CN103197406B - Optical compensation continuous zooming passive athermalization optical system - Google Patents

Optical compensation continuous zooming passive athermalization optical system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103197406B
CN103197406B CN201210483354.7A CN201210483354A CN103197406B CN 103197406 B CN103197406 B CN 103197406B CN 201210483354 A CN201210483354 A CN 201210483354A CN 103197406 B CN103197406 B CN 103197406B
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lens
optical
mirror
focus
varifocal
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CN201210483354.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103197406A (en
Inventor
邓键
钟小兵
郑昌盛
汤磊
陈代中
童静
张小川
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西南技术物理研究所
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Abstract

The invention provides an optical compensation continuous zooming passive athermalization optical system, and aims at providing an optical structure which can achieve optical passive athermalization between minus 45 DEG C and 60 DEG C and is suitable for a near-infrared band (0.6 micrometer-1.0 micrometer). The technical scheme of the system is achieved through the facts including that in a lens barrel optical system, a front fixed lens group (7), a front zoom lens group (6), a fixed lens group (5), a rear zoom lens group (4), an aperture diaphragm (3) and a rear fixed lens group (2) are sequentially arranged from an object plane to a focal plane; and in the variable time process, a space between the front zoom lens group and the rear zoom lens group is kept unchanged, a motor fixedly connected to a lens barrel serves as a driving source, zoom lens groups are driven by a gear-guide rail mechanism to move linearly in the direction of an optical axis of the optical system forward and backward, and the front zoom lens group and the rear zoom lens group are driven to be in linkage in the optical axis forward and backward in equidistance, constant speed and identical direction manners to achieve continuous change of a focal distance.

Description

The passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of optical design of near-infrared band.Specifically, the present invention relates to a kind of use optical compensation continuous vari-focus and have PASSIVE OPTICAL disappear heat difference function optical design.
Background technology
When optical instrument through using in comparatively large-temperature range, lens barrel material, optical material expand with heat and contract with cold and the temperature refraction rate coefficient of optical material can make camera lens focal power change, produce out of focus phenomenon, image quality worsened.The Athermal design of infrared optical system is by technology such as certain machinery, optics and electronics, makes optical system in the temperature range that variation range is larger, keep the stable of image quality.The current heat difference mode that disappears mainly contains: dynamo-electric active, mechanical passive type and optical passive mode.Optical passive mode is by reasonable distribution focal power and optical material, and what realize that position of focal plane changes with optical tube length mates, thus within the scope of set point of temperature, ensure the image quality of camera lens.
In zoom system, pancreatic system, mainly contain the zoom mode based on optical compensation and mechanical compensation.The former only has one group or a few mirror pack to make it move at the uniform velocity in the same way simultaneously, and its best visual field point is N=M-1, and wherein, M is fixed mirror group and varifocal mirror group number sum.Therefore, this Zoom structure is used in the system of many grades of zooms more, and zooming procedure is discrete, the curvilinear motion by zoom group and compensating group as the compensation system of machinery can not realize continuous vari-focus.But the moving component of this structure can axially move at the uniform velocity in the same way, and structure is simple, therefore for Design of Mechanical Structure and dress school, and the reliability in high and low temperature environment is all being much higher than the structure of mechanical compensation.
US Patent No. 3294471 discloses a kind of optical lens based on optical compensation principle, the continuous vari-focus within 5 times is achieved by control depth of focus, but its do not realize PASSIVE OPTICAL disappear heat poor, thus need manually to focus to ensure image quality in the environment for use of different temperatures.
Disclosed in US Patent No. 7092150, technical scheme does not realize without thermalized design equally, and based on medium-wave infrared wave band.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is to provide one, and to have small volume structure compact, Zoom structure is simple, the passive heat difference and be applicable to near-infrared band (0.6 μm ~ 1.0 μm) or visible light wave range (0.4 μm ~ 0.65 μm) and other near-infrared band (1.1 μm ~ 1.5 μm), based on the heat difference optical system structure that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus of disappearing of optical profile type can be realized.
In order to solve above technical matters, the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of a kind of optical compensation continuous vari-focus provided by the invention, in lens barrel optical system, comprise successively from object plane 8 to focal plane 1: front fixed mirror group 7, front varifocal mirror group 6, fixed mirror group 5, rear varifocal mirror group 4, aperture diaphragm 3 and rear fixed mirror group 2, it is characterized in that, the fixing group 5 of central authorities is negative lens group, and between front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4, in zoom process, front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 keep spacing constant, and to connect firmly motor on lens barrel as drive source, varifocal mirror group is driven to move at system optical axis direction tandem by gear-guide rail mechanism, drive front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4, equidistant on optical axis, constant speed, Deng direction front and back linkage, consecutive variations focal length.
