CN103190268A - Facility agricultural non-point source pollutant on-site intercepting and absorptive method - Google Patents

Facility agricultural non-point source pollutant on-site intercepting and absorptive method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103190268A
CN103190268A CN2013101248495A CN201310124849A CN103190268A CN 103190268 A CN103190268 A CN 103190268A CN 2013101248495 A CN2013101248495 A CN 2013101248495A CN 201310124849 A CN201310124849 A CN 201310124849A CN 103190268 A CN103190268 A CN 103190268A
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China
Prior art keywords
phosphorus
nitrogen
control
agricultural
point source
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Pending
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CN2013101248495A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
洪丽芳
付利波
尹梅
陈华
陈检锋
苏帆
杨育华
赵光顺
尹胜鑫
任石所
周萍丽
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Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resources of Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resources of Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Priority to CN2013101248495A priority Critical patent/CN103190268A/en
Publication of CN103190268A publication Critical patent/CN103190268A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of environment protection, and relates to a facility agricultural non-point source pollutant on-site intercepting and absorptive method. By the aid of a triple intercepting and absorptive method of source control, process blocking and intercepting and destination absorption and fixation of facility agricultural pollutants, non-point source pollution sources-flow-convergence processes and water-fertilizer key factors determining forming of non-point source pollution are subjected to process key point control, and on-site reduction of facility agricultural non-point source pollution is achieved by means of reducing consumption of nitrogen and phosphorus, increasing nitrogen and phosphorus absorption, preventing nitrogen and phosphorus loss and recycling nitrogen and phosphorus. By the method, nitrogenous fertilizer input of facility farmlands is decreased by 35%, phosphate fertilizer input is decreased by 22%, chemical pesticide input is decreased by 41.4%, agricultural waste recycling and harmless treatment utilization rate reaches 91.7%, treatment cycle is shorted by 46.2%, nitrogen is reduced on site by 38.45%, and phosphorus is reduced by 25.42%. The method can be widely applied to interception and control of facility agricultural non-point source pollutants.

Description

A kind of industrialized agriculture area source pollutants is tackled and the method for dissolving on the spot
 
