetic field of its generation break the motor primary winding produces magnetic field in air gap balance, thereby produce all controlled suspending powers of a size and Orientation at rotor, with the rotation that realizes rotor with suspend certainly.
Bearing-free motor had both been eliminated the problems such as frictional dissipation that mechanical bearing brings, overcome many limitations of magnetic bearing motor again, had axial utilance height, compact conformation, can increase substantially critical whirling speed, can increase substantially under the equal axial length advantages such as power output.Make a general survey of the document of delivering both at home and abroad, adopt the motor type of no bearing technology to mainly contain asynchronous machine, permagnetic synchronous motor and switched reluctance machines.
Wherein, no bearing asynchronous machine is simple in structure, reliability is high, the control theory maturation.But its distinct issues is its suspending power control and easily coupling of torque control, and rotating speed is disturbed by suspending power control easily.
By contrast, bearing-free permanent magnet synchronous motor relies on that its volume is little, in light weight, efficient is high and characteristics such as power density is big, more possesses the practicability advantage in a lot of fields.Yet the permanent magnet Surface Mount of general permagnetic synchronous motor is in rotor surface or be embedded in rotor and destroyed the globality structure of rotor, and motor is when rotating at a high speed, and permanent magnet is influenced by high speed centrifugation power, and the risk that comes off is arranged; On the other hand, the permanent magnet of permagnetic synchronous motor is positioned at rotor, and cooling condition is poor, the heat radiation difficulty, and permanent magnet has the risk of high temperature irreversible demagnetization.
The bearing-free switch reluctance motor structure is the simplest, manufacturing and easy to maintenance, and robustness is good, is applicable to high-temperature severe environment, and its rotor structure especially is fit to high-speed cruising.But the power density of traditional bearing-free switch reluctance motor and efficient are not high, and torque winding and suspending power winding coupled are serious, have limited the type motor broader applications.
Existing bearing-free switch reluctance motor mainly is coiling two cover windings on each stator tooth of motor, bears the function of torque winding and suspending power winding respectively, and namely the coil number of motor is the twice of the stator number of teeth.Adopt the bearing-free switch reluctance motor of this method, complex structure, copper factor is low, and winding utilization is low, and torque winding and suspending power winding be nested on the same stator tooth, and magnetic circuit is almost completely identical, and coupling is serious, and fault-tolerance and reliability are low.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to get around the fundamental characteristics that closes reluctance motor in conjunction with bearing-free motor and novel half tooth, propose a kind of suspending power winding and the bearing-free switch reluctance motor of torque winding technique in different stator tooths.Than common bearing-free switch reluctance motor, this motor copper factor is higher, efficient is more excellent, and the coupling of the magnetic circuit of torque winding and suspending power winding is weakened, fault-tolerance and better reliability, and this motor is particularly suitable for the application in high speeds such as flywheel energy storage, Aero-Space, ultrahigh speed field.
Specifically, four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor proposed by the invention, this four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor comprises stator and rotor, it is characterized in that, described stator is provided with equally distributed even number stator tooth, form stator slot between the adjacent stators tooth, and each stator tooth radially has another stator tooth relative with it, and be equipped with centralized winding coil on the stator tooth, described centralized winding coil is nested in the stator slot of stator and stator tooth is twined, and it comprises for the torque winding of output mechanical energy and is used for the suspending power winding of floatation electric motor rotor; Both there be not permanent magnet on this rotor, there is not winding yet, wherein stator tooth can be divided into two groups in main tooth that the quantity identical distance arranges and secondary tooth, the torque winding is nested on the whole main tooth of stator in regular turn, and the suspending power winding coil is nested in respectively on the secondary tooth of four quadratures of stator in regular turn, the number of described torque winding coil equals the main tooth number of stator, and the number of suspending power winding coil is four.
