CN103201676B - The display device - Google Patents

The display device Download PDF

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CN103201676B
CN103201676B CN 201180047280 CN201180047280A CN103201676B CN 103201676 B CN103201676 B CN 103201676B CN 201180047280 CN201180047280 CN 201180047280 CN 201180047280 A CN201180047280 A CN 201180047280A CN 103201676 B CN103201676 B CN 103201676B
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pixel
layer
electrode
electrolyte
disposed
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CN103201676A (en )
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河原准
彼得·安德森埃尔斯曼
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阿克里奥瑞典信息和通信技术研究(Ict)公司
琳得科股份有限公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements
    • G02F1/153Constructional arrangements
    • G02F1/155Electrodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements
    • G02F2001/1515Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements the electrochromic material is made of polymer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements
    • G02F2001/1519Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements the electrolyte is made of polymer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements
    • G02F1/153Constructional arrangements
    • G02F1/155Electrodes
    • G02F2001/1552Inner electrode, e.g. the electrochromic layer being sandwiched between the inner electrode and the support substrate---- this group, now to be changed, should already been created by implementation of a previous DOC14 ----

Abstract

本文公开了一种电致变色无源矩阵显示器(100),其中每个无源寻址像素单元(111、112、113)包括将电致变色和电化学活性的聚合物(121)与导电碳的层(122)离子连接的电解质(113)。 Disclosed herein is a passive matrix electrochromic display (100), wherein each passive addressable pixel unit (111, 112) comprises a polymer and the electrochromic electrochemically active (121) and conductive carbon an electrolyte (113) a layer (122) connected to the ion. 从而,每个像素具有足以减少电致变色显示器中的串扰的显著的阈值电压。 Thus, each pixel has a significant threshold voltage is sufficient to reduce the electrochromic display crosstalk.

Description

显示装置发明领域 Field of the display device of the invention

[0001] 本发明涉及电化学活性有机像素装置,并且特别是涉及可印刷的基于有机电致变色材料的电化学活性像素装置。 [0001] The present invention relates to electrochemically active organic pixel apparatus, and particularly relates to an electrochemical device based on the active pixel organic electrochromic material printable.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在直接寻址电致变色显示器中,每个像素通过单独的导电线连接至外部驱动电压源,有利于显示器中所有像素的同时单独电控制。 [0002] In the direct addressing electrochromic displays, each pixel is connected to an external source through a separate driving voltage conductive lines, the benefit of all the pixels simultaneously display a separate electrical control. 当显示器中像素的数目大时,向每个像素连接一条单独的线或者是物理上不可能的,或者是不实用的。 When the number of pixels in the display, each pixel is connected to a single line or physically impossible or impractical. 为克服该问题,通常将像素安置为矩阵结构,其中将它们通过时分多路传输技术从矩阵边缘经由行和列寻址。 To overcome this problem, a pixel arranged in a matrix structure in which they are time division multiplexing techniques from the matrix row and column addressing via the edge. 将这种显示器和对它们寻址的方法分别称为矩阵显示器和矩阵寻址。 Such displays and their method of addressing a matrix display and are referred to as matrix addressing.

[0003] 在有源矩阵显示器中,每个像素配备有各自的具有至少一个晶体管的电子电路, 其中每个晶体管的导电状态控制各自的像素的颜色状态。 [0003] In the active matrix display, each pixel is equipped with an electronic circuit each having at least one transistor, wherein the conductive state of each transistor is controlled by the color state of each pixel.

[0004] 将没有每个像素单独的晶体管的矩阵显示器称为无源矩阵显示器。 [0004] The matrix display without individual transistor for each pixel is referred to as a passive matrix display. 在有源矩阵显示器中的像素电路提高了像素的寻址能力,然而,与无源矩阵显示器比较,有源矩阵显示器的制造更加复杂和昂贵。 In the pixel circuit of the active matrix display improved addressability pixels, however, compared with a passive matrix display, active matrix display manufacturing more complex and expensive. 另一方面,数个缺点如慢的响应时间、图像模糊和串扰限制了无源矩阵寻址电致变色装置的实际应用。 On the other hand, several drawbacks such as slow response time, image blur and crosstalk limits the practical application of the passive matrix addressing electrochromic device. 图像模糊可以在广义上可以归类为串扰效应。 Image blur can be classified as crosstalk effects in a broad sense. 它是像素之间通过电解质相互作用的现象,并导致选定的行和列上相邻像素的轻微着色。 It is a phenomenon that the interaction between the pixel through the electrolyte, and results in slightly colored pixels adjacent the selected row and column. 这种不适宜的着色随着与选定像素的距离增加而减弱。 This unfavorable coloring with increasing distance from the selected pixel weakened. 常用的最小化图像模糊效应的技术是单独的显示像素的彼此物理隔离。 Common technique to minimize image blur effect is physically isolated from one another individual display pixels.

[0005] 串扰的另一个来源是像素之间经由与矩阵连接的电极的相互作用。 [0005] Another source of crosstalk interaction between the pixel electrode via the connection matrix. 即,不仅在所寻址的一对列和行的交叉点处的像素改变其颜色,而且其他相邻的像素也改变其颜色。 That is, not only changed its color in the pixel at the intersection of a column and row of the addressed, and also other neighboring pixels change its color. 串扰发生的原因在于,跨越围绕所寻址的像素周围的像素中的电解质也存在电压差。 The reason for the occurrence of crosstalk that the pixels around the pixels around the addressed across the electrolyte is present voltage difference. 此外,与清空的未带电像素比较,电隔离的有色显示像素跨越其电极通常具有不同的电压。 In addition, compared with the emptying uncharged pixel, color display pixel which is electrically isolated from the electrodes across the normally having different voltage. 当将两个像素充电为不同的色彩状态并且连接在一起时,着色的像素趋向于通过电容放电而驱动或着色清空的像素。 When two different color pixels charge state and connected together, the pixel colored pixels tends to be driven by capacitive discharge or coloring emptied.

[0006] W0 2004/114008中描述了电致变色无源矩阵显示器的一个实例。 [0006] In one example described in W0 2004/114008 electrochromic passive matrix display. 像素包含夹在两个有机层之间的电解质,每个有机层包含电致变色聚合物。 Pixel comprises two organic layers sandwiched between an electrolyte, each of the organic layer comprises an electrochromic polymer. 此外,该像素夹在两个电极之间。 Further, the pixels sandwiched between two electrodes. 而且,无源矩阵显示器通过电极中的一个与有机层之间的具有二极管特性的层形成。 Furthermore, passive matrix display formed by a layer having a diode characteristic between the electrodes and the organic layer. 换言之,在像素可以改变其颜色之前,必须超过阈值电压。 Before other words, the pixel may change its color, must exceed the threshold voltage. 因此,显示器中串扰的量减少。 Thus, reducing the amount of crosstalk in the display. 除了在像素中引入具有二极管功能的层之外,该申请还提出可以通过像素材料小心的组合获得可无源寻址像素,但是关于应当如何选择这些材料以获得这种效果完全没有给出任何信息或实例。 In addition to the introduction of layers having a diode function in pixels, the application also can be made available by a combination of passive addressable pixel pixel careful material, but how these materials should be selected to achieve this effect did not give any information or instance.

[0007] 发明概述 [0007] Summary of the Invention

[0008] 本发明的目的是提出一种材料组合,所述材料组合提供一种在像素中不需要单独的二极管层的可无源寻址像素。 [0008] The object of the present invention is to propose a combination of materials, the material composition need not be provided a passive diode layers individually addressable pixels in the pixel.

[0009] 通过在独立权利要求中提供的主题实现了这些和其他目的。 [0009] These and other objects are achieved by the subject matter provided in the independent claims. 在独立权利要求中给出了本发明的优选实施方案。 It gives the preferred embodiments of the invention in the independent claims.

[0010]根据其第一方面,本发明涉及一种无源矩阵显示装置,所述显示装置包括: [0010] According to a first aspect, the present invention relates to a passive matrix display device, said display device comprising:

[0011] -组安置为矩阵的像素单元, [0011] - as a group of pixels arranged in a matrix unit,

[0012] 其中每个像素单元包括: [0012] wherein each pixel unit comprises:

[0013] 第一像素层,所述第一像素层包含在不同的视觉上可察觉的色彩状态之间可电化学转换的电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料, [0013] The first layer pixel, the first pixel layer comprises an electrically detectable in an electrochemical conversion between different color states of visual photochromic organic polymeric material and the electrochemically active,

[0014] 第二像素层,所述第二像素层面对所述第一像素层,和 [0014] The second layer pixel, the second pixel level of the first pixel layer, and

[0015] 固化的电解质的第三像素层,所述第三像素层在空间上安置在所述第一像素层与所述第二像素层之间,并与所述第一像素层和所述第二像素层离子接触,并且 [0015] The third pixel layer of solidified electrolyte, the third layer pixel spatially disposed between the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel, and the pixel layer and the first The second pixel layer in ionic contact, and

[0016] 其中每个像素单元的所述第二像素层安置为导电碳。 [0016] wherein each pixel of said second pixel unit is disposed as a conductive carbon layer.

[0017] 根据其第二方面,本发明涉及一种无源矩阵显示装置,所述显示装置包括: [0017] According to a second aspect, the present invention relates to a passive matrix display device, said display device comprising:

[0018] 一组安置为矩阵的像素单元, [0018] a group of pixel cells arranged in a matrix,

[0019] 其中每个像素单元包括: [0019] wherein each pixel unit comprises:

[0020] 第一像素层,所述第一像素层包含在不同的视觉上可察觉的色彩状态之间可电化学转换的电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料, [0020] The first layer pixel, the first pixel layer comprises an electrically detectable in an electrochemical conversion between different color states of visual photochromic organic polymeric material and the electrochemically active,

[0021] 第二像素层,所述第二像素层面对所述第一像素层,和 [0021] The second layer pixel, the second pixel level of the first pixel layer, and

[0022] 固化的电解质的第三像素层,所述第三像素层在空间上安置在所述第一像素层与所述第二像素层之间,并与所述第一像素层和所述第二像素层离子接触,并且 [0022] The electrolyte layer is cured third pixel, the third pixel layer spatially disposed between the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel, and the pixel layer and the first The second pixel layer in ionic contact, and

[0023] 其中每个像素单元的所述第二像素层安置为导电碳,从而提供至少响应跨越所述电解质施加的电压的阈值电压。 [0023] wherein each pixel of said second pixel unit is a conductive carbon layer is disposed so as to provide at least the threshold voltage in response to a voltage across said electrolyte applied.

[0024] 每个像素的颜色由所述电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料的氧化还原态上的改变提供。 [0024] The color of each pixel is provided by a change in redox state of the electrical organic polymeric material and the photochromic electrochemically active. 换言之,电解质通常没有着色剂如pH染料,即响应环境pH改变颜色的染料。 In other words, the electrolyte is usually no colorants such as dye pH, i.e., in response to environmental pH changes color dye. 再换言之,在像素的颜色转换过程中,电解质的颜色通常保持不变或基本上不变。 In yet other words, the color conversion process in the pixel, the color of the electrolyte remains constant or substantially constant usually.

[0025] 通常,将第二像素层安置为起到电化学过程中的对电极的作用,其中第一像素层形成像素装置的活性变色层。 [0025] Generally, the second pixel layer arranged to function as an electrode for electrochemical processes, wherein the first pixel layer to form an active layer of the pixel electrochromic device. 将像素装置的层基本上彼此平行地安置。 Arranged substantially parallel to each other layer of the pixel device. 根据一个实施方案, 所述第一像素层正面的层,例如所述第一绝缘层和所述第一电极优选为透明或半透明的, 以使得可以在视觉上察觉像素装置的变色。 According to one embodiment, the first pixel layer front surface layer, for example, the first insulating layer and the first electrode is preferably transparent or translucent, so that the apparatus can detect the pixels in the visual discoloration.

[0026] 换言之,第二像素层是电子传导性的。 [0026] In other words, the second conductive layer is a pixel e. 而且,第二像素层包含碳,或者安置为包含碳的电子传导性材料。 Also, the second pixel layer comprises carbon, or electron conductive material is disposed containing carbon.

[0027] 根据本发明的第三方面,提供一组像素单元用于提供至少响应跨越所述像素单元施加的电压的阈值电压的用途,所述像素单元各自包括: [0027] According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided the use of a set of pixel unit for providing a response to at least a threshold voltage applied across the pixel cell voltage, each of the pixel unit comprises:

[0028] -第一像素层,所述第一像素层包含在不同的视觉上可察觉的色彩状态之间可电化学转换的电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料, [0028] - a first layer pixel, the first pixel layer comprises an electrically detectable in an electrochemical conversion between different color states of visual photochromic organic polymeric material and the electrochemically active,

[0029]-第二像素层,所述第二像素层面对所述第一像素层,和 [0029] - a second pixel layer, the second pixel level of the first pixel layer, and

[0030]-固化的电解质的第三像素层,所述第三像素层在空间上安置在所述第一像素层与所述第二像素层之间,并与所述第一像素层和所述第二像素层离子接触,其中, [0030] - an electrolyte layer of a cured third pixel, the third pixel layer spatially disposed between the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel, the pixel layer and the first and the The second pixel layer in contact with said ion, wherein

[0031] 所述电解质基本上没有PH染料,并且 The [0031] PH electrolyte substantially no dye, and

[0032] 每个像素单元的所述第二像素层安置为包含导电碳的材料。 [0032] The pixels of each pixel unit of the second layer is disposed as a conductive material containing carbon.

[0033]通过安置关于所述第一、第二或第三方面描述的装置,提供了一种具有足以减少电致变色显示器中的串扰的显著的阈值电压的像素。 [0033] By means disposed about said first, second or third aspect described herein, there is provided a pixel having significant threshold voltage is sufficient to reduce the electrochromic display crosstalk. 尽管控制电致变色像素装置的阈值性质的化学和物理机理仍有待揭示,可以利用所得到的电压阈值行为以最小化矩阵显示器内的串扰效应,如相对所施加的电压非线性的电流和色对比度变化。 Although the control electro-chemical and physical mechanisms threshold properties electrochromic pixel device yet to be revealed, you can use a voltage threshold behavior obtained in order to minimize crosstalk effects in the matrix display, such as voltage non-linear opposing the applied current and color contrast Variety.