Technical field
The present invention relates to environmental protection technical field, specifically is a kind of industrialized agriculture area source pollutants triple interceptions and method of dissolving on the spot.
Background technology
Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major pollutants matter of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area.Industrialized agriculture is the important vegetables production base of China, also is the important source of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area, and this zone is main pollution form by discharge a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus to environment.Industrialized agriculture district area is big, distribution is wide, cropping index is high, when output and the output value roll up, chemical fertilizer drops into intensity, and (but the availability of nitrogenous fertilizer only is 30%~35% greatly, phosphate fertilizer is 10%~20%), agricultural solid residue generation many (the agricultural solid residue handling rate only is 5%), cause to environment to discharge a large amount of surplus nitrogen and phosphorus pollutantses, have a strong impact on ecological environment security.Remain under the background that life of farmers relies on substantially in basic condition that China has a large population and a few land and farmland, the intensive degree that improves the soil is a kind of inexorable trend, thus the industrialized agriculture pollution of area source to cut down will be the significant challenge that sustainable development of agricultural production faces.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is at the serious present situation of present industrialized agriculture nitrogen phosphorus pollution of area source, a kind of industrialized agriculture area source pollutants is triple interceptions and the method for dissolving on the spot.Realization is to effective reduction of industrialized agriculture production process pollution of area source.
The present invention adopts the field experiment method, be research object with the booth vegetable, absorb, prevent nitrogen and phosphorus loss, four aspects considerations of recycling nitrogen phosphorus from minimizing nitrogen phosphorus consumption, increase nitrogen phosphorus, formation absorbs fixing triple interceptions and the integrated assemble method of dissolving to source control, process blocking-up interception, the terminal point of industrialized agriculture pollutant, realizes the reduction on the spot to industrialized agriculture production process pollution of area source.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
This method is fixed three parts and is formed by source control, process blocking-up interception, terminal point absorption; 1) source control is screening and optimizing configuration, the fertile regulation measure of joint and the water saving pullution controlling measure by prevention and control type nitrogen phosphorus efficiency species, reaches source chain of command source pollutants; 2) process blocking-up interception be recycling by industrialized agriculture liquid manure, the control evil is antifouling and nitrogen phosphorus subtract lose the plant hedge biological cut dirty, control device agricultural runoff nitrogen and phosphorus loss amount; 3) terminal point absorb fixedly be by the absorption to soil nitrogen phosphorus fix, the innoxious and recycling treatment of the edge of a field solid waste, realize that the agricultural resource of giving up admittedly is recycling.
The present invention adopts test methods such as field experiment, from lowering facility agrochemicals goods and materials consumption, source chain of command source pollutants; Increase facility farming vegetables to the absorption of nitrogen phosphorus, cut down area source pollutants on the spot; Interception industrialized agriculture agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus improves industrialized agriculture liquid manure cyclic utilization rate; Carry out harmless treatment to the farmland is useless admittedly, realize that the farmland discarded object sets about recycling four aspects of resource nearby, the source control, process blocking-up interception, the terminal point that form agriculture pollutants absorb fixing triple interceptions and the method for dissolving.
The present invention makes the facility farmland reduce nitrogenous fertilizer input amount 35%, and phosphate fertilizer drops into and reduces 22%, and chemical pesticide drops into and reduces 41.4%, and agricultural wastes resource and harmless treatment availability reach 91.7%, shorten the processing cycle 46.2%; Cut down nitrogen 38.45% on the spot, cut down phosphorus 25.42%.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 be the industrialized agriculture area source pollutants on the spot triple interceptions with dissolve the block diagram of method.
Embodiment
(1) implements place and time
The present invention is directed to industrialized agriculture pollution of area source characteristics, be core with control nitrogen phosphorus area source pollutants, select that intensive industrialized agriculture production base, garlic township is that representative area is carried out the application study of 3 years by a definite date (2010~2012 years) on the Dianchi Lake Basin industrialized agriculture key area.
(2) test material and method
Supplying the examination material is booth vegetable.
113 groups of field experiments are implemented in the intensive industrialized agriculture in garlic township production base on the Jinning County.
1, source control test
(1) screening of pollution prevention type nitrogen phosphorus efficiency species with distribute rationally
Utilize between the vegetables different cultivars the difference of nitrogen phosphorus nutrien utilization, filter out the kind that the nitrogen phosphorus efficiency utilizes; The interracial reciprocal effect of the nitrogen phosphorus efficiency utilization that recycling filters out is optimized configuration, regulation and control growing vegetables structure, the supply of coordination liquid manure, improve the nutrient effective rate of utilization, set up the pollution prevention type farming system with sustainable development (balance of economic benefit and environmental benefit) and stability.
The garlic township implements 50 groups of lake basin ground contamination prevention and control type species selection field experiments on the Jinning County.Select 6 kinds of dissimilar masters to plant the land for growing field crops culture experiment that vegetables (leaf vegetables, solanberry class, melon, beans, green onion garlic class, root vegetables) garlic township on the Dianchi Lake Basin Jinning County carries out in the vegetables base local autochthon and introduces kind of different mode.The pollution reduction type vegetable variety that screening NP nutrition efficient is utilized (finding out main species to the coupling relation that absorbs effect and N:P of N, P), study its liquid manure under the pollution prevention condition and utilize proterties and the production traits, propose the pollution reduction type varieties of plant that the NP nutrition efficient is utilized.
Test is handled: CK; N0P2K2; N1P2K2; N2P2K2; N3P2K2; N2P0K2; N2P1K2; N2P3K2; N1P1K2 (repeating 4 times)
Garlic township enforcement nitrogen phosphorus efficiency utilizes vegetable variety to distribute 20 groups of field experiments rationally on the Jinning County, studies between not equal genus kind and adopts intercropping, interplanting, crop rotation and multiple cropping cropping system, and regulation and control growing vegetables structure improves the nutrient effective rate of utilization.
Test is handled: leaf vegetables-solanberry class crop rotation; Melon-the beans crop rotation; Green onion garlic class-root vegetables crop rotation;
Leaf vegetables-solanberry class intercropping; Melon-the beans intercropping; Green onion garlic class-root vegetables intercropping;
Repeat 4 times.
(2) save fertile regulation measure
The plain Decrement Technique of use, nitrogen phosphorus, the fertile method of application of joint by pollution prevention type fertilizer are formed.Utilize controlled release and the slow release of pollution prevention type fertilizer, improve the utilization ratio of fertilizer, reduce the turnover rate of nitrogenous-phosphatic manure; By the consumption of the plain decrement minimizing of nitrogen phosphorus nitrogen phosphorus, source control nitrogen phosphorus sowing amount; Utilize the fertile method of application of joint to reduce the loss approach of nitrogen phosphorus.
1) usage measure of pollution prevention type fertilizer
In order to promote the use of pollution prevention type fertilizer in the demonstration area, at first want the screening (different N, the plain form fertilizer efficiency of P are relatively) of pollution prevention type fertilizer, the control of garlic township booth vegetable (solanberry class and melon) layout different shape nitrogen phosphorus fertilizer was lost efficacy and was really tested 5 groups on the Jinning County.Study soil under the intensive condition-nutrient circulation of vegetables system and equilibrium condition, coordinate fertilizer efficiency to the vegetables regulation of fertilizer requirement, improve vegetables liquid manure validity and utilization rate of fertilizer.Purpose is to different N, the plain form manure trial of P, finds out the fertilizer variety that improves the local fertilizer availability, rationally uses fertilizer, reduces the loss of nitrogen phosphorus; Study soil under the intensive condition-nutrient circulation of vegetables system and equilibrium condition, coordinate fertilizer efficiency to the vegetables regulation of fertilizer requirement, improve vegetables liquid manure validity and utilization rate of fertilizer.
Test is handled: contrast 1-N0; Contrast 2-P0; Contrast 3-N0P0; The peasant is commonly used fertile; Urea; Sulfur-coated urea; The resin coated urea; Carbonic hydroammonium; SSP; MAP; DAP; Nitre phosphorus ammonium; Polypeptide energy nitrogenous fertilizer; Fused calcium magnesium phosphate; DAP; Executing can rich composite fertilizer; Banyan wind slow-release fertilizer; Novel sustained-release fertilizer; Novel controlled release fertilizer.Wherein respectively handle N, P, K consumption, ratio is identical).