Arrange main tooth in the described stator core and secondary space of teeth, and namely in adjacent two stator tooths, one is main tooth, and another is secondary tooth; Torque winding in the stator core and suspending power winding all adopt the centralized winding construction of traditional switch reluctance motor, the coil number of torque winding equates with motor stator master tooth number, and the coil number of suspending power winding is four, lay respectively on the secondary tooth of four omnidirectional distribution of stator, with the axial off-centre of the horizontal X of controlling rotor respectively and the axial off-centre of vertical Y; Also be provided with the sensor device of measuring the rotor-position skew on the stator.
Motor master tooth is different with the magnetic circuit that secondary tooth is born, and in addition, secondary tooth can also strengthen the isolation of electricity between the winding, magnetic, heat, has effectively improved reliability and the fault-tolerant operation ability of motor.
Further, this rotor can be positioned at the inside of stator, also can be positioned at the outside of stator.
Further, this motor both can be made electric operation, can make generator operation again.
Further, described four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor can adopt threephase stator 24 grooves/rotor 16 pole switching reluctance electric machine structures, stator is provided with 24 stator tooths, be spaced successively is 12 main teeth and 12 secondary teeth, the torque winding has 12 centralized winding coils, comprise the first torque winding coil, the second torque winding coil, the 3rd torque winding coil, the 4th torque winding coil, the 5th torque winding coil, the 6th torque winding coil, the 7th torque winding coil, the 8th torque winding coil, the 9th torque winding coil, the tenth torque winding coil, the 11 torque winding coil and the 12 torque winding coil, the first torque winding coil is radially relative with the 7th torque winding coil, the 4th torque winding coil is radially relative with the tenth torque winding coil, and their order serial or parallel connections are formed A phase torque winding; The second torque winding coil is radially relative with the 8th torque winding coil, and the 5th torque winding coil is radially relative with the 11 torque winding coil, and their order serial or parallel connections are formed B phase torque winding; The 3rd torque winding coil is radially relative with the 9th torque winding coil, and the 6th torque winding coil is radially relative with the 12 torque winding coil, and their order serial or parallel connections are formed C phase torque winding.The suspending power winding has 4 centralized winding coils, comprise the first suspending power winding coil, the second suspending power winding coil, the 3rd suspending power winding coil and the 4th suspending power winding coil, the first suspending power winding coil is radially relative with the 3rd suspending power winding coil, the second suspending power winding coil is radially relative with the 4th suspending power winding coil, and it is vertical mutually with the axis that passes the second suspending power winding coil and the 4th suspending power winding coil to pass the axis of the first suspending power winding coil and the 3rd suspending power winding coil.The first suspending power winding coil is separately as X1 phase suspending power winding, and the 3rd suspending power winding coil is separately as X2 phase suspending power winding, and they are used for the horizontal X direction of principal axis displacement of control rotor; The second suspending power winding coil is separately as Y1 phase suspending power winding, and the 4th suspending power winding coil is separately as Y2 phase suspending power winding, and they are used for the vertical Y direction of principal axis displacement of control rotor.Four phase suspending power windings of motor become four utmost points, control the stable suspersion of rotor jointly.
Further, the torque winding of described four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor is that half tooth is around structure, each stator slot is only placed the coil of a phase torque winding, namely the coil of homophase torque winding can not be placed in the same stator slot, coupling between each phase torque winding is weakened greatly, and the motor fault-tolerance is improved.
Further, described four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor also can adopt other number of phases, other rotor teeth groove to cooperate the switched reluctance machines structure of number.The note motor stator number of teeth is 4n, and n=2,4,6,8,10 etc. all can use this version.