[0034] 根据一个实施方案,该显示装置还包括一组第一电极和一组第二电极,它们彼此电隔离,并且以一定图案安置以使得: [0034] According to one embodiment, the display device further comprises a set of first electrodes and a second set of electrodes, electrically isolated from each other and arranged in a pattern such that:

[0035] -每个所述第一电极与每个所述第二电极仅在一个交叉点交叉, [0035] - each of each of the first electrode and the second electrode intersect only at an intersection,

[0036] -每个所述第二电极与每个所述第一电极仅在一个交叉点交叉,并且 [0036] - each of the second electrode and each of said first electrodes intersect only at an intersection, and

[0037] -每个所述像素单元安置在各自的一个所述交叉点处,所述交叉点由各自的第一电极和各自的第二电极形成,其中: [0037] - each of the pixel unit is disposed at a respective one of said intersection, the intersection is formed by a respective first electrode and a respective second electrode, wherein:

[0038] -每个所述像素单元的所述第一像素层与所述各自的第一电极的一部分一致,或者与所述各自的第一电极电子接触,并且 [0038] - each of said pixel units of said first pixel layer and the first electrode of the same portion of the respective, or the respective electronic contact with the first electrode, and

[0039] -每个所述像素单元的所述第二像素层与所述各自的第二电极的一部分一致,或者与所述各自的第二电极电子接触。 [0039] - each of said pixel cell in the second pixel layer and the respective second portion of the same electrode, or in contact with the respective second electrodes of the electron.

[0040] 和像素层与电极层一致相关的益处是,需要更少的印刷步骤,即,可以获得更有效率的制造方法。 [0040] and the pixel electrode layer and the layer related benefit is consistent, less printing steps, i.e., the production method can be obtained more efficient.

[0041] 和像素层与电极层不同相关的益处是,可以使用不同的材料用于像素层和电极。 [0041] The benefits associated with different pixel layer and the electrode layer is a different material may be used for the pixel electrode layer. 通过选择与像素层比较具有更高电极传导性的电极材料,可以提供较不显著的沿电极的电压降,并且从而提供每个像素单元的更好转换。 By selecting the pixel electrode layer has a higher conductivity comparison electrode material, we can provide a less significant voltage drop along the electrode, and thereby provide better conversion of each pixel unit.

[0042]根据显示装置的一个实施方案,它不包含其中每个控制元件与各自的一个所述像素单元结合并安置为提供用于有源控制所述像素单元的颜色的晶体管功能的一组单独的控制元件。 [0042] According to one embodiment of the display device, it does not contain the function of each control element wherein a transistor in combination with a respective one of the pixel unit and arranged to provide active control of the color pixel unit of a set of individual control elements. 涉及本发明,单独的控制元件是不作为像素单元的一部分的控制元件。 The present invention relates to a separate control element is not a part of the control element as a pixel unit. 即,控制元件安置在像素单元的电学上游或下游。 That is, an electrical control disposed upstream or downstream elements in the pixel unit.

[0043]根据显示装置的一个实施方案,将其安置在柔性基板或柔性载体上,并且优选包含纸和/或塑料的基板或载体。 [0043] According to one embodiment of the display device, which is disposed on a flexible substrate or a flexible carrier, and preferably comprises paper and / or plastic substrate or carrier. 与柔性基板的使用相关的益处是,它有利于用于制造显示器的印刷方法的使用。 Benefits associated with using a flexible substrate is that it facilitates the use of a printing method for manufacturing a display.

[0044] 根据显示装置的一个实施方案,将其安置为多层,所述多层具有可印刷性和柔性中的至少一个。 [0044] According to one embodiment of the display device, which is disposed multiple layers having printability and at least one flexible.

[0045] 根据显示装置的一个实施方案,所述像素单元的所述第一电极和第一像素层都安置为相同的材料或由相同的材料形成,和/或所述像素单元的所述第二电极和第二像素层都安置为相同的材料或由相同的材料形成。 [0045] According to one embodiment of the display device, the first pixel unit and the first pixel electrode layer are arranged to be formed of the same material or the same material, and / or the second of the pixel unit second electrode and the second pixel layer are disposed the same material or formed of the same material. 关于对数个组件使用相同的材料的益处是这简化并加速了制备方法。 On the benefits of using the same material as that of several components that simplifies and accelerates the production method.

[0046] 根据显示装置的一个实施方案,每个所述像素单元的所述第一电极和第一像素层都是相同的层的一部分,和/或每个所述像素单元的所述第二电极和第二像素层都是相同的层的一部分。 The [0046] According to one embodiment of the display device, each of said pixel units of said first electrode and a first portion of the pixel layer are the same layer, and / or each of said second pixel unit pixel layer and the second electrode are part of the same layer. 关于这个实施方案的益处是,它通常提供简化的结构,从而带来更少的印刷步骤,以及更有成本效率的生产。 On the benefits of this embodiment is that it typically provides a simplified structure, leading to fewer printing step, and more cost-efficient production.

[0047] 备选地,虽然所述第二像素层和第二电极都安置在相同的平面内,但对于第二像素层和第二电极分别使用不同的材料。 [0047] Alternatively, although the second pixel layer and the second electrode are disposed in the same plane, but the second pixel layer and the second electrode are different materials. 电极可以安置为具有更高电导率的材料,从而降低所述第一像素层的转换时间,使得可以使用更低的操作电压和/或给出更高的色对比度。 Electrode may be arranged as a material having higher conductivity, thereby reducing the conversion time of the first pixel layer, making it possible to use lower operating voltages and / or give a higher color contrast. 电极具有比所述第一像素层更高的电导率降低沿电极的电压降。 Electrodes having reduced along the electrode layer of higher conductivity than the first pixel voltage drop.

[0048]根据显示装置的一个实施方案,所述显示装置包括绝缘层,优选塑料绝缘层,所述绝缘层安置在所述一组像素单元的每个像素单元中的所述第二电极与所述第二像素层之间,并且所述绝缘层还包括各自安置有电子导体的通道,所述电子导体各自将各自的像素单元的第二像素层与所述第二电极电连接。 [0048] According to one embodiment of the display device, the display device includes an insulating layer, preferably a plastic insulating layer, said insulating layer is disposed in each pixel unit according to a set of pixel units and the second electrode between said second pixel layer, and the insulating layer are each disposed with a channel further comprises an electronic conductor, the electron conductor layer of each pixel of each of the second pixel unit electrically connected to the second electrode. 该此实施方案相关的优点是,使得能够仅用一个中间载体层制造。 The advantages associated to this embodiment is such that only one intermediate capable of producing a carrier layer.

[0049]根据显示装置的一个实施方案,所述第二像素层覆盖每个所述像素单元中的所述第三像素层的中心部分。 [0049] According to one embodiment of the display device, the second pixel layer covers the central portion of each of the pixels in the third pixel cell layer. 更详细地,所述第二像素层和所述第三像素层可以安置为使得各自的层的中心沿着所述层的法向方向一致,所述层具有堆叠结构,并且被安置为相互平行。 In more detail, the second pixel layer and the third layer pixel may be arranged such that the center of the respective layers in a direction along the normal of the same layer, the layer having a stacked structure, and are arranged parallel to each other .

[0050] 根据显示装置的一个实施方案,每个像素单元中的第二像素层的表面积为电解质的表面积的至少60%,或至少75%,或至少90%,或至少95%。 [0050] According to one embodiment of the display device, the surface area of ​​the second pixel in each pixel unit layer is at least 60% of the surface area of ​​the electrolyte, or at least 75%, or at least 90%, or at least 95%. 换言之,所述第二像素层可以安置在所述电解质背后或由所述电解质覆盖。 In other words, the second pixel layer may be disposed behind or covered by the electrolyte of the electrolyte.

[0051] 根据显示装置的一个实施方案,固化的电解质是聚阳离子电解质。 [0051] According to one embodiment of the display device, the electrolyte is a solidified electrolyte polycationic. 根据备选的实施方案,固化的电解质是聚阴离子电解质。 According to an alternative embodiment, the polyanion electrolyte is a solidified electrolyte.

[0052] 根据一个实例,电解质安置为使得它分为较小的离子配合物和显著较大的离子配合物,其中较小的离子配合物具有第一电荷并且较大的离子配合物具有相反的电荷。 [0052] According to an example, the electrolyte is disposed so that it is divided into smaller ionic complex and significantly larger ionic complex, where the smaller ionic complex charge and having a first larger ionic complex having the opposite charge. 较大的离子配合物优选包含长聚合物链或大分子,并且为阳离子或阴离子。 Larger ionic complex preferably comprises a long polymer chains or macromolecules, and is a cationic or anionic. 换言之,根据一个实例,电解质为包含较大的阳离子配合物的聚电解质或低聚电解质。 In other words, according to one example, the electrolyte is a polyelectrolyte comprising a cationic or oligomeric electrolyte larger complexes. 根据备选的实例,电解质为包含较大的阴离子配合物的聚电解质或低聚电解质。 According to an alternative example, the electrolyte containing a large anionic polyelectrolyte complexes or oligomeric electrolyte.

[0053]基本上,对像素装置的所述第一像素层的厚度没有限制或限定,但是在一个实施方案中,主要出于制造和柔性的观点,它典型地可以为0. Uim至7μπι之间,其中所选择的厚度依赖所需的装置性能;较薄的层通常等于较短的像素装置转换时间,而较厚的层通常等于较高的颜色对比。 [0053] Basically, the thickness of the first pixel unit or pixel defined layer is not limited, in one embodiment, and mainly for a flexible manufacturing point of view, it may be typically of 0. Uim to 7μπι between, wherein the selected desired thickness dependent property means; thinner layer is generally equal to the shorter time the pixel conversion means, and the thicker layer is generally equal to a higher color contrast. 此外,像素装置的所述第二像素层的厚度可以在一个实施方案中可以为0. Ιμπι至40μπι。 Furthermore, the thickness of the second pixel unit pixel layer may be in one embodiment may be 0. Ιμπι to 40μπι. 当选择层的厚度时应考虑到以下各项:太薄的第二像素层可以降低所述第一像素层的着色性能,并且太厚的层可能降低像素装置的耐弯曲性和/或耐机械压力性。 When the thickness should be selected in consideration of the following layers: a thin layer of the second pixel may reduce the performance of the first pixel colored layer and the thick layer may reduce the bending resistance of the pixel device and / or resistance to mechanical stress. 此外,像素装置的所述第三像素层的厚度在一个实施方案中可以为lym至20μηι之间,或者未1μ m至100μπι。 Furthermore, the thickness of the third pixel unit pixel layer in one embodiment may be between lym to 20μηι, or not to 1μ m 100μπι. 通常,层变得越薄,柔性越好,但同时对比度下降。 Typically, the layer becomes thinner, the better the flexibility, but reduction in contrast. 各像素层的厚度是沿各像素层法线的观察方向测量的。 The thickness of each layer is measured in pixels viewing direction of each pixel of the layer normal. 根据提供像素层的任选的方法,它们可以通过多种常规印刷技术被提供,如旋涂、喷墨印刷、丝网印刷、离子自组装多层、气溶胶喷射印刷或棒涂。 The pixel layer is optionally provided a method, which may be provided by a variety of conventional printing techniques, such as spin coating, ink jet printing, screen printing, ionic self-assembled multilayer, aerosol jet printing or bar coating.

[0054] 根据一个实例,通过激光技术的方式,优选通过激光钻孔的方式提供所述绝缘层中的通道。 [0054] According to an example, by means of laser technology, the insulating layer is preferably provided by laser drilling of the passage way. 当通过钻孔或激光钻孔的方式制造绝缘层中的通道时,优选选择足够高熔点的材料,使得损坏通道周围区域的风险最小化。 When the insulating layer is manufactured by drilling or laser drilling channel manner, preferably selected sufficiently high melting point material, such that the risk of damage to the surrounding area of ​​the channel is minimized.

[0055] 在一个实施方案中,像素装置的通道的横截面积可以为例如ΙΟμπι2至2mm2。 [0055] In one embodiment, the channel cross-sectional area of ​​the device may, for example, the pixel ΙΟμπι2 to 2mm2. 根据另一个实例,该面积为lOOwn 2至0.5mm2。 According to another example, the area of ​​lOOwn 2 to 0.5mm2. 根据再另一个实例,该面积为500μηι2至0.2mm 2。 According to yet another example, the area of ​​500μηι2 to 0.2mm 2. 根据再另一个实例,该面积为ΙΟΟΟμπι2至0.1mm2。 According to yet another example, the area of ​​ΙΟΟΟμπι2 to 0.1mm2. 与所述通道的延伸正交地测量横截面积,即,如果通道成形为具有基圆半径r的常规中空圆筒,通道的横截面积为pi*r 2。 Measuring the channel extending orthogonally cross sectional area, i.e., if the channel shaped having a base radius r of the conventional hollow cylindrical cross-sectional area of ​​the channel pi * r 2. 相对大的通道横街面积的益处在于它提供更高水平的电导率。 Benefits of a relatively large area of ​​the channel side streets that it provides a higher level of conductivity. 然而,太大的通道横截面积可以导致制造过程中的问题,如第三像素层穿过通道的泄漏。 However, too much cross sectional area of ​​the channel can lead to problems in the manufacturing process, as in the third pixel layer through the leak path.

[0056] 对于一些制备技术,设置在所述通道中的电导体仅仅安置在所述通道的内侧,这意味着所述电导体具有中空或管状形状,具有内周长和外周长,其中至少外周长对应于所述通道的周长。 Conductors [0056] For some preparation techniques, provided the channel is disposed only inside the passage, which means that the electrical conductor has a hollow or tubular shape having an inner perimeter and an outer perimeter, wherein at least an outer periphery length corresponding to the circumferential length of the channel. 所述通道中电导体的其他安置是可能的,条件是该导体在所述导电列线与所述第二像素层之间提供电子连接。 Other electrical conductor disposed in the channel is possible, provided that the electronic conductor in the connection between the second pixel layer and the conductive column lines.

[0057]通常,根据本发明的装置通过以下方式操作:向所述第一像素层施加第一电势,并向所述第二像素层施加与所述第一电势不同的第二电势,使得在所述固化的电解质内建立电场。 [0057] Generally, the device according to the invention in the following ways: applying a first potential to the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel is applied with the first electrical potential different from a second potential, so that establishing an electric field within the solidified electrolyte. 只要电势维持得足够长,电场引发所述像素层的氧化还原反应,所述反应导致所述电致变色材料的颜色改变。 As long as the potential is maintained long enough, the pixels of the field oxide layer caused a reduction reaction, the reaction causes a color change in said electrical electrochromic material.

[0058]应当理解,像素装置的转换时间或颜色改变通常依赖于例如: [0058] It should be appreciated, changing the pixel or color conversion time means, for example, typically rely on:

[0059] -电解质中的离子迀移率,迀移率越高,转换时间越短; [0059] - ions in the electrolyte Gan drift rate, the higher the rate of shift Gan, the conversion time is short;

[0060] -电解质中的离子电流的大小,这由电解质中的离子迀移率和电解质体积两者决定; [0060] - the size of the ionic current in the electrolyte, which Gan by the ions in the electrolyte and both the electrolyte volume ratio shift determined;

[0061 ]-电化学活性和/或电致变色材料的选择; [0061] - the electrochemically active and / or electric selector electrochromic material;

[0062] -为了改变电致变色材料的颜色所需反应的电化学活性和/或电致变色材料的体积; [0062] - the electrochemically active in order to change the color of the electrochromic material of the electrochromic desired reaction and / or electrical volume electrochromic material;

[0063] -所施加的电压的振幅;电压越高转换时间越短,反之亦然。 [0063] - the amplitude of the applied voltage; voltage conversion higher the shorter the time and vice versa.