Repeat 4 times.
2) the plain decrement measure of N, P
The garlic township implements 10 groups of the plain decrement field experiments of vegetables (Chinese cabbage, capsicum, green cucumber, garden pea, garlic, radish) N, P on the Jinning County.
Test is handled: CK; N0P2K2; N1P2K2; N2P2K2; N3P2K2; N2P0K2; N2P1K2; N2P3K2; N1P1K2
Repeat 4 times.
3) the fertile mode measure of joint
The garlic township implements layout Different Fertilization mode and tests 5 groups on the Jinning County.
Test is handled: peasant habit; Spread manuer in holes; Row replacement; Circulating application; Execute on the blade face; Drip and execute; Spray; Water and execute.By Different Fertilization mode nitrogen and phosphorus loss Quantitative Comparison, find out the fertilization mode that improves the local fertilizer availability, reduce the loss (wherein respectively handle N, P, K consumption, ratio is identical) of nitrogen phosphorus.
Repeat 4 times.
4) water saving pullution controlling measure
Utilize the industrialized agriculture vegetables to need the water characteristics, by the vegetables different growing the different demands of moisture are carried out quantitative drip irrigation in good time, make soil under the intensive condition-nutrient circulation of vegetables system and equilibrium condition, coordinate liquid manure to relation raising vegetables liquid manure validity and the utilization rate of fertilizer of vegetables regulation of fertilizer requirement, reduce the loss of liquid manure.By the water dropper on main, arm and the hollow billet, moisture and the fertilizer that has directly filtered to the soil supply under low pressure, and under gravity and effect capillaceous, enter the vegetables rhizosphere, and preventing rainwash and deep subsoil seepage simultaneously, make the optimum water status of soil conservation in vegetables root district.By the nitrogen and phosphorus loss Quantitative Comparison, find out the loss that reduces nitrogen phosphorus and irrigation and the fertilization mode that improves the local fertilizer availability.
The garlic township implements 10 groups of water saving pollution control field experiments on the Jinning County.
Test is handled: drip irrigation; Sprinkling irrigation; Pouring
Repeat 4 times.
2, process blocking test
(1) it is dirty that nitrogen phosphorus subtracts biological section of mistake plant hedge
The contribution that utilizes plant hedge species that farmland water nitrogen phosphorus is held back makes up planting of adaptation lake basin district and executes the biological section dirty system in agricultural drain, effectively controls farmland nitrogen, the loss of phosphorus.
Implement nitrogen phosphorus in last garlic township bavin river valley bamboo plantation villagers' committee industrialized agriculture demonstration base and subtract biological 5 groups of the dirty field trials of cutting of mistake plant hedge.
Test is handled: water spinach; Oenanthe stolonifera; Crowndaisy chrysanthemum; Peppermint; The millet dish; Leek; Soya bean; Potato etc.
(2) liquid manure is recycling
Water conservancy diversion by agricultural run-off, recycling, accumulate filtration, make and discharge the contained pollutant of agricultural run-off and be reduced to the bottom line that can control, the recycling efficient of raising farmland nutrient.Water conservancy diversion makes agricultural run-off by designed path flows, prevents that it from directly entering natural stream networks; Recyclingly make the runoff behind the water conservancy diversion repeatedly obtain utilizing, vegetables can absorb nutriment superfluous in the runoff in this process; Accumulating filtration can temporarily collect runoff superfluous behind the rain of farmland, and obtains filtering and receiving by soil and the biological control measure that disposes, and the runoff of accumulating can further utilize behind rain.Reduce the agricultural run-off nutrient loss, improve the recycling efficient of farmland nutrient
Garlic township enforcement agricultural run-off N, P subtract 10 groups of mistake technical research field experiments on the Jinning County.
Test is handled: contrast is accumulated; Water conservancy diversion+biology cushions+accumulates; Water conservancy diversion+biology cushions+accumulates+recycling processing.
(3) control evil is antifouling
The medication of the biogenic pesticide new product prevention and elimination of disease and pests that utilization is developed focuses on concentrated area, worm source (greenhouse, booth etc.), population peak period (the 2-6 month, the 9-12 month), larva 1-2 length of time, hobby crop species and seedling stage, suitable morning, spray in evening medicine, and unified control; High-efficiency low-toxicity low-cost bio source pesticide new product 46% gram is planted fly (Kilpestar) wetting powder and is diluted to 1000-1200 times of liquid or 26% A Wei desinsection list microemulsion and is diluted to 600-1200 times of liquid liriomyza bryoniae is carried out the foliar spray control, 0.9% A Wei nimbin (green guarantor) missible oil is diluted to 1200-1500 times of liquid liriomyza bryoniae is carried out the foliar spray control, be 10 days dispenser interval of every kind of medicament, and both can carry out alternatively administered; Like this, just can reach control worm source, disconnected worm road, press radix and liriomyza bryoniae control is injured in economy and allow purpose below horizontal.
3. terminal point absorbs fixation test
(1) the absorption fixation of soil phophorus
The proterties of flocculating of utilizing novel efficient soil structure conditioner to have is maintained good soil structure, reduces runoff, prevents that the soil nitrogen phosphorus nutrient too much runs off.
Test is handled: 1. 2. 3. polyacrylamide of aluminum sulfate of ferrous sulfate
By using these three kinds of soil conditioners of ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS) and polyacrylamide (PAM), simultaneously with blank and farmland soil fungicides pcnb (PCNB) comparatively commonly used is in contrast at present, carry out the plain Study on loss of phosphorus in the industrialized agriculture, being intended to provides technical support for the plain fixing of industrialized agriculture soil original position phosphorus.
The test soil specimen is industrialized agriculture soil (Facilities agricultural soil), the soil specimen sampling depth is 30 cm, peel manually is from impurity such as its deadwood, stones, the soil that takes a morsel is used for initial soil property analysis, soil is through air-dry, levigate and mistake 20 mesh sieves, and is standby in the air port bag of packing into.Carry out in the industrialized agriculture in field trial garlic township on Dianchi Lake Basin.
(2) the useless admittedly the edge of a field harmless treatment measure of agricultural
Adopt the auxiliary bioenergy of solar energy to be given up admittedly in the farmland and carry out harmless treatment, improve and the solid waste water hydrolysis and fermentation temperature in maintenance farmland, increase substantially the kill activity of causal organism and the level utilized of nutrient, it is recycling to make vegetables straw obtain resource.
The garlic township implements 23 groups of the useless admittedly the edge of a field harmless treatment field experiments of agricultural on the Jinning County.
Test is handled: the useless admittedly distributing treating apparatus of the edge of a field solar energy; Peasant habit
Same peasant household does not establish repetition, is repetition with 23 groups of tests.
Repeat for 4 times.Each test vegetable variety is identical.
(3) observation record content
Every processing is at its biological character of different growing observation record.
In different growing pest species and extent of injury observation are put down in writing.
(4) sample collection and analysis
1, soil
Soil specimen is gathered: soil specimen is gathered in layering (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm), and each is handled whole growing and gets soil specimen 3 times, and 3 sampling points are got in every residential quarter, and sample point is on the furrow between two strains.The soil sample that to take from same soil layer mixes the back natural air drying in the field, ground 20 orders, 60 orders and 80 mesh sieves, measures relevant item.Concrete sampling comprises period: before the growing vegetables, growth mid-term, harvest time.
The soil specimen testing index comprises: moisture, temperature, pH, organic matter; TN, hydrolyzing N, NH 4+-N, NO 3-N; TP, available P, Ca-P, FE-P, Al-P, O-P; Full K, quick-acting K; Unit weight, density, mechanical composition, granular structure situation, porosity, air capacity of soils, oxidoreduction situation etc.
Soil calculates nutrient nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium absorption rate, percent of loss and residual rate at last.
2, plant sample
The plant sample is gathered: according to the vegetable growth rule, plant 2 strains are got in each residential quarter before each fertilising, and every processing is got 8 strains altogether and measured plant plant height, stem girth, fresh weight and oven-dried weight (when blooming the economic characters of flower being carried out qualitative description) respectively, and measures relevant item.Strain plant sample is put in order in the collection of plant sample, and the period of specifically sampling is consistent with soil specimen.
Plant sample analysis: according to above-mentioned sampling period, gather plant sample analysis plant biomass (underground), commodity output, moisture, TN, TP, TK, NO on the ground, 3-N, nitrate, protein, vitamin C, soluble sugar.
3, water body
Sampling of ground water is consistent with soil specimen period of specifically sampling, and need gather irrigation water, rainwash and underground water simultaneously at every turn.One of dark 80cm section is dug in every processing before the fertilising, treats that water is collected to firm clarification in the section hole, and water sampling 600ml measures underground water TN, NH 4+-N, NO 3-N, TP, water-soluble total phosphorus, TK.
The irrigation water intake-outlet is measured inflow, water yield, pH, full N-P-K content, sediment charge.
The runoff water intake-outlet is measured inflow, water yield, pH, full N-P-K content, radial flow sediment content.