Four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor suspending power winding of the present invention is nested on the different stator tooths with the torque winding, rely on suspending power winding energising back to the effect of air-gap field, produce controlled horizontal direction radial suspension force and the vertical direction radial suspension force of size and Orientation, thereby realize the stable magnetic suspension of rotor; Rely on the interaction of torque winding energising back and air-gap field, produce electromagnetic torque, drive the rotor rotation.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor of the present invention can be realized the no design bearing of motor under the situation that does not change the punching of regular tap reluctance motor stator and rotor cores, and motor has only the winding winding that bigger change is arranged.The motor stator tooth is divided into main tooth and secondary tooth, and cover is useful on the torque winding of output torque on the main tooth, and cover is useful on the suspending power winding of suspension rotor on the secondary tooth of part, and the number of turn and the line footpath of two cover windings are all inequality;
2. electric machine structure is simply firm, and low cost of manufacture does not need to use permanent magnet, and robustness is good.In addition, torque winding and suspending power winding are centralized coil, and the coiling difficulty is low, and the end is short, has reduced copper loss effectively, has reduced axial length, has improved power density and efficient, and has been beneficial to motor radiating;
3. no winding and permanent magnet on the rotor, moment of inertia is little, and does not have the frictional dissipation that bearing arrangement has avoided mechanical bearing to bring, and is fit to very much move with ultrahigh speed at a high speed;
4. motor torque winding and suspending power winding are separate, and it is less to be coupled, and can independently control;
5. the parameter of electric machine is versatile and flexible.Main tooth on the stator is different with the magnetic circuit that secondary tooth is born, and can treat respectively, optimizes its shape and size, further improves motor performance;
6. mutual inductance is less between each phase winding of motor, has stronger fault-tolerant ability, the reliability height.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the horizontal sectional structure schematic diagram that the embodiment of the invention adopts the four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor of threephase stator 24 grooves/rotor 16 electrode structures.
Fig. 2 is that the air-gap field when certain rotor-position of structure shown in the embodiment of the invention changes and the schematic diagram of force in radial.
Reference numeral: 1-stator, 2-torque winding, the 2A1-first torque winding coil, the 2B1-second torque winding coil, 2C1-the 3rd torque winding coil, 2A2-the 4th torque winding coil, 2B2-the 5th torque winding coil, 2C2-the 6th torque winding coil, 2A3-the 7th torque winding coil, 2B3-the 8th torque winding coil, 2C3-the 9th torque winding coil, 2A4-the tenth torque winding coil, 2B4-the 11 torque winding coil, 2C4-the 12 torque winding coil, 3-suspending power winding, the 3X1-first suspending power winding coil, the 3Y1-second suspending power winding coil, 3X2-the 3rd suspending power winding coil, 3Y2-the 4th suspending power winding coil, the 4-rotor.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, technical scheme of the present invention is described in detail.
Four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor of the present invention comprises stator 1 and rotor 4.Stator 1 is provided with the even number stator tooth, and they evenly distribute, and forms stator slot between the adjacent stators tooth, and each stator tooth radially has another stator tooth relative with it.Stator tooth can be divided into identical two groups of number, is called main tooth and secondary tooth, and they are spaced, and namely have one to be main tooth in per two adjacent stator tooths, and another is secondary tooth.Be equipped with centralized winding on the stator tooth, it comprises for the torque winding 2 of output mechanical energy and is used for the suspending power winding 3 of suspension rotor, and the number of torque winding coil equals the main tooth number of motor stator, and the number of suspending power winding coil is four.Concentrated winding coil is nested in the stator slot of stator 1, and stator tooth is twined.The torque winding is nested on the whole main tooth of stator in regular turn, and the suspending power winding coil is nested in respectively on the secondary tooth of four quadratures of stator in regular turn.
Further, described stator 1 and rotor 4 are salient-pole structure, and rotor 4 can be set to internal rotor, also can be set to external rotor.When rotor 4 was internal rotor, stator 1 was positioned at the outside of rotor 4.When rotor 4 was external rotor, stator 1 was positioned at the inboard of rotor 4.No winding and permanent magnet on the rotor 4.
Key of the present invention is, by changing winding construction, can make the motor stabilizing magnetic suspension and export torque, and the main tooth on the motor stator and the profile of tooth of secondary tooth can be identical with the facewidth, also can be different.The present invention can be applied to the switched reluctance machines structure that the multiple number of phases, multiple rotor teeth groove array are closed.Be that example specifies technical scheme of the present invention and operation principle thereof with threephase stator 24 grooves/rotor 16 pole switching reluctance electric machine structures below.