[0064] 可以通过安置多个如上所述的电致变色像素装置,提供具有数个可单独寻址像素的显示器。 [0064] can provide a display having a plurality of individually addressable pixels as described above by arranging a plurality of electrical devices electrochromic pixels. 有益的是,像素装置安置为允许无源矩阵寻址概念的矩阵排列。 Advantageously, a pixel matrix means arranged to allow the concept of passive matrix addressing arrangement.

[0065] 任何用于无源矩阵显示器的寻址的适合的、常规的或公知的方案可以用于操作本装置。 [0065] for any addressing passive matrix display suitable, conventional or known solutions may be used to operate the unit. 例如,安置成行的电极给出电致变色像素元件或第一像素层,而安置成列的电极给出矩阵显示器的第二像素层。 For example, placement of the electrodes is given rows electrochromic element or pixel of the first pixel layer and the electrode disposed in a column of the matrix display is given a second pixel layer. 每个各自的行和列连接至数字集成电路的输出引线,其优选通过施加电压驱动。 Each respective row and column leads connected to the output of the digital integrated circuit, which is preferably driven by applying a voltage. 可以将希望通过显示器显示的图像储存在可编程电路中,其通过一次或反复更新整个显示器输出图像。 Desired image can be displayed by a display stored in the programmable circuits, by once or repeatedly update the entire display to output an image. 矩阵显示器通常逐行更新,即使逐列扫描或单个像素扫描是其他可能的寻址替代方案。 Typically matrix display update row, column scanning, or even by a single pixel scanning is addressing other possible alternatives. 在逐行扫描中,允许输出信号激活相应的行,以使得所需的像素可以通过将电压施加至相应的列线而更新。 In progressive scanning, allow the respective output signals of the row activated, so that the desired pixel by applying a voltage to the respective column lines is updated. 未激活行和未寻址列的输出是禁止的。 Inactive non-addressed row and column output is prohibited. 之后, 将已经更新的行的输出引线设定为输出禁止,并且通过相同的方法更新随后的行。 Thereafter, the output lead of the row has been updated is set to prohibit output, and updates the next row by the same method. 在这样的寻址方案中,阈值电压结合与禁止的未寻址行和列允许无源矩阵显示器在具有很小串扰的情况下的更新。 In this addressing scheme, the threshold voltage of the non-binding prohibition addressed row and column allows passive matrix display update in a case having a small crosstalk.

[0066] 在另一个实例中,利用阈值电压与仅具有模拟输出的外部电路的组合。 [0066] In another example, in combination with a threshold voltage and having only an analog output of an external circuit. 这里,假设在一个像素单元中,完全着色通过施加电压V实现。 Here, it is assumed in a pixel unit, fully achieved by coloring voltage V is applied. 那么,将寻址行设置为此电压的一般,而将寻址列也设置为此电压的一半,但极性相反。 Then, the addressed row is generally set to this voltage, and a column address will be provided for this half voltage but opposite in polarity. 因此,跨越像素单元的总电压为V。 Thus, the total voltage across the pixel cell is V. 将未寻址行和列设置为接地。 The non-addressed rows and columns to ground. 在寻址行和未寻址列的交叉点处的像素单元或在未寻址行和寻址列的交叉点处的像素单元感受到更新电压V的一半。 In the pixel cell at the intersection of the column addressed and non-addressed row or not the pixel at the intersection of the addressed row and column addressing unit updates half the voltage V sense. 由此,只要阈值电压大约相当于更新电压V 的一般,各自的像素单元中的阈值电压从而最小化串扰。 Thus, as long as the voltage corresponding to the threshold voltage V updated about Usually, the threshold voltage of each pixel unit so as to minimize crosstalk.

[0067] 关于本发明,所述一组第一电极和所述一组第二电极有时以行电极和列电极为例说明。 [0067] For the present invention, a set of the first electrode and the second electrode is sometimes set to the row and column electrodes as an example. 关于行电极和列电极所陈述的内容也可以用于所述一组第一电极和所述一组第二电极,即使这些电极没有平行安置或彼此正交安置。 Content on the row and column electrodes may be used to set forth a set of the first electrode and the second electrode set, even if the electrodes are not disposed parallel or orthogonal to each other disposed.

[0068] 定义 [0068] defined

[0069]层:根据一个实施方案,像素装置具有叠层结构,并且由不同材料的"层"构成。 [0069] Layers: According to one embodiment, a pixel unit having a layered structure and composed of "layers" of different material. 这些层可以是连续的和/或图案化的,并且可以施加于彼此(自支撑装置)或施加至支撑体或载体(支撑装置)。 These layers may be continuous and / or patterned, and may be applied to each other (self-supporting device) or applied to a support or carrier (support means). 这些术语"自支撑/支撑"也可以用于单独的层。 The term "self-supporting / supported," may also be used in a separate layer. 自支撑层是可以以其自身进行操作并且,例如在不损坏并且不需要额外的支撑层的情况下安装至印刷机中。 Mounted to the printing press from the case where the supporting layer and can be operated on its own, for example, without damage and no additional support layer. 此外,术语"层"可以包括相同的平面内的所有相同的材料,不管是将该材料图案化还是以在平面中形成不连续的"岛"的方式中断。 Further, the term "layer" may comprise all the same material in the same plane, whether the material is patterned so as to form a discontinuous or "islands" in the plane of the interrupt.

[0070] 绝缘层:绝缘层优选包含塑料,或者由包含塑料的层、塑料绝缘层、塑料膜或塑料箱如聚酯箱形成。 [0070] The insulating layer: insulating layer preferably comprises a plastic, or a layer containing a plastic, a plastic insulating layer, a plastic film such as a polyester or a plastic container box is formed. 对于塑料绝缘层或包含塑料的绝缘层,它可以包括例如膜、发泡膜或其层压膜,包括,例如:聚烯烃如聚乙烯、聚丙烯等;聚酯如聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯、聚萘二甲酸乙二醇酯、聚对苯二甲酸丁二醇酯等;聚氯乙烯、聚苯乙烯、聚氨酯、聚碳酸酯、聚酰胺、聚酰亚胺、聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯、聚丁烯、聚丁二烯、聚甲基戊烯、乙烯-乙酸乙烯酯共聚物、乙烯(甲基)丙烯酸共聚物、乙烯(甲基)丙烯酸酯共聚物、ABS树脂、离聚物树脂等,但不限于这些实例。 For plastic insulating layer or the insulating layer comprises a plastic film which may comprise, for example, a foamed film or a laminate film comprising, for example: polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene; polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate alcohol esters, polyethylene naphthalate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate; polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyurethanes, polycarbonates, polyamides, polyimides, polymethyl methacrylate ester, polybutene, polybutadiene, polymethylpentene, ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene (meth) acrylic acid copolymer, ethylene (meth) acrylate copolymer, ABS resin, ionomer resin and the like, but is not limited to these examples. 而且,对于层,可以使用商业膜,并且也可以使用利用工艺材料通过流延膜工艺形成的膜。 Furthermore, for the layer, a commercial film, and may be used by using a cast film process a film material formed by the process.

[0071] 此外,具有数个像素的显示器可以包括绝缘材料的连续层,其形成所述多个电致变色像素装置的至少一些的所述绝缘层。 [0071] In addition, a display having a plurality of pixels may comprise a continuous layer of insulating material, forming said plurality of pixel electrochromic device of at least some of said insulating layer. 换言之,数个像素的绝缘层可以各自是一个连续绝缘层的单独的部分。 In other words, separate portions of several pixels each insulating layer may be a continuous insulating layer.

[0072] 电致变色层:本发明涉及的"电致变色层"是连续几何体,其可以图案化为不同的形状,并且由一种材料或多种材料的组合构成。 [0072] The electrochromic layer: The present invention relates to an "electrochromic layer" continuous geometry, which may be patterned into different shapes, and materials composed of a combination of one or more materials. 所述一种或多种材料可以是有机的或无机的、低分子的或高分子的。 The one or more materials may be organic or inorganic, or low molecular weight polymer. 这种电致变色层,与其是由一种材料构成还是多于一种材料的整体无关,组合了以下性质:至少一种材料在至少一个氧化态是导电的,并且至少一种材料是电致变色的,即作为材料中的电化学氧化还原反应的结果展现颜色改变。 Such electrochromic layer, regardless of its material or from a whole more than one material, combines the following properties: at least one material is electrically conductive at least one oxidation state and at least one material is electrochromic in discoloration, i.e., the reduction reaction as a result of electrochemical oxidation of the material exhibits a color change. 任选地,电致变色层可以包含电化学活性材料。 Optionally, the electrochromic layer may comprise an electrochemically active material.

[0073] 电化学活性:根据本发明的"电化学活性"层是一片具有可以通过改变所述材料的氧化还原态电化学改变的电子传导性的材料。 [0073] The electrochemically active: The "electrochemically active" layer of the present invention is one having electron conductivity may be a material electrochemically redox state change by changing the material. 通常,电化学活性元件的至少一部分与电解质离子接触,并且电化学活性元件还可以与由相同或不同的材料构成的电极集成。 Typically, the contact portion of at least the electrochemically active element and the electrolyte ions, and the electrochemically active element may also be integrated with the electrode made of the same or different material. 电极还可以安置在所述电化学活性材料的顶部。 The electrodes may also be placed on top of the electrochemically active material.

[0074]电致变色显示器:本发明涉及的"电致变色显示器"是包括至少一个电致变色像素层的装置,安置所述装置以使得电致变色层的颜色改变在反射和/或透射中在视觉上可察觉。 [0074] The electrochromic display: The present invention relates to "electrochromic display" means comprising at least one layer of the electrochromic pixel, the means is disposed such that the electrochromic layer changes color in reflection and / or transmission of perceptible visually.

[0075] 颜色改变:当提及"颜色改变"时,这也意指包括光学密度或反射率上的改变,以使得"颜色改变"例如也考虑到从蓝至红、蓝至无色、无色至蓝、深绿至浅绿、灰至白或深灰至浅灰的改变等。 [0075] Color change: when reference to "color change", which also meant to include changes in optical density or reflectance, so that the "color change", for example, from blue to also take into red, blue to colorless, color to blue, dark green to light green, gray to white or dark gray to light gray changes and the like.

[0076] 无源矩阵:在有源矩阵显示器中,每个像素配备有具有至少一个提供晶体管功能的控制元件的电子电路。 [0076] Passive matrix: In the active matrix display, each pixel is equipped with an electronic circuit having a control element providing at least one transistor functions. 换言之,无源矩阵显示装置是不具有其中每个控制元件与各自的一个像素单元相连的一组单独的控制元件的显示装置。 In other words, a passive matrix display device wherein a display device that does not have a separate set of control elements each with a respective control element connected to a pixel unit. 控制元件进一步安置为提供能够控制所述像素单元的颜色的晶体管功能。 The control element is further arranged to provide a color function of the control transistor of the pixel unit. 控制元件的实例是场效应晶体管和电化学晶体管。 Examples of the control element is a field effect transistor and the electrochemical transistor. "单独的"意指控制层安置在所述像素单元的电学上游或下游。 "Individual" means an electrical control layer disposed upstream or downstream of the pixel unit.

[0077] 像素层:本发明涉及的"像素层"由电解质与导电层之间的界面定义。 [0077] The pixel layer: "pixel layer" of the present invention is defined by the interface between the electrolyte and the conductive layer. 更详细地,像素层是在其一侧被电解质覆盖的电子传导层的体积。 In more detail, the volume of the pixel layer is electron-conducting layer is covered on one side thereof an electrolyte. 当像素层是电致变色层时,层的变色可能不对应于电解质与电致变色层之间的界面,即所定义的像素层的范围。 When the pixel layer is an electrochromic layer, the electrochromic layer may not correspond to the interface between the electrolyte and the electrochromic layer, i.e., the range of the pixel defined layer. 颜色改变可能例如延伸到电解质与电致变色层之间的界面之外,以及穿过电致变色层至由电解质覆盖的一侧相反的一侧。 Addition to the color change may, for example, extend to the electrolyte and the interface between the electroluminescent electrochromic layer, and the side opposite the side covered by the electrolyte through the electrochromic layer to.

[0078] 根据一个实例,电解质夹在包含碳的电极层与包含电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物的电极层之间,所述电极层在一个点彼此相交或交叉。 [0078] According to an example, the electrolyte is sandwiched between an electrode layer comprising an electrochromic and electrochemically active organic polymers containing carbon, the electrode layer intersect or cross each other at one point. 如上面说明的,像素层由电极与电解质之间的相应的界面定义。 As described above, the respective pixel layer defined by the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte. 换言之,像素层与电极的相应部分一致。 In other words, consistent with the corresponding portion of the pixel electrode layer.

[0079] 在像素装置的任选实施方案中,电子导体可以包括:电子传导材料如,电子传导聚合物如PED0T:PSS(聚(3,4_乙烯二氧噻吩)聚(苯乙烯磺酸盐))、碳、惰性金属或电化学惰性金属如金,或者适合于与电化学活性层接触的其他导电材料,或者这些电子传导材料的组合。 [0079] In an optional embodiment of device pixels, the electron conductor may include: electron conductive material, such as, the electron-conducting polymers such as PED0T: PSS (poly (ethylene dioxythiophene 3,4_) poly (styrenesulfonate )), carbon, inert metal, or electrochemically inert metals such as gold, or other conductive material suitable for contact with the electrochemically active layer, or a combination of such electron conducting material. 通常,适于与电化学活性层接触的导电材料是惰性的,以使得它们不引起实质的电化学反应。 Typically, suitable for contact with the electrochemically active layer of conductive material is inert so that they do not cause substantial electrochemical reaction. 这些材料可以例如作为在制备过程或预制过程中安置在通道中的墨水或浆液提供。 These materials may be provided as, for example, disposed in the passage during the manufacturing process or during pre ink or a slurry.