Claims (1)

  1. An industrialized agriculture area source pollutants on the spot triple interceptions with dissolve method, it is characterized in that: this method is absorbed by source control, process blocking-up interception, terminal point fixes three parts and forms; 1) source control is the screening by prevention and control type nitrogen phosphorus efficiency species and distributes, saves fertile regulation measure rationally and the water saving pullution controlling measure, reaches source chain of command source pollutants; 2) process blocking-up interception be recycling by industrialized agriculture liquid manure, the control evil is antifouling and nitrogen phosphorus subtract lose the plant hedge biological cut dirty, control device agricultural runoff nitrogen and phosphorus loss amount; 3) terminal point absorb fixedly be by the absorption to soil nitrogen phosphorus fix, the innoxious and recycling treatment of the edge of a field solid waste, realize that the agricultural resource of giving up admittedly is recycling.
CN2013101248495A 2013-04-11 2013-04-11 Facility agricultural non-point source pollutant on-site intercepting and absorptive method Pending CN103190268A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103918373A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-07-16 西南大学 Multi-intercepting and treating system for agricultural non-point source pollution in three gorges reservoir area small watershed
CN104016437A (en) * 2014-06-17 2014-09-03 贵州大学 Zeolite ditch system for recycling nitrogen and phosphorus in vegetable garden soil subsurface flow and construction method of zeolite ditch system
CN105776736A (en) * 2016-03-17 2016-07-20 江西省环境保护科学研究院 Method for treating agricultural non-point source pollution in hilly areas
CN109702003A (en) * 2019-02-26 2019-05-03 云南大学 A kind of method that the area Fu Lin slope surface water catchment area imitates kidney collection phosphorus and cuts down phosphorus again
CN111955305A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Clean production method of sugar cane in sloping field