The present invention has following beneficial effect compared to prior art:
Present invention employs the most frequently used linear expansion coefficient is 23.6 × 10 -6the common aluminum alloy lens barrel of/K, can ensure the temperature range at-45 DEG C ~ 60 DEG C, optical system the optical transfer function (MTF) of all visual fields of all focal lengths at 90lp/mm time be all greater than 0.3;
The present invention is equidistant on optical axis by burnt mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4, constant speed, etc. direction front and back linkage consecutive variations focal length and fixed mirror group 5 negative focal length between front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 extend the zoom mode of depth of focus optical compensation, achieve the continuous vari-focus of this system, namely the spacing before in zoom process between varifocal mirror group and rear varifocal mirror group is constant, front varifocal mirror group, rear varifocal mirror group be the direction front and back linkage such as equidistant constant speed on optical axis, focal length can from 13mm to 39mm consecutive variations.To visible ray 0.4 μm ~ 0.65 μm or other near-infrared bands, as all ensured in each focal length of the wave bands such as 1.1 μm ~ 1.5 μm and temperature range, the optical transfer function MTF of all visual fields is greater than 0.3 when 90lp/mm.Adopt the lens material matched with lens barrel linear expansion coefficient, compensate for the out of focus caused because of expanding with heat and contract with cold of causing of lens barrel material temperature change.
The present invention is when front and back zoom group lens move, when optical system imaging not in optimal focal plane position time, because the negative focal length of central fixed mirror group 5 extends depth of focus, its good correcting chromatic aberration ability, in a disguised form plays compensating group effect simultaneously, and because multiplying power is little, in zoom group moving process, no matter whether it is in the position of best picture, and light does not all exceed depth of focus by the focusing range after optical system, also can become perfect picture.
The present invention has only used ten a slice lens, and wherein two two gummeds, have good tolerance characteristic simultaneously.Have volume compact, the simple advantage of Zoom structure, solve existing employing optical compensation continuous vari-focus system needs focusing to solve the problem of imaging definition under different temperatures environment.
The wave band scope of application of optical system of the present invention is near infrared 0.6 μm ~ 1.0 μm, or 0.4 of visible ray μm ~ 0.65 mu m waveband, or its all band near infrared is as 1.1 μm ~ 1.5 mu m wavebands.Temperature applicable range is-45 DEG C ~ 60 DEG C, needn't focus and can become sharply defined image in this temperature range.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the lens model schematic diagram of the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is focal length is the structural representation of 30mm based on the optical system of optical compensation continuous vari-focus.
Fig. 4 is focal length is the structural representation of 23mm based on the optical system of optical compensation continuous vari-focus.
Fig. 5 is focal length is the structural representation of 13mm based on the optical system of optical compensation continuous vari-focus
In figure: 1 focal plane, fixed mirror group after 2,3 aperture diaphragms, varifocal mirror group after 4,5 fixed mirror groups, varifocal mirror group before 6, fixed mirror group before 7,8 object planes.
Embodiment
In order to know the feature setting forth the technical program further, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, provide the preferred forms of a specific embodiment of the invention, the present invention will be described, but should not be understood as limitation of the invention.
Consult Fig. 1.Perfect lens modeled optical system immobilizes from image planes 1 to the total length of front fixed mirror group 7 in zooming procedure, and wherein, the position of front fixed mirror group 7, central authorities fixing group 5, diaphragm 3, rear fixed mirror group 2 and image planes 1 is constant; Two the moving lens groups i.e. central spacing of front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 also keeps constant.In zooming procedure, front varifocal mirror group 6, rear varifocal mirror group 4 be the direction front and back linkage such as equidistant constant speed on optical axis.During narrow visual field, zoom group is near object plane 8 position; From narrow visual field in wide visual field change procedure, zoom group moves to focal plane 1 direction.Under various temperature environment, zooming procedure remains unchanged, and picture element is also substantially constant.