As shown in Figure 1, this motor comprises stator 1, rotor 4, is nested in torque winding 2 and suspending power winding 3 on the stator 1.Wherein, stator 1 places rotor 4 outsides, has 24 salient pole teeth on the stator, stator tooth can be divided into two groups according to profile of tooth with the different of the facewidth, i.e. main tooth and secondary tooth, and every group stator tooth number is identical.Rotor 4 also is salient-pole structure, and it has 16 salient pole teeth.
Torque winding 2 comprises 12 centralized winding coils, the i.e. first torque winding coil 2A1, the second torque winding coil 2B1, the 3rd torque winding coil 2C1, the 4th torque winding coil 2A2, the 5th torque winding coil 2B2, the 6th torque winding coil 2C2, the 7th torque winding coil 2A3, the 8th torque winding coil 2B3, the 9th torque winding coil 2C3, the tenth torque winding coil 2A4, the 11 torque winding coil 2B4 and the 12 torque winding coil 2C4.The first torque winding coil 2A1 is radially relative with the 7th torque winding coil 2A3, and the 4th torque winding coil 2A2 is radially relative with the tenth torque winding coil 2A4, will form A phase torque winding behind their order serial or parallel connections; The second torque winding coil 2B1 is radially relative with the 8th torque winding coil 2B3, and the 5th torque winding coil 2B2 is radially relative with the 11 torque winding coil 2B4, will form B phase torque winding behind their order serial or parallel connections; The 3rd torque winding coil 2C1 is radially relative with the 9th torque winding coil 2C3, and the 6th torque winding coil 2C2 is radially relative with the 12 torque winding coil 2C4, will form C phase torque winding behind their order serial or parallel connections.
Suspending power winding 3 comprises 4 centralized winding coils, i.e. the first suspending power winding coil 3X1, the second suspending power winding coil 3Y1, the 3rd suspending power winding coil 3X2 and the 4th suspending power winding coil 3Y2.The first suspending power winding coil 3X1 is radially relative with the 3rd suspending power winding coil 3X2, the second suspending power winding coil 3Y1 is radially relative with the 4th suspending power winding coil 3Y2, and the axis that passes the first suspending power winding coil 3X1 and the 3rd suspending power winding coil 3X2 is with to pass the second suspending power winding coil 3Y1 vertical mutually with the axis of the 4th suspending power winding coil 3Y2.The first suspending power winding coil 3X1 is separately as X1 phase suspending power winding, being used for the control rotor is offset to the X-axis positive direction, the 3rd suspending power winding coil 3X2 is separately as X2 phase suspending power winding, be used for the control rotor to the skew of X-axis negative direction, this two phase winding can be controlled rotor in the displacement of X-direction; The second suspending power winding coil 3Y1 is separately as Y1 phase suspending power winding, being used for the control rotor is offset to the Y-axis positive direction, the 4th suspending power winding coil 3Y2 is separately as Y2 phase suspending power winding, be used for the control rotor to the skew of Y-axis negative direction, this two phase winding can be controlled rotor in the displacement of Y direction.Like this, the X1 of motor, X2, Y1, Y2 phase suspending power winding namely become quaternary structure, are arranged in horizontal X axle and axial two opposite sides of vertical Y of motor respectively, their actings in conjunction, the stable suspersion of control rotor.