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CN102986328A (en) * 2012-12-13 2013-03-27 中国农业大学 Method for preventing and treating agricultural non-point source pollution of sloping field

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CN101830562A (en) * 2010-03-22 2010-09-15 云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所 Construction agriculture pollution control type night soil recycling technique
CN102057827A (en) * 2010-10-20 2011-05-18 山东省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Method for maintaining sustainable production capacity of greenhouse vegetable soils
CN102986328A (en) * 2012-12-13 2013-03-27 中国农业大学 Method for preventing and treating agricultural non-point source pollution of sloping field

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103918373A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-07-16 西南大学 Multi-intercepting and treating system for agricultural non-point source pollution in three gorges reservoir area small watershed
CN104016437A (en) * 2014-06-17 2014-09-03 贵州大学 Zeolite ditch system for recycling nitrogen and phosphorus in vegetable garden soil subsurface flow and construction method of zeolite ditch system
CN105776736A (en) * 2016-03-17 2016-07-20 江西省环境保护科学研究院 Method for treating agricultural non-point source pollution in hilly areas
CN109702003A (en) * 2019-02-26 2019-05-03 云南大学 A kind of method that the area Fu Lin slope surface water catchment area imitates kidney collection phosphorus and cuts down phosphorus again
CN111955305A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Clean production method of sugar cane in sloping field

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Application publication date: 20130710