Consult Fig. 2.The heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus is placed in the optical system structure in aluminium alloy lens barrel, and this optical system comprises from object plane 8 successively to focal plane 1: front fixed mirror group 7, front varifocal mirror group 6, fixed mirror group 5, rear varifocal mirror group 4, aperture diaphragm 3, rear fixed mirror group 2.The fixed mirror group having three positions to remain unchanged from object plane 8 to focal plane and fixing aperture diaphragm, and in zoom process, spacing remains two constant varifocal mirror groups.Lens after object plane 8 are front fixed mirror group 7, and its position immobilizes in optical system; Mirror group before image planes 1 is rear fixed mirror group 2, and its position also immobilizes in optical system.The aperture diaphragm 3 of confine optical beam bore is in rear fixed mirror group 2 front end, and its position keeps fixing in optical system.Two moveable varifocal mirror groups i.e. front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 spacing is fixed, can on optical axis equidistantly, constant speed, etc. direction front and back linkage, and at diverse location all to there being different focal; A lens combination is placed in the middle of these two varifocal mirror groups as fixed mirror group 5, and its position keeps fixing in optical system; In zoom process, system overall length is constant.
Zoom group in the present embodiment have employed the mode of two lens combination interlocks, common electric machine can be adopted as drive source, motor is installed on lens barrel, drive varifocal mirror group to move at system optical axis direction tandem by gear-guide rail mechanism, former and later two varifocal mirror groups are moved forward and backward together on optical axis and realizes zoom.Two variable focus lens package are positive lens groups, form five mirror groups altogether with front and back fixed mirror group, fixed mirror group, have 4 possible shift positions can become best sharply defined image on focal plane in the moving process of variable focus lens package in theory.The fixing group of central authorities is negative lens group, is placed in the middle of front and back zoom group 4,6.Rear variable focus lens package 4, front varifocal mirror group 6 front and back linkage on optical axis, at all corresponding different focal length of the diverse location of their movements.
The present embodiment have selected the image-forming objective lens of hereby ten thousand configurations as initial configuration, have selected zinc sulphide ZnS bears negative-power lenses material as major part especially, because this material is 45 × 10 at the thermal refractive index coefficient of 0.6 ~ 1.0 mu m waveband -6/ K, as negative lens, when temperature raises, its focal length is elongated, and when temperature reduces, focal length shortens, and can compensate structure when aluminium alloy lens barrel temperature raises elongated, when temperature reduces, structure shortens and the system out of focus that causes; And the Abbe number of this material is about 16 at this wave band, refractive index reaches 2.3, as the aberration that positive lens in negative lens energy preferably compensation optical system is formed, the radius-of-curvature of lens can be made again unlikely too little simultaneously, effectively can reduce the senior aberration that optical system causes because lens radius of curvature is too small.Adopt the LaF1 material of lanthanum flint glass as another kind of negative lens material, because of the relative crown glass of its refractive index comparatively large (about 1.68), Abbe number less relative to crown glass (about 49), coordinates the eliminating effect that can play second order spectrum with zinc sulphide ZnS.For the positive lens of system, the light crown glass QK3 that mainly have selected refractive index less (about 1.48) and Abbe number comparatively large (about 70) bears main focal power, and its thermal refractive index coefficient is about-3 × 10 -6/ K, equally can when temperature raises focal length elongated, when temperature reduces, focal length shortens, and compensates structure when aluminium alloy lens barrel temperature raises elongated, and when temperature reduces, structure shortens and the system out of focus that causes; Refractive index comparatively large (about 1.61) and the dense crown ZK10 material of Abbe number slightly little (about 57), as another kind of achromat, coordinate with light crown glass QK3 and eliminate second order spectrum, while also bear certain positive light coke.The cooperation of above four kinds of materials, can allow optical system rear cut-off distance corresponding elongated while sterilizing system aberration, second order spectrum when temperature raises, optical system rear cut-off distance shorter when temperature reduces, the out of focus that coupling lens barrel material produces in process of expansion and contraction.This structure obtained can in the temperature range of regulation, and in such as-45 DEG C ~ 60 DEG C, guarantee system has good picture element all the time, and the MTF curve namely when 90lp/mm is greater than 0.3.