[0080] 电极:电极可以包括任何电子传导材料,如导电聚合物、金属、导电碳、钛、钼、石墨、石墨烯、贵金属和惰性金属或这些电子传导材料的组合。 [0080] Electrodes: electrode may comprise any electron conducting material, such as a conductive polymer, a metal, conductive carbon, titanium, molybdenum, graphite, graphene, or a noble metal and an inert electron conductive material is a combination of these. 电极还可以包含电化学惰性金属如金或其他适合于与电化学活性层接触的导电材料。 Electrochemically inert electrode may also comprise other metals such as gold or adapted to contact with the electrochemically active layer of a conductive material. 通常,适合于与电化学活性层接触的导电材料是惰性的,以使得它们不引起实质的电化学反应。 Typically, conductive material suitable for contact with the electrochemically active layer is inert, so that they do not cause substantial electrochemical reaction. 这些材料可以例如作为在制备过程或预制过程中安置在所述绝缘膜上的墨水或浆液提供。 These materials may be used as, for example, disposed on the insulating film ink or slurry during the preparation process or provided preformed.

[0081] 电极优选为伸长的,并且可以为带形,或安置为线或线形。 [0081] The electrode is preferably elongated, and may be strip-shaped, a line or a linear or positioned. 电极可以例如安置为导电聚合物的层或安置为金属丝或线。 Electrodes may be disposed, for example, a layer or a conductive polymer is disposed a metal wire or wires. 根据一个实施方案,第一组电极彼此平行地安置在第一平面内。 According to one embodiment, the first set of electrodes is disposed in a first plane parallel to each other. 第二组电极彼此平行地安置在第二平面内,所述第二平面与所述第一平面不同, 并且其中所述第一平面与所述第二平面安置为彼此平行。 The second set of electrodes disposed parallel with each other in a second plane, the second plane different from the first plane, and wherein the first plane and the second plane arranged parallel to each other. 优选地,第一和第二平面仅分开小的距离,所述距离至少等于电解质的高度。 Preferably, only the first and second planes separated by a small distance, the distance is at least equal to the height of the electrolyte. 此外,所述第一和第二组电极通常安置为彼此垂直。 Furthermore, the first and second set of electrodes disposed generally perpendicular to each other. 根据另一个实施方案,所述第一和/或第二组电极的电极不安置为彼此平行,或者第一和第二平面不安置为彼此平行。 According to another embodiment, the first and / or second set of electrodes of the electrode is not disposed parallel to each other, or the first and second planes are not arranged parallel to each other. 此外,电极可以以直线安置,但也可以是曲线的或具有不规则形状。 Further, electrodes may be arranged in a straight line, but may be curved or have an irregular shape. 换言之,安置为矩阵的像素单元不必须安置在直的行和列中,而是可以以更不规则的方式安置,条件是所述第一组电极中的每个电极仅与所述第二组电极中的每个电极仅在一个交叉点交叉。 In other words, the pixel matrix of cells arranged not to be disposed in straight rows and columns, but may be disposed in a more irregular way, only that each of the second set of electrodes of the first set of electrodes each of the electrodes only intersect at an intersection.

[0082] 直接电接触:允许电荷通过界面交换的两相(例如电化学活性有机材料和电解质) 之间的直接物理接触(公共界面)。 [0082] Direct electrical contact: Direct physical contact allowed between the two phases (e.g. electrochemically active material and organic electrolyte) the charge exchange through the interface (common interface). 通过界面的电荷交换可以包括:电子在导电相之间转移、 离子在离子传导相之间转移,或者在例如对元件与电解质之间或电解质与电致变色元件之间的界面处,通过电化学的方式,或者通过归因于在这种界面上亥姆霍兹层的充电的电容电流的出现,在电子电流和离子电流之间的转化。 Charge exchange through the interface may include: electron transfer between the conductive phase, ion transfer between the phases in ion conductivity, for example, or between the elements and electrolyte or electrolyte and the interface between the electroluminescent electrochromic element through an electrochemical mode, or by the appearance of such an interface is attributed to the Helmholtz layer capacitance charging current, the conversion between the electron current and the ion current.

[0083]通过至少一种能够在两个元件之间传输离子的材料提供两个元件之间的离子接触。 [0083] By capable of providing ionic contact between the two elements in the material transfer ions between at least two elements. 与第一和第二电化学活性层直接接触(公共界面)的电解质是可以提供两个电化学活性层之间的离子接触的材料的一个实例。 In direct contact with the first and second electrochemically active layer (common interface) may be provided two electrolytes are one example of material between the electrochemically active layer of ionic contact. 因此可以称该电解质与两个电化学活性层离子接触。 The electrolyte can be in contact with both said electrochemically active layer ion.

[0084]两种材料可以例如经由第三材料相互电子接触。 [0084] The two materials may be in electronic contact with each other via, for example, the third material. 两个元件之间的电子接触通过至少一种能够在两个元件之间传输电子的材料提供。 Electric contact between the two elements of a material capable of transporting electrons between at least two elements provided by. 与第一和第二电化学活性层直接接触(公共界面)的碳层是可以在两层之间提供电子接触的材料的一个实例。 In direct contact with the first and second electrochemically active layer (common interface) is one example of a carbon layer may be provided between two layers of electrical contact material. 因此可以将碳层称为电子导体,或电子传导的。 Thus the carbon layer may be referred to as electronic conductors, electrons or conduction.

[0085] 直接电子接触:在两个电子导体之间的直接物理接触(公共界面)。 [0085] Direct electrical contact: Direct physical contact between two electronic conductors (common interface).

[0086] 电致变色像素装置可以包括至少在一个氧化态导电的聚合物作为电致变色材料和/或电化学活性材料,并任选地还包含聚阴离子化合物。 [0086] The electrochromic device may comprise at least a pixel electrochromic material and / or electrochemically active material in an oxidized state as the electrically conductive polymer, and optionally further comprises a polyanion compound.

[0087] 用于在本发明的电致变色像素装置中使用的电致变色聚合物例如选自由以下各项组成的组:电致变色聚噻吩、电致变色聚吡咯、电致变色聚苯胺、电致变色聚异硫萘、电致变色聚对苯乙炔,以及它们的共聚物。 [0087] electrochromic pixel for use in an electrical apparatus according to the present invention, for example, electrochromic polymer selected from the group consisting of: electrochromic polythiophenes, electrochromic polypyrroles, electrochromic polyanilines, electrochromic polyisothianaphthene naphthalene, electrochromic polyphenylene vinylene, and copolymers thereof. 在一个实施方案中,电致变色聚合物是3,4_二烷氧基噻吩的均聚物或共聚物,其中所述两个烷氧基可以是相同的或不同的,或者一起表示任选地被取代的氧基-亚烷基-氧基桥。 In one embodiment, the electrochromic polymer is 3,4_ dialkoxy thiophene homopolymer or copolymer, wherein the two alkoxy groups may be the same or different, or together represent an optionally substituted oxy - alkylene - oxy bridge. 在再一个实施方案中,电致变色聚合物是选自由以下各项组成的组的3,4-二烷氧基噻吩的均聚物或共聚物:聚(3,4-亚甲基二氧噻吩)、聚(3,4-亚甲基二氧噻吩)衍生物、聚(3,4-亚乙基二氧噻吩)、聚(3,4-亚乙基二氧噻吩)衍生物、聚(3, 4-亚丙基二氧噻吩)、聚(3,4-亚丙基二氧噻吩)衍生物、聚(3,4-亚丁基二氧噻吩)、聚(3,4-亚丁基二氧噻吩)衍生物、以及它们的共聚物。 In a further embodiment, the electrochromic polymer is selected from the group consisting of 3,4-dialkoxy thiophene group of homopolymers or copolymers: poly (3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl thiophene), poly (3,4-methylenedioxy-thiophene) derivatives, poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene), poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) derivatives, poly (3,4-propylene dioxythiophene), poly (3,4-propylene dioxythiophene) derivatives, poly (3,4-butylene-dioxythiophene), poly (3,4-butylene dioxythiophene) derivatives, and copolymers thereof. 聚阴离子化合物则优选为聚苯乙烯磺酸盐。 Polyanion compound is then preferably polystyrene sulfonate.

[0088] 如技术人员容易理解的,在本发明的备选实施方案中,电致变色材料包括任意非聚合物材料、不同的非聚合物材料的组合,或者聚合物材料与非聚合物材料的组合,它们在至少一个氧化态展现传导性以及电致变色行为。 [0088] As the skilled will readily appreciate, in alternative embodiments of the present invention, the electrochromic material comprises any non-polymer material, combination of different non-polymeric material, or polymeric material and a non-polymeric material combination, they exhibit an oxidation state of at least one conductivity and electrochromic behavior. 例如,人们可以使用导电材料和电致变色材料的复合材料,如带有聚合物或非聚合物电致变色材料如聚苯胺、聚吡咯、聚噻吩、氧化镍、聚乙烯二茂铁、聚紫罗碱、氧化钨、氧化铱、氧化钼和普鲁士蓝(亚铁氰化铁)的导电粒子如氧化锡、IT0或ΑΤ0粒子。 For example, one may use a conductive material and the electrochromic material is electrochromic composite material, such as a polymer with non-polymeric electrochromic materials such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, nickel oxide, polyvinylferrocene, polyviologen Luo base, tungsten oxide, iridium oxide, molybdenum oxide and Prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide) conductive particles such as tin oxide, or ΑΤ0 IT0 particles. 作为用于本发明的装置的电致变色元件的非限制性实例,可以提到的有:一片导电并且电致变色的PED0T-PSS; -片具有Fe2+/SCNl^导电并且电致变色的PED0T-PSS,并且Fe2+/SCrr作为附加的电致变色组分(参见下文);与电致变色W03涂层直接电接触的由在绝缘聚合物基体中的导电IT0粒子的连续网络构成的片;与溶解在电解质中的电致变色组分接触的由绝缘聚合物基体中的导电IT0粒子的连续网络构成的片。 Non-limiting examples of an electrical device of the present invention is used in electrochromic element, there may be mentioned: an electroconductive and electrochromic PED0T-PSS; - sheet having a Fe2 + / SCNl ^ conductive and electrochromic PED0T- PSS, and Fe2 + / SCrr as an additional electrochromic component (see below); sheet composed of a continuous network of electrically conductive particles in an insulating IT0 polymer matrix coating electrochromic W03 direct electrical contact; dissolved sheet composed of a continuous network of electrically conductive particles IT0 insulating polymer matrix in the electrolyte electrically contacting the components of the electrochromic. 如上所述,电致变色像素装置可以包含用于实现具有多于一种颜色的显示器的其他电致变色材料。 As described above, the electrochromic device may comprise a pixel for realizing other electrical display having more than one color electrochromic material. 该其他电致变色材料可以设置在电致变色像素元件中或固化的电解质中,那么例如其包括电致变色氧化还原体系,如一边是无色的Fe 2+和SCN-离子的氧化还原对,另一边是红色的Fe3+(SCN)(H20)5配合物。 The other electrochromic material may be provided in the electrochromic element or pixel solidified electrolyte, which then for example comprises an electrochromic redox system, such as one side is colorless Fe 2+ and SCN- ion oxidation-reduction pair, the other side is red Fe3 + (SCN) (H20) 5 complex. 通过其他非限定性实例的方式,这样的材料可以选自不同的吩嗪类,如DMPA-5,10-二氢-5,10-二甲基吩嗪、DEPA-5,10-二氢-5,10-二乙基吩嗪和D0PA-5, 10-二氢-5,10_二辛基吩嗪,选自了]\^0,小小'4'-四甲基苯二胺、了]\©2,小小'4'-四甲基联苯胺、TTF-四硫富瓦烯、菲咯啉-铁配合物、罂红A、二苯基胺、对-乙氧基菊橙、亚甲基蓝、 不同的靛青和酚藏花红,以及它们的混合物。 By way of another non-limiting example, such materials can be selected from different phenazines such as DMPA-5,10- dihydro-5,10-dimethyl phenazine, DEPA-5,10- dihydro - 5,10-ethyl phenazine and D0PA-5, 10- dihydro -5,10_ dioctyl phenazine, the selected] \ ^ 0, small '4'-tetramethyl phenylenediamine, a] \ © 2, small '4'-tetramethylbenzidine, TTF-tetrathiafulvalene, phenanthroline - iron complex, erioglaucine a, diphenylamine, to - ethoxymethyl chrysanthemum orange , methylene blue, indigo and different phenosafranine, and mixtures thereof.

[0089] 固化的电解质:为了本发明的目的,"固化的电解质"表示这样一种电解质,该电解质在其使用温度是足够刚性的,使得在其体相中的粒子/薄片基本上由电解质的高粘性/刚性固定,并且它不流动或泄漏。 [0089] The solidified electrolyte: for the purposes of the present invention, "solidified electrolyte" refers to an electrolyte, an electrolyte in which the temperature is sufficiently rigid, such that its volume particle phase / electrolyte sheet consisting essentially of high viscosity / rigidity fixed, and it does not flow or leak. 在优选的情况中,这种电解质具有合适的流变性质,以允许将这种材料,例如,通过常规印刷法,以整片或图案的形式涂布在支撑体上。 In the preferred case, such an electrolyte has the proper rheological properties to allow such material, e.g., by a conventional printing process, in the form of a pattern piece or coated on a support. 在沉积之后,电解质制剂应当在溶剂的蒸发后或因为化学交联反应而固化,所述化学交联反应通过附加的化学试剂或通过物理效应如通过紫外、红外或微波辐射照射、冷却或任何其他这样的效应带来的。 After deposition, the electrolyte formulation should because the chemical crosslinking or curing reaction after evaporation of the solvent, the chemical crosslinking reaction by additional chemical reagents or by physical effect, such as by ultraviolet, infrared or microwave radiation, cooling or any other this effect brings. 固化的电解质可以例如包含含水或含有机溶剂的凝胶,如明胶或聚合凝胶。 Solidified electrolyte may for example comprise an aqueous or solvent-containing gel, such as gelatine or a polymeric gel. 然而, 固体聚合电解质也被预期,并且落在本发明的范围中。 However, solid polymeric electrolytes are also contemplated and fall within the scope of the present invention. 此外,该定义还包括通过适当的基体材料,如纸、纤维或多孔聚合物浸取或以任何其他方式保持的液体电解液。 Furthermore, by this definition also comprises a suitable matrix material, such as paper, fiber or a porous polymer or leaching liquid electrolyte retained in any other way. 在本发明的一些实施方案中,此材料实际上是安置电致变色装置的支撑物,以使得所述支撑物形成电致变色装置的操作的整体部件。 In some embodiments of the present invention, the material is actually positioned electrically electrochromic device supports, so that the support member is formed integral electrical actuator operating electrochromic device.