At motor rotor position shown in Figure 2, for guaranteeing that rotor rotates in the counterclockwise direction, the A phase torque winding energising of motor, the energising direction of four coils of this phase as shown in the figure, wherein, " solid circle symbol " represents electric current and flows out the paper plane along vertical paper orientation, " fork-shaped symbol " represents electric current and flows into the paper plane along vertical paper orientation, at this moment, according to the right-hand rule, the flow direction that four coils of A torque winding produce is shown in band arrow solid line among the figure.Shown in Fig. 2 (a), when the energising of X1 phase suspending power winding, and the energising direction is as when figure, the flow direction of its generation is shown in band arrow dotted line among the figure, at this moment, compare and the situation of not having the work of suspending power winding, close being reinforced of magnetic at 2A1 crown air gap place, and it is close that 3X1 crown air gap place will newly produce magnetic, on the other hand, the magnetic at the stator winding 2A3 radially relative with stator winding 2A1 and 3X1 and the crown air gap place of 3X2 is close not to be changed substantially, like this, motor gas-gap magnetic close will be no longer balance, horizontal direction locate on the right side air gap flux density can be obviously greater than the horizontal direction side place that keeps left, be that rotor will be subjected to direction radially magnetic pull to the right, fill shown in the arrow as band oblique line among the figure; Shown in Fig. 2 (b), when the energising of Y1 phase suspending power winding, and the energising direction is as when figure, the flow direction of its generation is shown in band arrow dotted line among the figure, at this moment, compare and the situation of not having the work of suspending power winding, close being reinforced of magnetic at 2A2 crown air gap place, and it is close that 3Y1 crown air gap place will newly produce magnetic, on the other hand, the magnetic at the stator winding 2A4 radially relative with stator winding 2A2 and 3Y1 and the crown air gap place of 3Y2 is close not to be changed substantially, like this, motor gas-gap magnetic close will be no longer balance, vertical direction by upside place air gap flux density can be obviously greater than vertical direction side place on the lower, be that rotor will be subjected to the radially magnetic pull that direction makes progress, fill shown in the arrow as band oblique line among the figure.
There are two cover windings in this motor, i.e. A, B, C three-phase torque winding and X1, X2, Y1, Y2 four suspending power winding mutually.This system can drive with seven phase power circuits.It is emphasized that in this embodiment the main tooth of motor stator and secondary tooth are through optimizing, their profile of tooth and the facewidth are inequality.And the torque winding is different with the line footpath of suspending power winding with the number of turn.
The above only is preferred embodiments of the present invention; protection scope of the present invention is not limited with above-mentioned execution mode; as long as the equivalence that those of ordinary skills do according to disclosed content is modified or changed, all should include in the protection range of putting down in writing in claims.

Claims (6)

1. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor, this four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor comprises stator (1) and rotor (4), described stator (1) and rotor (4) are salient-pole structure, and rotor (4) is positioned at inside or the outside of stator (1), it is characterized in that, described stator (1) is provided with equally distributed even number stator tooth, form stator slot between the adjacent stators tooth, and each stator tooth radially has another stator tooth relative with it, and be equipped with centralized winding coil on the stator tooth, described centralized winding coil is nested in the stator slot of stator (1) and stator tooth is twined, and it comprises for the torque winding (2) of output mechanical energy and is used for the suspending power winding (3) of floatation electric motor rotor; This rotor had not both had permanent magnet on (4), there is not winding yet, wherein stator tooth can be divided into two groups in main tooth that the quantity identical distance arranges and secondary tooth, torque winding (2) is nested on the whole main tooth of stator (1) in regular turn, and suspending power winding (3) coil is nested in respectively on the secondary tooth of four quadratures of stator (1) in regular turn, the number of described torque winding (2) coil equals the main tooth number of stator (1), and the number of suspending power winding (3) coil is four.
2. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described motor can realize not having the bearing operation, by the not same-action of torque winding and suspending power winding and air-gap field, and the function that makes rotor can have rotation simultaneously and suspend.
3. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described suspending power winding (3) has four coils, become a phase separately, be placed in respectively on the trunnion axis and vertical axis of motor stator, they control the displacement of rotor on all directions jointly.
4. according to claim 1 or 3 described four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motors, it is characterized in that, described torque winding (2) be half tooth around structure, homophase torque winding can not be placed in the same stator slot.
5. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that, this motor both can be made electric operation or generator operation.
6. four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the profile of tooth of the main tooth of (1) and secondary tooth can be identical with the facewidth on the described motor stator, also can be inequality.
CN201310168356.1A 2013-05-06 2013-05-06 A kind of four pole type bearing-free switch reluctance motor Active CN103236806B (en)

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CN104410180A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-11 东南大学 E-shaped stator core flux switching type hybrid permanent magnet memory motor

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