In zoom process, fixed mirror group is the mirror group that in optical system, position remains unchanged.Front fixed mirror group 7 is a slice negative lens; Front varifocal mirror group 6 is a slice positive lens, forms negative power mirror group by two gummed and single dialyte lens three pieces of lens; Rear variable focus lens package 4 is by two gummed and single dialyte lens three pieces of lens forming positive light coke mirror groups; The zoom group spacing of front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 composition is fixed, and front fixed mirror group 7, optical axis between fixed mirror group 5 and diaphragm 3 move forward and backward.The middle spacing of front variable focus lens package 6 and rear variable focus lens package 4, remains constant in the process of zoom; Rear fixed mirror group 2 forms positive light coke mirror group by three pieces of dialyte lenses.Aperture diaphragm 3 plays the effect in confine optical beam aperture.
Next, in order to clearly demonstrate above-mentioned know-why better, optical design configurations have employed the structure of aperture F#4.5 in the present embodiment, F# is f-number, is relative aperture bore and the inverse of the ratio of focal length, i.e. F=f/D, design wavelength band is 0.6 μm ~ 1.0 μm, pixel dimension adopts 3.75 μm × 3.75 μm, pixel number 1288 × 966, and image planes are of a size of CCD or the cmos detector of 4.8mm × 3.6mm.Lens materials in this design adopts four kinds of materials such as zinc sulphide ZnS material, light crown glass QK3 material, dense crown ZK10 material and lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material.
For heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, need meet the following conditions:
In formula for every block power of lens, for optical system focal power, ν ifor the abbe number of every block lens, for the focal length variations that lens material causes because of refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT, α lfor the linear expansion coefficient of lens barrel material, L is optical tube length.
For heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, described rear fixed mirror group 2 forms positive lens groups by three dialyte lenses, and focal power is 40.477mm, and wherein lens 201 adopt abbe number ν icomparatively large, the positive lens of the light crown glass QK3 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less, lens 202 adopt abbe number ν iless, the negative lens of the lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less, lens 203 adopt abbe number ν imoderate, the positive lens of the dense crown ZK10 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less.
For heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, two gummeds that described central fixed mirror group 5 is made up of three lens are singly separated negative lens group, and wherein lens (501) adopt coefficient ν iless, the negative lens that the lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less is made, lens 502 adopt abbe number ν iless, the positive lens that the zinc sulphide ZnS material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is larger is made, lens 503 adopt coefficient ν iless, the negative lens that the lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less is made.
For obtaining the function of optical compensation continuous vari-focus, the zoom group spacing of described front varifocal mirror group 6 and rear varifocal mirror group 4 composition is fixed, and front fixed mirror group 7, optical axis between fixed mirror group 5 and diaphragm 3 move forward and backward: during in focal length and 39mm focal length, the vertex of surface of front varifocal mirror group 6 near object plane 8 side fixes group 7 away from the vertex distance in the face of object plane 8 side on optical axis before distance is 0.5861mm; When short Jiao and 13mm focal length, the vertex of surface of front zoom group 6 near object plane 8 side fixes group 7 away from the vertex distance in the face of object plane 8 side on optical axis before distance is about 12.4mm.
For achromatism and aberration, described front varifocal mirror group 6 is abbe number ν icomparatively large, the positive lens that the light crown glass QK3 material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is less is made, focal power is 31.452mm.
For heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, described rear varifocal mirror group 4 forms positive lens groups by lens 401, the single separation of the two gummed of lens 402 and lens 403 3 lens, and focal power is 20.293mm, and wherein lens 401 adopt abbe number ν imoderate, the positive lens that the less dense crown ZK10 of refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT makes, lens 402 adopt abbe number ν iless, negative lens, lens 403 that the zinc sulphide ZnS material that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT is larger is made adopt abbe number ν imoderate, the positive lens that refractive index/temperature coefficient dn/dT less dense crown ZK10 material is made.
Described front fixed mirror group 7 adopts abbe number ν iless, refractive index/temperature coefficient and the larger focal power of dn/dT are the negative lens that-100.09mm zinc sulphide ZnS material is made.
In the present embodiment, the preferred common aluminum alloy of lens barrel material and without the need to other special materials, this material has good picture element in-45 DEG C ~ 60 DEG C.In order to or more excellent design result, the better material of other thermal expansivity can be adopted.
For reducing the difficulty of processing because aspheric mirror brings, in the present embodiment, 22 minute surfaces of 11 eyeglasses all adopt spherical mirror structure.
In the present embodiment, aperture F#4.5, the system overall length to image planes is 66mm, and maximum caliber is less than 23mm, focal range 13mm ~ 39mm, zoom ratio is 3 ×, there is less volume, and belong to interior zoom, in zoom process, barycenter change is little, and system overall length is constant, and F number is constant.