[0090] 固化的电解质可以包含粘合剂。 [0090] The electrolyte may comprise a cured binder. 优选的是该粘合剂具有胶凝性。 Is preferred that the binder having a gelling property. 粘合剂可以选自由以下各项组成的组:明胶、明胶衍生物、聚丙烯酸、聚甲基丙烯酸、聚(乙烯基吡咯烷酮)、 多糖、聚丙烯酰胺、聚氨酯、聚环氧丙烷、聚环氧乙烷、聚(苯乙烯磺酸)和聚(乙烯醇),以及它们的盐和共聚物;并且可以任选地被交联。 The binder may be selected from the group consisting of: gelatin, gelatin derivatives, polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, poly (vinylpyrrolidone), polysaccharides, polyacrylamides, polyurethanes, polypropylene oxide, polyethylene oxide ethane, poly (styrenesulfonic acid) and poly (vinyl alcohol), and copolymers and salts thereof; and may optionally be crosslinked. 电解质可以由以上所列材料中的一种或这些材料的两种以上的组合形成。 The electrolyte may be formed by a combination of two or more materials listed above, or one of these materials.

[0091] 总之,根据本发明的像素装置的材料选择和垂直结构构造允许包括传统印刷技术的制造方法。 [0091] In summary, the choice of material and configuration of the vertical structure of the pixel device according to the present invention allows the manufacturing method including a conventional printing techniques. 这种传统印刷技术可以包括棒涂、丝网印刷、旋涂、喷墨印刷、气溶胶喷射印刷,或者任何其他这样的制造程序。 Such conventional printing techniques may include bar coating, screen printing, spin coating, inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, or any other such manufacturing process. 像素装置的结构还允许使用可以简单地放大到更大尺寸制造的制造程序,这随之允许更快和低价制造。 Device also allows the structure of a pixel may be used in the manufacturing process simply enlarged to manufacture larger size, which will allow for faster and cheap manufacture. 例如,包括根据本发明的多个像素装置的显示器阵列可以在辊-对-辑制造程序中制造。 For example, an array of a plurality of pixels including a display apparatus according to the present invention may be in a roll - to - Series produced in the manufacturing process.

[0092] 在像素装置的一个实施方案中,导电列线、所述通道中的电子导体、第二像素层、 第三像素层和第一像素层可以通过印刷技术的方式安置。 [0092] In one embodiment of the pixel device embodiment, the conductive column lines, electronic conductors in the channel, the second layer pixel, the first pixel and the third pixel layer layer may be disposed by means of printing techniques. 因此,提供所述第二像素层与导电列线之间的电子连结的电子导体可以优选安置包含可印刷材料的材料以便有利于制造, 即为了可印刷具有合适的流变性质的材料。 Thus, the electronic coupling between the electron conductor providing the second pixel column line and the conductive layer may preferably comprise a material printable material is disposed to facilitate manufacture, i.e., to have suitable rheological properties printable material. 包含导电聚合物或导电碳的墨是这种可印刷材料的实例。 An ink comprising a conductive polymer or a conductive carbon material are examples of such printable. 在像素装置的制造过程中,电子传导材料可以通过以下方式安置在所述通道中: 通过多种不同的印刷技术如棒涂、丝网印刷、喷墨印刷、气溶胶喷射印刷、旋涂等,或者通过将材料涂布在通道处并将其通过例如跨越所述通道拖拉刮浆板而压入所述通道。 Apparatus during manufacture of the pixel, the electron conductive material may be arranged in the following manner in the channel: a variety of different printing techniques such as bar coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, spin coating, or by a coating material at the passage through the squeegee and drag it across the passage, for example, pressed into the channel. 还应理解的是,具有安置有电子导体的通道的绝缘层可以是预装配的或部分预装配的。 It should also be appreciated that there are disposed an insulating layer having a channel electron conductor may be partially pre-assembled or pre-assembled. 例如,可以在预加工过程中涂布或安置通道和电子导体。 For example, the channel may be coated or disposed in the pre-conductor and electronic processing.

[0093] -般地,本发明的其他目标、特征和益处将从以下详述、从属权利要求以及附图中显现。 [0093] - camel, other objects, features and advantages from the following detailed description, claims and drawings show the subclaims. 现在将通过实施例的方式参考附图描述本发明的实施方案。 BRIEF embodiment will now be described by way of embodiments of the present invention with reference to embodiments. 应当理解,附图不是按真实比例的,并且对于本领域技术人员而言易于理解,在本发明的范围中,与附图中所示的尺寸不同的尺寸是同样可能的。 It should be understood that the drawings are not true to scale, and to those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the scope of the invention, with the dimensions shown in the figures different dimensions are equally possible.

[0094] 附图简述 [0094] BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0095]图la示意性地示出了无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图,其中像素层和电极一致。 [0095] FIG. La schematically shows an exploded perspective view of a passive matrix display, wherein the pixel layer and the same electrode. [0096]图lb示意性地示出了按照图la所述安置的像素装置中的像素的截面图。 [0096] FIG. Lb schematically shows a sectional view of the device according to FIG pixel disposed in the la.

[0097]图2a示意性地示出了无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图,其中第一像素层和第一电极一致。 [0097] Figure 2a schematically shows an exploded perspective view of a passive matrix display, wherein the same first pixel layer and the first electrode.

[0098]图2b示意性地示出了按照图2a所述安置的像素装置中的像素的截面图。 [0098] Figure 2b schematically shows a sectional view of the apparatus according to the pixel arranged in the pixel in FIG. 2a.

[0099]图3a示意性地示出了无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图,其包含具有通道的绝缘层。 [0099] FIG. 3a schematically shows a perspective exploded view of a passive matrix display, comprising an insulating layer having channel. [0100]图3b示意性地示出了按照图3a所述安置的像素装置中的像素的截面图。 [0100] Figure 3b schematically shows a sectional view of apparatus according to a pixel arranged in the pixel in Figure 3a.

[0101] 图4示出了用于计算显示器的填充因数的参数。 [0101] FIG. 4 shows the parameters for calculating the fill factor of the display.

[0102] 图5-9示出了根据本发明安置的不同样品的IV特性。 [0102] FIG. 5-9 shows IV characteristics of the different samples in accordance with the present invention is disposed.

[0103]图10a是显示装置的照片。 [0103] FIG 10a is a photograph of a display device.

[0104] 图10b是基于图10a的照片的图示,并反映了显示装置的一部分。 [0104] Figure 10b is a photograph illustrating based on figure 10a, and reflects a part of the display device.

[0105] 图11-14示出了根据本发明安置的包含不同电解质的不同样品的IV特性。 [0105] FIG 11-14 illustrate the IV characteristics of the different samples containing different electrolyte according to the present invention is disposed.

[0106] 详述 [0106] detail

[0107] 在图la和lb中,示意性地示出了根据本发明的无源矩阵显示器的一个实例。 [0107] In the FIGS. La and lb schematically shows an example of a passive matrix display according to the present invention. 图la 是无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图,其中像素层和电极一致。 Fig la is an exploded perspective view of a passive matrix display, wherein the pixel layer and the same electrode. 设置一组电致变色材料的第一电极121,以及一组包含碳的第二电极122。 Provided with a set of electrochromic material of the first electrode 121 and second electrode 122 comprises a set of carbon. 每个电极均形成为直线伸长的元件。 Each electrode is formed as a straight element elongated. 第一电极121,即所述一组第一电极中的电极,彼此平行地安置在共同的第一平面中。 A first electrode 121, i.e., the first electrodes in a group, disposed parallel to one another in a common first plane. 第二电极122, 即所述一组第二电极中的电极,彼此平行地安置在共同的第二平面内。 A second electrode 122, i.e., the second electrodes in a group, disposed in parallel with each other in a common second plane. 此外,相互关联地安置两组电极121、122,以使得每个所述第一电极与每个所述第二电极仅在一个交叉点交叉。 In addition, two sets of electrodes disposed in association with each other 121, 122 such that each of the first electrode and each of the second electrode intersect only at an intersection. 在图la中,第一电极与所述第二电极正交地安置,即电极彼此以90度的角度交叉。 In FIG la, the first electrode and the second electrode disposed orthogonally, i.e., electrode cross each other an angle of 90 degrees. 备选地, 电极可以以足够偏离〇和180度的几乎任何角度,例如,以在10°至170°的区间内的角度相互交叉地安置。 Alternatively, the electrodes may be sufficient departing square and almost any angle of 180 degrees, for example, at an angle in the interval 10 ° to 170 ° are arranged to intersect each other.

[0108] 在所述第一和第二电极之间的每个交叉处,存在空间上安置在两个电极之间电解质113的层。 [0108] In each of the intersections between the first and second electrodes, the presence of a layer disposed between two electrodes 113 on the electrolyte space. 换言之,电解质113夹在所述一组第一电极的一个第一电极121a与所述一组第二电极的一个第二电极122a之间。 In other words, the electrolyte 113 and 121a is sandwiched between a second electrode of the set of a plurality of said first electrodes of the first and second electrodes 122a. 此外,第一像素层111由电解质113与第一电极121a之间的界面的范围定义。 In addition, the first pixel layer 111 is defined by the range of the interface between the electrolyte 113 and the first electrode 121a. 第二像素层112由电解质113与第二电极122a之间的界面的范围定义。 The second pixel layer 112 is defined by the range of the interface between the electrolyte 113 and the second electrode 122a. 换言之,所述第一像素层111与所述第一电极121a的一部分一致;并且所述第二像素层112 与所述第二电极122a的一部分一致。 In other words, the first pixel layer 111 coincides with a portion of the first electrode 121a; and the second pixel layer 112 coincides with a portion of the second electrode 122a. 更详细地,所述第一像素层111和所述第二像素层112 分别构成了所述第一121a和第二122a电极的全部体积。 In more detail, the first pixel and the second pixel layer 111 layer 112 constitute the entire volume of the first 121a and the second electrode 122a.

[0109] 根据一个实施方案,所述一组第一电极安置在第一载体层116上,并且所述一组第二电极安置在第二载体层117上。 [0109] According to one embodiment, the first set of electrodes disposed on the first support layer 116 and the second carrier layer 117 on a second set of electrodes arranged. 第一和第二载体优选安置为绝缘材料。 First and second carrier preferably is disposed as an insulating material. 当制造像素装置时,可以将电解质安置在它们各自的电极交叉点处的电极的一个或两者上。 When the apparatus for manufacturing the pixel, the electrolyte may be disposed on one or both of the electrodes at their respective electrode intersections. 之后,将载体合在一起,以使得可以在各自的第一和第二电极之间的交叉点处提供离子连接。 Thereafter, the carriers together, so that the ion can be provided at the connection points of intersection between the respective first and second electrodes.

[0110] 图lb示出了按照图la所述安置的像素装置中的一个像素的示意性截面图的放大。 [0110] FIG lb shows an enlarged schematic sectional view of a pixel of the device according to FIG disposed in la. 像素的层具有垂直或层叠的排列。 Layer pixel having a vertical or stacked arrangement. 更详细地,电解质113夹在包含电致变色材料的第一像素层111与包含碳的第二像素层112之间。 In more detail, the electrolyte 113 interposed between the first pixel layer comprises an electrochromic material 111 and the second pixel layer 112 comprises carbon. 此外,第一像素层在空间上安置在第一基板116与电解质113之间;并且第二像素层在空间上安置在第二基板117与电解质之间。 In addition, the first pixel layer spatially disposed between the first substrate 116 and the electrolyte 113; and a second pixel layer spatially disposed between the second substrate 117 and the electrolyte. 观察所述像素的方向是所述第一载体层的法向,并通过箭头130指出。 Seen in the direction of the normal pixel is the first carrier layer, and 130 indicated by an arrow. 图2a示意性地示出了无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图。 Figure 2a schematically shows an exploded perspective view of a passive matrix display. 在图2a中所示的像素装置200按照图la和lb所述安置,不同之处在于,所述第二像素层与所述第二电极不一致。 Pixel 200 in the device shown in Figure la and lb arranged in FIG. 2a, except that the second pixel layer and the second electrode is inconsistent. 代之为,所述第二像素层212是包含导电碳的单独的层,在空间上安置在第二电极222a与所述第一和第二电极221a、222a之间的交叉点处的电解质213之间。 Instead, for the second pixel layer 212 is a separate layer containing conductive carbon, spatially disposed at a second electrode 222a of the first and second electrodes 221a, 222a of intersection between the electrolyte 213 between. 而且,第二像素层安置为与所述第二电极222直接电接触。 Also, the second pixel layer is disposed in contact with the second electrode 222 directly. 第二电极可以安置为与所述第二像素层相同的材料,或者具有更高电子传导性的材料如银。 The second electrode may be disposed as the second pixel layer of the same material, or having a higher electron conductive material such as silver. 更详细地,在第一电极221a与第二电极222a之间的每个交叉点处,各自的电解质213的层和碳材料的第二像素层212彼此层叠,并且安置在所述第一和第二电极221a、222a之间;以使得所述像素层212与所述第二电极222a直接电子接触,并且所述电解质213与所述第二像素层212和所述第一电极221a的电致变色材料的所述第一像素层211两者离子接触。 In more detail, the first electrodes 221a and at each of the intersections between the second electrode 222a, an electrolyte layer and a respective second pixel layer 213 of carbon material 212 stacked on each other, and disposed in the first and second two electrodes 221a, between 222a; pixel layer 212 such that the direct electrical contact 222a and the second electrode, and the electrolyte 213 and the second electric layer 212 and the first pixel electrode 221a electrochromic the material of the first pixel layer 211 contacts both the ions.

[0112]更详细地,并且根据一个实施方案,所述一组第一电极221安置在第一载体层216 上,并且所述一组第二电极222安置在第二载体层217上。 [0112] In more detail, and according to one embodiment, a set of the first electrode 221 is disposed on the first support layer 216, and the second set of electrodes 222 disposed on the second carrier layer 217. 第一和第二载体层216、217优选安置为绝缘材料。 216, 217 are preferably disposed first and second carrier layer is an insulating material. 此外,碳的第二像素层212安置在所述第一和第二电极221、222之间的每个交叉点或一些交叉点处的所述第二电极222a上。 In addition, the second pixel layer 212 is disposed on the carbon and said first or said second electrode at each intersection point between the second electrode 221, some cross-222a. 此外,电解质213的层可以安置在各自的第一和第二电极交叉点处的第一和第二电极中的一个或两者上。 In addition, the electrolyte layer 213 may be disposed on the respective first and second electrodes of the first and second electrodes intersect at a point in one or both. 之后,将载体合在一起,以使得在各自的第一和第二电极221a、222a之间的交叉点处的第一与第二像素层211、212之间提供离子连接。 Thereafter, the carriers together, so as to provide connection between the respective ions of the first and second electrodes 221a, the first layer and the second pixel at the intersection between 222a 211,212.