More than utilize the embodiment description of this invention, it is intended that exemplary, does not provide constraints to protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, apparent for those skilled in the art, in the condition not departing from right proposed by the invention, feature replacement or amendment can be carried out to described the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus, in lens barrel optical system, comprise successively from object plane (8) to focal plane (1): front fixed mirror group (7), front varifocal mirror group (6), fixed mirror group (5), rear varifocal mirror group (4), aperture diaphragm (3) and rear fixed mirror group (2), the fixing group (5) of central authorities is negative lens group, and be positioned between front varifocal mirror group (6) and rear varifocal mirror group (4), in zoom process, front varifocal mirror group (6) and rear varifocal mirror group (4) keep spacing constant, and to connect firmly motor on lens barrel as drive source, varifocal mirror group is driven to move at system optical axis direction tandem by gear-guide rail mechanism, drive front varifocal mirror group (6) and rear varifocal mirror group (4), equidistant on optical axis, constant speed, Deng direction front and back linkage, consecutive variations focal length, it is characterized in that, in order to disappear, heat is poor, described rear fixed mirror group (2) is made up of three dialyte lenses, wherein lens (201) are the positive lenss adopting light crown glass QK3 material to make, lens (202) are the negative lenses adopting lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material to make, lens (203) are the positive lenss adopting dense crown ZK10 material to make, for heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, two gummeds that described fixed mirror group (5) is made up of three lens are singly separated negative lens group, wherein lens (501) are the negative lenses adopting lanthanum flint glass LAF1 material to make, lens (502) are the positive lenss adopting zinc sulphide materials to make, and lens (503) are the negative lenses adopting lanthanum flint glass material to make, for heat difference and the aberration of disappearing, described rear varifocal mirror group (4) by lens (401), the two gummed of lens (402) and lens (403) three lens is single is separated positive lens groups form, wherein lens (401) to be positive lens, the lens (402) adopting dense crown to make be negative lens that employing zinc sulphide materials makes, lens (403) are the positive lenss that employing dense crown material is made.
2., by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described front fixed mirror group (7) is the negative lens as achromatism and heat difference adopting zinc sulphide materials to make.
3. by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, be achromatism, and described front varifocal mirror group (6) is the positive lens that the good light crown glass material of dispersion is made.
4. by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the zoom group spacing that front varifocal mirror group (6) and rear varifocal mirror group (4) form is fixed, and front fixed mirror group (7), optical axis between fixed mirror group (5) and diaphragm (3) move forward and backward.
5., by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, during narrow visual field, zoom group is near object plane (8) position, and from narrow visual field in wide visual field change procedure, zoom group moves to focal plane (1) direction.
6., by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the aperture diaphragm (3) of confine optical beam bore is in rear fixed mirror group (2) front end, and its position keeps fixing in described optical system.
7., by the passive heat difference optical system that disappears of optical compensation continuous vari-focus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, lens material adopts the linear expansion coefficient matched with lens barrel material.
CN201210483354.7A 2012-11-25 2012-11-25 Optical compensation continuous zooming passive athermalization optical system CN103197406B (en)

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CN104090353B (en) * 2014-07-15 2016-03-30 福建福光股份有限公司 Optical passive mode disappears heat difference continuous vari-focus high-resolution lens
CN104459932A (en) * 2014-12-18 2015-03-25 常州市好利莱光电科技有限公司 Infrared-involved motorized zoom lens
CN104570297B (en) * 2014-12-30 2017-02-22 中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所 Refrigerating medium wave infrared graded zooming tracking lens
CN105223679B (en) * 2015-10-16 2017-06-16 西南技术物理研究所 The common light path double-view field athermal optical imaging system of object lens of large relative aperture near-infrared
CN107121766B (en) * 2017-06-07 2019-07-26 湖北久之洋红外系统股份有限公司 A kind of continuous zooming optical device
CN108827898A (en) * 2018-04-18 2018-11-16 北京理工大学 A kind of infrared microscopy optical enhancement system and method for continuous vari-focus
CN109491057A (en) * 2018-11-06 2019-03-19 中国航空工业集团公司洛阳电光设备研究所 A kind of no thermalization ultra-large vision field medium-wave infrared optical system
CN109521549B (en) * 2018-11-12 2020-04-28 江西联创电子有限公司 Super wide-angle lens

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