[0113] 图2b是按照图2a所述安置的像素装置中的一个像素的示意性截面图的放大。 [0113] FIG 2b is a schematic enlarged cross-sectional view in accordance with a pixel disposed in the apparatus in FIG. 2a. 像素的层具有垂直或层叠的排列。 Layer pixel having a vertical or stacked arrangement. 更详细地,电解质213夹在包含电致变色材料的第一像素层211与包含碳的第二像素层212之间。 In more detail, the electrolyte 213 interposed between the first pixel layer comprises an electrochromic material 211 and the second pixel layer 212 comprises carbon. 此外,第一像素层211在空间上安置在第一基板216与电解质213之间;并且第二像素层212在空间上安置在第二电极222与电解质213之间。 In addition, the first pixel layer 211 is disposed in the space between the first substrate 216 and the electrolyte 213; and a second pixel layer 212 is disposed in the space between the second electrode 222 and the electrolyte 213. 此外, 第二电极在空间上安置在第二像素层与第二载体层217之间。 Further, a second electrode disposed in the space between the second pixel layer and the second carrier layer 217. 观察所述像素的方向是所述第一载体层的法向,并通过箭头230指出。 Seen in the direction of the normal pixel is the first carrier layer, indicated by arrow 230.

[0114] 图3a示意性地示出了无源矩阵显示器的分解透视图。 [0114] FIG. 3a schematically shows a perspective exploded view of a passive matrix display. 图3a中所示的像素装置300 是按照图2a和2b所述安置的,不同之处在于,所述第二像素层312不与所述第二电极322直接电子接触。 Pixel 300 shown in FIG. 2a and 2b, 3a is in accordance with the FIG disposed, except that the 312 not in direct electrical contact with the second electrode 322 of the second pixel layer. 代之为,包含通道319的绝缘层318安置在所述第二像素层312与所述第二电极322之间。 Instead of the insulating layer 318 comprises a channel 319 disposed between the second layer 312 and the second pixel electrode 322. 电子导体320安置在每个所述通道319中。 Electronic conductor 320 disposed in each of said channels 319. 此外,安置绝缘层以使得每个电子导体320将第二电极322与第二像素层312电子连接。 Further, the insulating layer is disposed such that each of the electronic conductor 320 connected to the second electrode 322 and the second pixel layer 312 electrons.

[0115] 更详细地,根据一个实施方案,设置绝缘材料的第一载体层316,在其上安置一组第一电极321。 [0115] In more detail, according to one embodiment, set 316, set disposed thereon a first electrode 321 of a first support layer of insulating material. 此外,设置绝缘材料的中间载体层318,并在其中安置一组通道319。 Additionally, an intermediate support layer of insulating material 318, and a set of channels 319 disposed therein. 在所述中间载体层318的第一侧上安置一组第二电极322,并且在所述通道319中设置电子导体320。 A second set of electrodes 322 disposed on a first side of the intermediate carrier layer 318, and the electronic conductor 320 disposed in the channel 319. 而且,在所述中间载体层318的相反侧上设置一组包含导电碳的第二像素层312,并且每个所述第二像素层312安置为与各自的一个所述电子导体320电子接触,以使得每个电子导体320将各自的第二像素层312a与其各自的第二电极322a电子连接。 Furthermore, provided a set of pixels comprising a second conductive carbon layer 312 on the opposite side of the intermediate carrier layer 318, and each of said second pixel layer 312 is disposed in contact with a respective one of said electronic conductor 320 electrons, 320 such that each respective electron conductor layer 312a of the second pixel electrode 322a with their respective second electrical connection. 在所有实施方案中,第二像素层均彼此隔离地安置。 In all embodiments, the second pixel layer are disposed in isolation from each other. 包含电解质313的第三像素层安置在所述第二像素层312的每一个上。 Third pixel comprising an electrolyte layer 313 disposed on each pixel of the second layer 312. 之后,将第一载体和中间载体316、318合在一起,以使得每个所述第一电极321与每个所述第二电极322仅在一个交叉点交叉。 Thereafter, the first intermediate carrier and the carrier 316, 318 together, such that each of the first electrode 321 and each of the second electrode 322 only intersect at an intersection. 以如下方式将第一载体和中间载体316、318合在一起:使得在第一电极321a与322a之间的交叉点处,在各自的所述第一电极321a与各自的一个所述第二像素层312a之间,经由各自的一个所述第三像素层313设置离子连接。 The first carrier in the following manner and the intermediate support 316, 318 together: so that at the intersection between the first electrodes 321a and 322a, and 321a in the respective one of the second pixel electrode of each of the first between the layers 312a, 313 are connected via a respective one of the third pixel layer ion. 在这组第三像素层313与第一电极321之间的离子接触如上所述提供了一组第一像素层311。 In this group of ions between the third pixel electrode layer 313 and the first contacts 321 described above provides a first pixel layer 311.

[0116] 另外地,或备选地,在将第一载体层和中间载体层316、318合在一起之前,可以将第三像素层设置为在对应于各自的所述第一和第二电极321、322的对之间的预定交叉点的位置与所述第一电极321尚子接触。 [0116] Additionally, or alternatively, the first carrier before the carrier layer and the intermediate layer 316, 318 together may be provided as the third layer pixel corresponding to the respective first and second electrodes predetermined position of the intersection point between 321 and 322 Naoko contact with the first electrode 321. 之后,以以下方式将第一载体和中间载体316、318合在一起:使得在各自的第一电极和第二电极321a、322a之间的交叉点处,在各自的一个所述第一电极321a与各自的一个所述第二像素层312a之间,经由各自的一个所述第三像素层313 设置尚子连接。 Thereafter, the first carrier in the following manner and the intermediate support 316, 318 together: that at the respective first and second electrodes 321a, 322a between the intersection, in a respective one of the first electrode 321a between a respective one of the second pixel layer 312a and, Naoko 313 via a respective one of the third pixel layer.

[0117]图3b是按照图3a所述安置的像素装置中的一个像素的示意性截面图的放大。 [0117] Figure 3b is an enlarged schematic sectional view in accordance with a pixel disposed in said apparatus 3a in FIG. 像素的层具有垂直或层叠的排列。 Layer pixel having a vertical or stacked arrangement. 更详细地,电解质313夹在包含电致变色材料的第一像素层311和包含碳的第二像素层312之间。 In more detail, the electrolyte is sandwiched between the first pixel 313 comprises an electrochromic material layer 311 and second layer 312 comprises carbon pixel. 此外,第一像素层311在空间上安置在第一绝缘层316 与第三像素层313之间。 In addition, the first pixel layer 311 is disposed on the space between the pixel 316 and the third layer 313 of the first insulating layer. 而且,包含通道319的第二绝缘层318安置在所述第二像素层312与所述第二电极322之间,并且电子导体320安置在所述通道319中,所述电子导体将所述第二像素层312与所述第二电极322电子连接。 Also, the second insulating layer 318 comprises a channel 319 disposed between the second layer 312 and the second pixel electrode 322, and the electronic conductor 320 disposed in the channel 319, the electronic conductor of the two pixel layer 312 is connected to the second electrode 322 electrons. 任选地,第二像素层312可以安置在所述第二绝缘层与未在图3a和3b中示出的另外的绝缘层之间。 Optionally, the second pixel layer 312 may be disposed between the second insulating layer and a further insulating layer is not shown in FIGS. 3a and 3b.

[0118]图4示意性地示出了包含一组按照图la和lb所述安置为矩阵的像素单元的显示器。 [0118] FIG 4 shows schematically in Figure la and lb includes a set of the pixel elements disposed as a matrix display. 将多个像素部分安置在矩阵结构中,其中每个像素部分限定一个按照图lb所述的像素装置。 A plurality of pixel portions disposed in a matrix arrangement, wherein each pixel portion defining a pixel device according to claim lb FIG. 测量显示器的共同性质涉及填充因数。 Common measured properties relate to a display fill factor. 填充因数与每个像素的有效面积与整个显示器的给定面积比较有关。 Effective area fill factor of each pixel in a given area of ​​the entire display comparison of. 填充因数可以从所示的尺寸A和B得到。 The fill factor can be obtained from the dimensions A and B in FIG. 距离A对应于两个分开的像素部分之间的距离,并且是两个像素放置得多近,或者在显示器中存在的无效面积多大的指示。 A distance corresponds to the distance between the two divided portions of the pixel and two pixels are placed much closer or invalid area is present in the display indicating how much. 距离B示出像素部分的典型尺寸,其对应于像素元件的横截面积。 Distance B shows a typical size of the pixel portion, which corresponds to the cross-sectional area of ​​the pixel element. 一般地,距离A的相对减少意味着填充因数的增加,并且面积B的相对增加意味着填充因数的增加。 Generally, the distance A relative decrease means an increase in the fill factor, and the area B relative increase means the increase of the fill factor. 在一个实施方案中,基于IX 1_2的单个像素部分面积,包含根据本发明的像素装置的显示器的填充因数可以为90 %。 In one embodiment, based on a single pixel portion of the area IX 1_2, comprising the fill factor of the pixels of the display device of the present invention may be 90%.

[0119]具有绝缘层的无源矩阵寻址显示器的制备 Preparation of a passive matrix addressed display having an insulating layer [0119]

[0120] 提供包含50μπι厚的聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(在下文中称作PET)膜(Melinex 454, 由DuPont Teijin film生产)的绝缘层,其中通过激光照射,以20X20的网状图案建立通道,其中两个相邻的通道之间的距离为lcm。 [0120] providing a 50μπι thick polyethylene terephthalate (hereinafter referred to as PET) film insulating layer (Melinex 454, manufactured by DuPont Teijin film), wherein the laser irradiation, to a mesh pattern of 20X20 establish a tunnel, wherein a distance between two adjacent channels is lcm. 通道的入口直径在所述绝缘层的第一侧上为~ 30μπι,并且在所述绝缘层的另一侧上为~70μπι。 The inlet diameter of the channel on the first side of the insulating layer is ~ 30μπι, and on the other side of the insulating layer is ~ 70μπι. 通过使用刮浆板,将导电碳浆(7102丝网印刷碳浆,由DuPont生产)沉积至通道中。 By using a squeegee, a conductive carbon paste (7102 screen-printing carbon paste, produced by DuPont) is deposited into the channel. 将碳浆在于120Γ干燥3分钟之后,重复一次碳沉积处理步骤,以确保通过通道的电子导通。 120Γ wherein the carbon paste was dried for 3 minutes, repeated carbon deposition processing steps to ensure that the electronic guide channels pass through. 在所述绝缘层的第一侧上,通过刷沉积银浆液的20 条平行线(Ag 5000丝网印刷银浆液,由DuPont生产),其中每条线为~2-3mm宽和>200mm 长,以使得每条线电连接所述绝缘层中的20条通道。 On the first side of the insulating layer, by 20 parallel lines brush slurry depositing silver (Ag 5000 screen-printing silver slurry, manufactured by DuPont), wherein each line is ~ 2-3mm wide and> 200mm long, such that each line is electrically connected to the passage 20 in the insulating layer. 之后将银线热处理;120°C,持续5分钟。 After heat treatment the silver wire; 120 ° C, for 5 minutes. 在所述绝缘层的第二侧,沉积导电碳浆(7102)以在所述通道顶部形成各自具有~4-5mm 2的面积的方块。 The second side of the insulating layer, depositing conductive carbon paste (7102) to form the respective block area ~ 4-5mm 2 having at the top of the channel. 将在电致变色像素装置中充当对电极元件的碳方块在120°C干燥3分钟。 The induced in the electrochromic device acts as a pixel electrode of a carbon block element dried at 120 ° C 3 min. 将20 X20滴电解质液滴(Luviquat Excellence,由BASF生产,包含10重量%的1102粉末(Kronos 2300,由KR0N0S生产))沉积至碳方块上,并且在60 °C干燥1分钟。 The drops of the electrolyte droplet 20 X20 (Luviquat Excellence, manufactured by BASF, containing 10 wt% of 1102 powder (Kronos 2300, manufactured by KR0N0S)) deposited onto the carbon block, and dried at 60 ° C 1 min. Luviquat是水溶液中的乙烯基吡咯烷酮和季铵化的乙烯基咪唑的共聚物。 Luviquat are copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and a quaternary ammonium in an aqueous solution of vinylimidazole. 为了使电解质充分地不透明使用Ti0 2。 In order to make use of the electrolyte is sufficiently opaque Ti0 2. 提供预先涂覆了PED0T: PSS(Orgacon EL-350,由AGFA生产)的PET箱。 Providing precoated PED0T: PSS (Orgacon EL-350, produced by the AGFA) a PET container. 将PED0T: PSS层通过小刀绘图工具图案化为20个矩形,每个矩形具有23 X lcm2的面积。 The PED0T: PSS layer by a knife into 20 rectangular pattern drawing tools, each rectangle having an area of ​​23 X lcm2. 在所得到的矩阵显示器中, PED0T:PSS矩形充当第一电极和第一像素层。 In the obtained matrix display, PED0T: PSS rectangle serving as a first electrode and a first pixel layer. 根据与第二电极上的电解质液滴相同的网状图案沉积20X20滴电解质液滴,并在60°C干燥1分钟。 20X20 droplet deposition dropwise electrolyte according to the electrolyte droplets on the second electrode pattern of the same mesh, and dried at 60 ° C 1 min. 作为最终的处理步骤,将第二电极与第一像素层层叠在一起,以使得所述层在垂直结构中彼此相对,并且导电银线和导电PED0T:PSS矩形以正交的方式取向。 As a final process step, the first pixel electrode and second layers are laminated together such that the layers relative to one another in a vertical structure, and conductive lines and conductive silver PED0T: PSS rectangle is orthogonal to the alignment. 后者确保矩阵显示器包含行和列。 The latter ensure that the matrix display comprising rows and columns.

[0121 ]实施例装置和参照装置的制备 Preparation means and the reference means [0121] Embodiment

[0122] 可以通过使用与用于上述矩阵显示器的材料相同的材料(碳浆,PED0T:PSS和电解质)和基板(PET箱)制造电致变色像素装置。 [0122] by using the above-described materials for the matrix display of the same material (carbon slurry, PED0T: PSS and electrolytes) means for producing an electrochromic pixel and the substrate (PET box). 在单个像素装置中不需要包含银的导电线。 In the apparatus does not require single pixel comprises a conductive silver wires.

[0123] 根据像素装置的第一实施例,将碳浆(7102,由DuPont生产)和PED0T:PSS浆液(Clevios S V3丝网印刷浆液,由HC Starck提供)丝网印刷在各自的PET箱基板上,每个沉积层具有35x35mm2的面积,并且之后在110 °C分别干燥5和2分钟。 [0123] According to a first embodiment of a pixel unit, a carbon paste (7102, manufactured by DuPont) and PED0T: PSS slurry (Clevios S V3 screen printing the slurry, supplied by HC Starck) screen printing a substrate in a respective box PET on each having an area of ​​35x35mm2 deposited layer, and then dried at 110 ° C 5, respectively, and for 2 minutes. 之后,将具有2x2mm2的面积的电解质层沉积在各自的预涂布的基板的角落,对每个基板一种电解质图案。 Thereafter, the area having 2x2mm2 electrolyte layer is deposited on the respective corners of the substrate pre-coated, an electrolyte substrate for each pattern. 在将电介质层在60°C干燥1分钟之后,通过将层层叠为垂直结构完成像素装置,其中夹在中间的电解质确保第一与第二像素层之间的离子连接。 In the dielectric layer was dried at 60 ° C after 1 minute, the layers are laminated by a vertical pixel structure complete apparatus wherein an electrolyte sandwiched between the first ion ensuring pixel layer and the second connector.

[0124] 制备像素装置的第二实施例,具有和第一实施例相同的装置结构,区别之处在于采用另一种类型的碳浆(PF-407A,由Acheson生产),将其沉积至所述第二像素层上代替7102碳浆。 Second Example [0124] Preparation of the pixel device, and having a first embodiment of the same configuration, except that a use of another type of carbon paste (PF-407A, produced by the Acheson), which are deposited to said carbon slurry 7102 in place on the second pixel layer.

[0125] 制备像素装置的第三实施例,具有和第一实施例相同的装置结构,区别之处在于采用包含预涂布的PED0T:PSS(0rgacon E1-350,由AGFA生产)的PET箱作为所述第一像素层。 [0125] Preparation of a third embodiment of a pixel unit, and having a first embodiment of the same apparatus configuration, except that a precoated comprising using PED0T: PSS (0rgacon E1-350, produced by AGFA) as a PET container the first pixel layer.

[0126] 制备像素装置的第一参照样品,具有和第一实施例相同的装置结构,区别之处在于将碳对电极替换为包含PED0T:PSS的电极。 [0126] Referring first pixel sample preparation means, and having a first embodiment of the same configuration, except that a pair of carbon electrodes PED0T replace comprising: PSS electrodes.

[0127] 制备像素装置的第二参照样品,具有和第一实施例相同的装置结构,但其中将碳对电极替换为银浆电极(Ag 5000,由DuPont生产)。 [0127] Referring to the second pixel sample preparation means, and having a first configuration means to the same embodiment, but on the carbon paste electrode is replaced with an electrode (Ag 5000, manufactured by DuPont).

[0128] 测量电化学装置性质 [0128] The electrochemical properties of the measuring device

[0129] 通过将电致变色像素装置连接至半导体参数分析仪(Hewlett Packard/Agilent 4155B)测量它们的IV特性。 [0129] IV characteristics thereof measured by connecting the device to the electrochromic pixel semiconductor parameter analyzer (Hewlett Packard / Agilent 4155B). 通过提供按照图la和lb所述安置的矩阵显示器,并将每个样品像素与该矩阵显示器中的其他详述分离,从而制备样品像素。 And each sample was separated from the other pixel of the matrix display is described in detail by FIGS. La and lb provided in accordance with the disposed matrix display, to prepare a sample pixel. 将电势连接至第二像素层,同时将第一像素层接地。 The potential connection to the second pixel layer, the ground while the first pixel layer. 电势开始于负值(将第一像素层氧化)并扫至正值(将第一像素层还原),并之后再次回到负值,例如-2V至2V至-2V。 Starts at a negative potential (of the first pixel layer oxide) and swept to a positive value (a first pixel layer reduction), and then back again to a negative value, for example, -2V to 2V to -2V. 所施加的电势每20ms增加10mV。 The applied potential of every 20ms increase 10mV. 换言之,像素电极层从其初始透明氧化态转换至其蓝色还原态并且之后转换回透明氧化态,并且通过参数分析仪连续记录通过像素装置的电流。 In other words, the pixel electrode layer is shifted from the transparent oxidation state to its original reduced state and converted back to the blue transparent after oxidation state, the current through the pixel and continuously recorded by means of parameter analyzer.

[0130]测试结果 [0130] Test Results

[0131] 像素装置的第一参照样品、第一、第二和第三实施例以及第二参照样品的IV曲线或IV特性在图5、6、7、8和9中给出。 The first reference sample [0131] pixel device, the first, second, and third embodiments and IV or IV characteristic curve of the second reference sample is given in FIGS. 5, 6, and 9. 缺少碳对电极的两个参照样品图5和9都不显示电压阈值行为,因为电流升高/降低或多或少地与所施加的电势呈线性。 Lack of a reference sample of carbon two electrodes 5 and FIG. 9 does not show a voltage threshold behavior, because the current increase / decrease more or less the applied potential is linear. 图5和9中的样品分别包含PEDOT: PSS和银作为对电极。 FIGS. 5 and 9 in each sample comprising PEDOT: PSS as the counter electrode and silver. 另一方面,在图6、7和8中的像素装置实施方案显示为约0.5-1.0V的电压阈值电势。 On the other hand, the pixel device embodiment in FIG 6, 7 and 8 show the voltage threshold of potential of about 0.5-1.0V. 在通过无源矩阵寻址驱动的矩阵显示器中可以利用这种电压阈值电势。 Driven by passive matrix addressing matrix display may be utilized such voltage threshold potential.

[0132] 图11-14示出了包含不同的电解质113的像素装置的实施例样品的IV曲线或IV 特性。 [0132] FIG 11-14 illustrate IV or IV characteristic curve of the samples of Examples containing different electrolytes apparatus 113 pixels. 其IV曲线示出在图11-14中的样品装置按照图la和lb所述安置,其中将矩阵显示器中每个样品像素从其他的像素分离。 IV curve thereof is shown in FIG. 11 to 14 sample device disposed in accordance with FIG. La and lb, wherein the separation matrix display each pixel sample from another pixel. 此外,每个像素110的第一像素层111包含PEDOT: PSS作为电致变色材料,并且第二像素层112包含碳。 Further, each of the pixels of the first pixel 110 of layer 111 comprises PEDOT: PSS as the electrochromic material and the second pixel layer 112 comprises carbon. 其IV曲线示出在图11中的像素装置的样品所用的电解质是聚(二烯丙基二甲基氯化铵),一种聚阳离子电解质水溶液。 IV curves illustrating sample pixel electrolyte means in FIG. 11 to be used is poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), a poly cationic aqueous electrolyte solution. 这种像素装置显示约为± 1.0V的阈值电压。 Such a pixel display device is approximately the threshold voltage of ± 1.0V. 此外,该实施例的实施方案在0V时具有低漏电电流。 Further, embodiments of this embodiment has a low leakage current when 0V. 因此,这种像素装置可用于通过无源矩阵寻址驱动的矩阵显示器。 Thus, such a pixel device can be used by passive matrix addressing driven matrix display.

[0133] 图12示出样品的两个不同实施方案的IV曲线。 [0133] FIG. 12 shows the IV curves of two different embodiments of the sample. 通过方块表示的取向是指包含乙烯基吡咯烷酮和季铵化的乙烯基咪唑的共聚物(Luviquati),由BASF以水溶液形式提供)作为聚阳离子电解质的样品。 Alignment means indicated by block comprising vinylpyrrolidone and quaternized vinylimidazole copolymer (Luviquati), provided in the form of an aqueous solution of BASF) as a sample polycation electrolyte. 通过圆圈表示的曲线是指包含聚苯乙烯磺酸钠盐(MW~70, 000,由Alfa Aesar提供)的水溶液作为聚阴离子电解质的样品。 Curve represented by the circles refers to an aqueous solution comprising polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt (MW ~ 70, 000, supplied by Alfa Aesar) as the polyanion electrolyte sample. 对应于图12中的图的两个实施例装置均示出约为±l.〇V的阈值电压和在0V时的低漏电电流。 FIG 12 corresponds to the embodiment of FIG two devices are shown approximately ± l.〇V threshold voltage and low leakage current at the time of 0V. 因此,这种像素装置也可用于通过无源矩阵寻址驱动的矩阵显示器。 Thus, such a pixel device can be used by passive matrix addressing driven matrix display.

[0134] 图1 3和1 4示出包含乙烯基吡咯烷酮和季铵化的乙烯基咪唑的共聚物( Uivkjuat®,由BASF以水溶液形式提供)作为聚阳离子电解质的样品的IV曲线。 [0134] FIGS. 13 and 14 is shown comprising vinylpyrrolidone and a vinylimidazole quaternized copolymer (Uivkjuat®, provided in the form of an aqueous solution by BASF) IV curve as a sample polycation electrolyte. 然而,每个像素装置的电解质包含不同的添加剂。 However, the electrolyte of each pixel of the apparatus comprise different additives. 产生图13中的曲线的像素装置的电解质中的添加剂的目的是为了能够具有可印刷性和可固化性。 Purpose electrolyte additive pixel generating means in FIG. 13 is a graph in order to be able printability and curability. 通过方块表示的曲线是指具有Luviq Uat:DL- 乳酸的比例为100:18.5重量比的电解质的样品。 Represented by squares curve refers Luviq Uat: DL- lactic acid ratio of 100: 18.5 by weight ratio of a sample of the electrolyte. 通过圆圈表示的取向是指具有Luviquat: DL-乳酸:甘油1,3-二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯的比例为100:18.5:2.7重量比的电解质的样品。 Alignment means represented by circle having Luviquat: DL- lactic acid: Glycerol ratio 1,3-glycerol diacrylate was 100: 18.5: 2.7 ratio of the sample weight of the electrolyte. 通过三角表示的图是指具有Luviquat:甘油1,3_二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯的比例为100:10重量比的电解质的样品。 FIG indicated by triangulation refers Luviquat: ratio of glycerol diacrylate glycerol 1,3_ two 100: sample ratio of 10% by weight electrolyte. 因此,可以使用添加剂如DL-乳酸和甘油1,3-二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯作为对Luviquat的添加剂,用于获得可固化性和可印刷性,同时保持能够在无源矩阵显示器中具有寻址能力所需的阈值电压。 Thus, additives such as glycerol and 1,3-DL- lactic acid glycerol diacrylate as an additive to Luviquat for obtaining curability and printability, while maintaining the hunt can have a passive matrix display needed to address capacity threshold voltage.

[0135] 对于产生图14中的IV曲线的像素装置,添加剂是甘油1,3-二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯(购自3丨8111&-八1(11';[(3]1)、01^-乳酸(购自3丨81]1&-八1(11';[(3]1)、1坪&(31^62959(2-羟基-4'-(2-轻基乙氧基)-2-甲基苯丙酮98%,购自Sigma Aldrich)、ΤΡ0(二苯基(2,4,6_三甲基苯甲酰基)氧化膦,Lucirin ΤΡ0,由BASF提供)、Ti02和水。通过方块表示的图是指具有Luviquat: 甘油1,3-二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯:DL-乳酸:Irgacure 2959: TPO: Ti02的比例以重量计为100: 3:1.9:0.21.0.17.10的电解质的样品。通过圆圈表示的图是指具有Luviquat:甘油1, 3_二甘油醇酸二丙烯酸酯:DL-乳酸:Irgacure2959: TPO: Ti02:水的比例以重量计为100: 10.8:18.5:0.77:0.62:92:19.2的电解质的样品。Irgacure 2959和ΤΡ0是光引发剂,以使电解质层能够UV固化,并且Ti02粒子可以用作反射模式下操作的像素中的浊化层。这些图表明,可以使用这些添加剂 [0135] means for generating pixel IV curve in FIG. 14, the additive is a glycerol 1,3-glycerol diacrylate (available from 3 & Shu 8111 - eight 1 (11 '; [(3] 1), 01 ^ - lactate (available from 3 Shu 81] & 1 - 1 eight (11 '; [(3] 1), 1 & floor (31 ^ 62959 (2-hydroxy-4' - (2-ethoxy light-yl) - 98% 2-methyl propiophenone, available from Sigma Aldrich), ΤΡ0 (diphenyl (2,4,6_ trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide, Lucirin ΤΡ0, supplied by BASF), Ti02 and water. by FIG squares represent refers Luviquat: glycerol, 1,3-glycerol diacrylate: DL-lactic acid: Irgacure 2959: TPO: Ti02 ratio by weight of 100: 3: 1.9: 0.21.0.17.10 of the sample electrolyte is represented by a circle in FIG refers Luviquat: 1 glycerol, diglycerol 3_ diacrylate: DL-lactic acid: Irgacure2959: TPO: Ti02: water ratio by weight of 100: 10.8: 18.5: 0.77: 0.62: 92: 19.2 and ΤΡ0 sample .Irgacure 2959 is a photoinitiator electrolyte to the electrolyte layer can be UV curable, and Ti02 particles may be used as opacifying layer pixel operating in reflective mode shows that the FIG. , these additives may be used 不削弱阈值电压。 Does not impair the threshold voltage.

[0136] 图10a是根据上述第三实施例制造的无源矩阵寻址显示器的照片,并且根据棋盘图案更新。 [0136] FIG 10a is a passive matrix addressing according to the third embodiment of fabricating the display picture, and updated according to a checkerboard pattern. 该特定的矩阵显示器包括20X20个电致变色像素装置,并且基本上没有串扰可以观察到,即相应的像素或暗或亮。 This particular 20X20 matrix display comprising a pixel electrochromic device, and substantially no crosstalk can be observed, i.e., the corresponding pixel or dark or light. 图l〇b是反映了显示器的一部分的草图,对应于图10a中虚线圆中的内容。 FIG l〇b sketch is reflected portion of the display, the corresponding content in the dashed circle in Figure 10a. 与图l〇a比较,图10b的草图具有轻微的顺时针旋转。 FIG l〇a comparison, Figure 10b is a sketch of a slight clockwise rotation. 在照片中,Ag-电极在各行像素元件下方水平伸展。 In the photograph, Ag- horizontal pixel element electrode extends below each row. 在图l〇b的草图中,将Ag-电极画成矩形,其当从右向左观察时是倾斜的(归因于顺时针旋转)。 In the sketch in FIG l〇b the Ag- Videos rectangular electrode, which is viewed from right to left when (due to the clockwise rotation) is inclined. 将电极设置在包含具有碳电极的通孔的绝缘基板上。 The upper electrode is provided comprising a carbon electrode having a through hole insulating substrate. 在绝缘基板的另一侧,设置包含碳的像素层。 On the other side of the insulating substrate, a pixel is provided comprising a carbon layer. 此外,将白色电解质液滴提供在每个包含碳的像素层的顶部上。 Further, the white electrolyte liquid droplets on top of each of the pixel layer comprises carbon. 最后,提供包含导电聚合物的半透明片,并安置为使得它覆盖所有电解质,即, 在所述电解质与所述半透明片接触处形成第一像素层。 Finally, there is provided a translucent sheet comprising a conductive polymer, and is disposed such that it covers all of the electrolyte, i.e., a first pixel layer is formed in the electrolyte at the contact with the translucent sheet. 在半透明板中设置细直的竖直切口,以将像素段彼此电子隔离,其中,在每个段中的像素从照片底部至照片顶部逐个安置。 A fine straight vertical slit provided in the translucent plate to the pixel segments electrically isolated from each other, wherein the pixels in each segment from the top to the bottom of the picture-by-picture is disposed. 两个竖直切口之间的距离为lcm。 The distance between the two vertical incision lcm. 每个段中的像素通过半透明片彼此电子接触。 Each pixel segment through the translucent sheet in electronic contact with each other. 如可在照片中可以看到的,每个像素的颜色,即半透明片的颜色,符合基本上完美的正方形。 As can be seen in the photographs, the color of each pixel, i.e. the color of the translucent sheet, meet substantially perfect square. 像素周围的白色材料是不与半透明片接触的电解质,但可以看穿。 White material around the pixel is not in contact with the electrolyte translucent sheet, but can see through. 在图1 〇b中,安置在Ag-电极的顶部上的离散的岛对应于电解质。 〇b in FIG. 1, the electrode disposed on the top of the Ag- corresponds to a discrete island electrolyte. 更详细地,按行安置的一组第一电极给出电致变色像素元件或第一像素层,而按列安置的一组第二电极给出矩阵显示器第二像素层。 In more detail, according to a first set of row electrodes disposed given electrochromic pixel elements or pixels of the first layer and the second set of electrodes according to a given column of the matrix display is disposed a second pixel layer. 每个相应的行和列连接至数字集成电路的输出引线,其通过施加电压驱动。 Each respective row and column leads connected to the output of the digital integrated circuit, which is driven by applying a voltage. 要通过显示器给出的所需图像储存在可编程的电路中,其通过一次或反复更新整个显示器输出图像。 To display a desired image by the analysis are stored in a programmable circuit, which repeatedly update the entire display or output image by one. 矩阵显示器逐行更新,虽然逐列扫描或单个像素扫描是其他可能的寻址替代方案。 Matrix display update row, column by column scanning, or while a single pixel scanning is addressing other possible alternatives. 在逐行扫描中,允许输出的信号激活相应的行,以使得所需的像素可以通过将电压施加至相应的列线而更新。 In progressive scanning, the enable signal output from a corresponding row activation, so that desired pixels may be applied by applying voltage to the respective column lines is updated. 未激活的行和未寻址列的输出是禁止的。 Inactive output lines and column addressing is not prohibited. 之后,将已经更新的行的输出引线禁止,并且通过相同的方法更新随后的行。 Thereafter, the output lead line has been updated prohibited, and updates the subsequent lines by the same method.

[0137] 在上述描述中,已经参照许多明确公开的实施方案大体上描述了本发明。 [0137] In the above description, the present invention has been generally described with reference to a number of embodiments explicitly disclosed. 然而,如本领域技术人员容易理解的,如在从属权利要求中所限定的本发明的范围内其他不同于以上公开的实施方案也是同样可能的。 However, as those skilled in the art will readily appreciate, different from the other embodiments disclosed above within the scope of the invention as defined in the dependent claims is equally possible. 例如,图5-9中的实施方案的电致变色像素层由PEDOT: PSS形成。 For example, the electrical embodiment of Figures 5-9 in the electrochromic pixel layer of PEDOT: PSS formed. 然而,除由PEDOT: PSS形成的电致变色材料之外的其他电致变色材料也可以用于电致变色像素层,并且落入本发明的范围内。 However, in addition to the PEDOT: electrochromic material other than electrochromic material formed PSS may also be used for the electrochromic pixel layer, and fall within the scope of the present invention. 此外,其他不同于上述公开的所施加的电势大小在本发明的范围内也是同样可能的。 In addition, other potential different from the above disclosed size of the applied within the scope of the present invention are equally possible.

Claims (15)

  1. 1. 一种无源矩阵显示装置(100; 200),所述显示装置包括一组安置为矩阵的像素单元(110; 210), 其中每个像素单元包括: 第一像素层(111 ;211),所述第一像素层包含在不同的视觉上可察觉的色彩状态之间可电化学转换的电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料, 第二像素层(112; 212 ),所述第二像素层面对所述第一像素层,和固化的电解质的第三像素层(113;213),所述第三像素层在空间上安置在所述第一像素层与所述第二像素层之间,并与所述第一像素层和所述第二像素层离子接触, 每个像素单元(11〇;210)的所述第二像素层(112;212)安置为包含导电碳的材料,并且其中所述固化的电解质是聚阳离子电解质或聚阴离子电解质, 从而提供至少响应跨越所述像素单元施加的电压的阈值电压, 并且其中每个像素的颜色由所述电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材 A passive matrix display device (100; 200), said display means comprises a set of pixel units disposed in a matrix (110; 210), wherein each pixel unit comprises: a first pixel layer (111; 211) , the first pixel layer comprises an electrochemical conversion of electrical photochromic organic polymeric material and the electrochemically active between perceptible in different visual color states, the second pixel layer (112; 212), the the second level of the first pixel pixel layer, the electrolyte layer and the cured third pixel (113; 213), the third pixel space layer is disposed on the first pixel and the second pixel layer between the layers, and in contact with the first pixel layer and the second layer ion-pixel, each pixel unit; the (11〇 210) a second pixel layer (112; 212) is disposed comprising conductive carbon material, and wherein the electrolyte is a solidified electrolyte polycationic or polyanionic electrolyte to provide at least a threshold voltage of the response across the voltage applied to the pixel unit, and wherein the color of each pixel by an electrochemical electrochromic and reactive organic polymeric materials 料的氧化还原态上的改变提供;并且在所述像素的颜色转换过程中,所述电解质的颜色保持不变。 Changes in the redox state of the material is provided; and a color conversion process of the pixel, the color of the electrolyte remains constant.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的显示装置,所述显示装置还包括一组第一电极(121 ;221)和一组第二电极(122;222),所述一组第一电极与所述一组第二电极彼此电子隔离,并且安置为使得: -每个所述第一电极(121 ;221)与每个所述第二电极(221; 222)仅在一个交叉点交叉, 并且-每个所述像素单元(11〇;210)安置在各自的一个所述交叉点处,所述交叉点由各自的第一电极和各自的第二电极(121&、122&;221&、222 &)形成,其中: -每个所述像素单元(11〇;210)的所述第一像素层(111;211)与所述各自的第一电极(121a;221a)的一部分一致,并且-每个所述像素单元(110; 210)的所述第二像素层(112; 212)与所述各自的第二电极(122a; 222a)的一部分一致,或者与所述各自的第二电极(122a; 222a)电子接触。 The display device according to claim 1, wherein the display means further comprises a first set of electrodes (121; 221) and a plurality of second electrodes (122; 222), a set of the first electrode and the a second set of electrodes isolated from each other electronics, and is arranged such that: - each of said first electrode (121; 221) with each of said second electrode (221; 222) intersect at an intersection only, and - each the pixel cells (11〇; 210) disposed at a respective one of said intersection, the intersection point (& 121, & 122; 221 &, & 222) by a respective first electrode and a respective second electrode, wherein: - each of the pixel unit; the (11〇 210) a first pixel layer (111; 211) (; 221a 121a) of a portion of the same, and - each of said first electrodes and said respective pixel unit; (110 210) a second pixel layer (112; 212) and said respective second electrodes (122a; 222a) of the same part, or the second electrode and the respective (122a; 222a) electrical contact.
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的显示装置,所述显示装置还包括一组第一电极(121 ;221)和一组第二电极(122;222),所述一组第一电极与所述一组第二电极彼此电子隔离,并且安置为使得: -每个所述第一电极(121 ;221)与每个所述第二电极(221; 222)仅在一个交叉点交叉, 并且-每个所述像素单元(11〇;210)安置在各自的一个所述交叉点处,所述交叉点由各自的第一电极和各自的第二电极(121&、122&;221&、222 &)形成,其中: -每个所述像素单元(11〇;210)的所述第一像素层(111;211)与所述各自的第一电极(121a;221a)电子接触,并且-每个所述像素单元(110; 210)的所述第二像素层(112; 212)与所述各自的第二电极(122a; 222a)的一部分一致,或者与所述各自的第二电极(122a; 222a)电子接触。 The display device according to claim 1, wherein the display means further comprises a first set of electrodes (121; 221) and a plurality of second electrodes (122; 222), a set of the first electrode and the a second set of electrodes isolated from each other electronics, and is arranged such that: - each of said first electrode (121; 221) with each of said second electrode (221; 222) intersect at an intersection only, and - each the pixel cells (11〇; 210) disposed at a respective one of said intersection, the intersection point (& 121, & 122; 221 &, & 222) by a respective first electrode and a respective second electrode, wherein: - each of the pixel unit (11〇; 210) of the first pixel layer (111; 211) with said respective first electrodes (121a; 221a) electrical contact, and - each of the pixels unit; (110 210) a second pixel layer; (; 222a 122a) of the same part, or with the respective second electrodes (112,212) and the respective second electrodes (122a; 222a) electronic contact.
  4. 4. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,所述显示装置没有其中每个控制元件与各自的一个所述像素单元结合并且安置为提供用于有源控制所述像素单元的颜色的晶体管功能的一组单独的控制元件。 The display device according to any one of claim 1-3 claims, wherein each of the display device is not a control element with a respective one of said pixel unit arranged to provide for binding and controlling the active pixels a separate set of control elements such as transistors color function unit.
  5. 5. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,所述显示装置安置在柔性基板(117; 217)。 The display device according to any one of claims 1-3 claims, wherein the display means is disposed in the flexible substrate (117; 217).
  6. 6. 根据权利要求5所述的显示装置,其中所述柔性基板(117;217)为包含纸和/或塑料的柔性基板。 The display device according to claim 5, wherein the flexible substrate (117; 217) comprising paper and / or plastic flexible substrate.
  7. 7. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,所述显示装置安置为多层,所述多层具有可印刷性和柔性中的至少一个。 The display device according to any one of claims 1-3 claims, wherein the display device is disposed as a multilayer, the multilayer printability and having at least one flexible.
  8. 8. 根据权利要求2-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,其中所述像素单元(110;210)的所述第一电极(121; 221)和第一像素层(111; 211)全部包含相同的材料,和/或其中所述像素单元(110; 210)的所述第二电极(122; 222)和第二像素层(112 ;212)全部安置为相同的材料。 The display device according to any one of 2-3, wherein the pixel unit of claim 1; (110 210) a first electrode (121; 221) and a first pixel layer (111; 211) all comprise the same material, and / or wherein the pixel unit; (110 210) a second electrode (122; 222) and a second pixel layer (112; 212) are all arranged the same material.
  9. 9. 根据权利要求8所述的显示装置,其中每个所述像素单元(110;210)的所述第一电极(121;221)和第一像素层(111;211)全部是相同的层中的一部分,和/或其中每个所述像素单元(110; 210)的所述第二电极和第二像素层(112; 212)全部是相同的层中的一部分。 The display device according to claim 8, wherein each of the pixel unit; (110 210) a first electrode (121; 221) and a first pixel layer (111; 211) are all the same layer a portion of, and / or wherein each of the pixel unit; (110 210) a second pixel layer and the second electrode (112; 212) are all part of the same layer.
  10. 10. 根据权利要求3所述的显示装置,其中每个所述像素单元(110;210)的所述第二像素层(112;212)与所述各自的第二电极(122a;222a)电子接触,并且其中所述显示装置还包括绝缘层(318),所述绝缘层安置在所述一组像素单元的每个像素单元(310)中的所述第二电极(322)与所述第二像素层(312)之间,并且所述绝缘层还包括各自安置有电子导体(320)的通道(319),所述电子导体将各自的像素单元(310)的各自的第二像素层(312)与所述第二电极(322)各自电子连接。 The display device according to claim 3, wherein each of the pixel unit; (110 210) a second pixel layer (112; 212) and said respective second electrodes (122a; 222a) Electronic contacts, and wherein said apparatus further comprises display means for each pixel (310) insulating layer (318), said insulating layer disposed in the pixel unit in a set of second electrode (322) and the first between two pixel layer (312), and the insulating layer are each disposed with a channel further comprises (319) an electronic conductor (320), said electronic conductor of each pixel unit (310) of each of the second pixel layer ( 312) (322) are each electronically connected to the second electrode.
  11. 11. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,其中在各自的像素单元中,所述第二像素层覆盖所述第三像素层的中心部分。 11. The display device according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein in each pixel unit, the second pixel layer covering the central portion of the third layer pixel.
  12. 12. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,其中在各自的像素单元中,所述第二像素层的表面积为所述电解质的表面积的至少60%,或至少75%,或至少90%,或至少95%〇 According to any one of claims 1-3 in the display device, wherein each pixel unit, the second pixel layer surface area is at least 60% of the surface area of ​​the electrolyte, or at least 75% , or at least 90%, or at least 95% of the square
  13. 13. 根据权利要求1-3中的任一项所述的显示装置,其中所述固化的电解质是聚阳离子电解质。 13. The display device according to any one of the 1-3 claims, wherein the electrolyte is a solidified electrolyte polycationic.
  14. 14. 根据权利要求10所述的显示装置,其中所述绝缘层为塑料绝缘层。 The display device according to claim 10, wherein said insulating layer is an insulating layer of plastic.
  15. 15. 以下各项用于提供可以在一组像素单元中使用的像素单元的用途: -第一像素层(111 ;211),所述第一像素层色含在不同的视觉上可察觉的色彩状态之间可电化学转换的电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料, -第二像素层(112;212),所述第二像素层面对所述第一像素层,所述第二像素层由包含导电碳的材料形成,和-固化的电解质的第三像素层(113;213),所述第三像素层在空间上安置在所述第一像素层与所述第二像素层之间,并与所述第一像素层和所述第二像素层离子接触, 其中所述固化的电解质是聚阳离子电解质或聚阴离子电解质,当跨越任意所述像素单元施加电压时所述一组像素单元各自具有阈值电压响应, 并且其中每个像素的颜色由所述电致变色和电化学活性的有机聚合物材料的氧化还原态上的改变提供;并且在所述像素的颜色转换过程中 15. The following uses for providing the pixel unit may be used in a set of pixel units: - a first pixel layer (111; 211), said first color pixel layer containing perceptible in different visual color electrically electrochemical conversion between the states and the electrochemically active electrochromic organic polymer material, - a second pixel layer (112; 212), the second pixel level of the first pixel layer, the second pixel layer is formed of a material containing a conductive carbon, and - a third pixel layer of solidified electrolyte (113; 213), the third pixel space layer is disposed on the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel between, and in contact with the first pixel layer and the second layer pixel ions, wherein the electrolyte is a solidified electrolyte polycationic or polyanionic electrolyte, when the set voltage is applied across the pixel cells of any pixel units each having a voltage response threshold, and wherein the change in the redox state of the organic polymer material by the color of each pixel and the electrochemically active electrochromic provided; and the pixel color conversion process ,所述电解质的颜色保持不变。 , The color of the electrolyte remains constant.
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