CN103190236A - Harmless fertilizing method for improving cotton yield by utilizing drip irrigation cotton under mulch of biogas slurry - Google Patents

Harmless fertilizing method for improving cotton yield by utilizing drip irrigation cotton under mulch of biogas slurry Download PDF

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CN103190236A
CN103190236A CN 201310154198 CN201310154198A CN103190236A CN 103190236 A CN103190236 A CN 103190236A CN 201310154198 CN201310154198 CN 201310154198 CN 201310154198 A CN201310154198 A CN 201310154198A CN 103190236 A CN103190236 A CN 103190236A
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fertilizer
slurry
cotton
drip irrigation
applied
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鲁建江
汪晨霖
李俊华
赵思峰
邓辉
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石河子大学
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The invention relates to a harmless fertilizing method for improving cotton yield by utilizing drip irrigation cotton under mulch of biogas slurry. The method is characterized in that the application amounts of nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphatic fertilizer, potash fertilizer respectively are 300kg/hm<2>, 135kg/hm<2> and 90kg/hm<2>, and the fertilizers respectively are urea (46.4% N), three-ingredient phosphatic fertilizer (46% P) and potassium sulphate (51% K); the phosphatic fertilizer and the potash fertilizer are taken as base fertilizer and applied once, 30% of the nitrogenous fertilizer is taken as the base fertilizer to be applied before seeding, the biogas slurry is taken as base fertilizer to be simultaneously and uniformly spread on farmland surfaces together with chemical fertilizers, soil is immediately turned and raked, and 1-2 days later, drip irrigation belts are laid and film overlaying and seeding are carried out; 70% of the nitrogenous fertilizer is taken additional fertilizer to be respectively applied in a bud period, a flowering period and a blooming period of cotton; and the biogas slurry is taken as additional fertilizer and is applied in a drop irrigation manner. According to the fertilizing method, the resource utilization of the biogas slurry can be realized, the problem of secondary pollution due to the low use rate of the biogas slurry is avoided, and the environment is protected; furthermore, the cotton yield can be improved, the application amount of the chemical fertilizer can be reduced, the production cost can be lowered, and the incomes of farmers are increased; and the fertilizing method is accordant with development requirements of sustainable development, circular economy and ecological agriculture of China.

Description

一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法 A harmless Drip Irrigation of biogas slurry fertilization methods to improve cotton production

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种有机液体肥料的施肥方法,具体的说是一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a method of fertilizing an organic liquid fertilizer, specifically a harmless slurry Drip Irrigation fertilization methods for increasing the yield of cotton.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 棉花是我国最主要的经济作物之一,不仅是纺织行业的重要原料,而且也是轻工、化工、医药和国防等行业的主要原料。 [0002] Cotton is one of China's most important cash crop, not only an important raw material in the textile industry, but also the main raw material for light industry, chemical, pharmaceutical and defense industries. 因此,棉花生产直接关系到国民经济的稳定发展,棉花产量的提高是我们的持续要求。 Consequently, cotton production is directly related to the stable development of the national economy, improve cotton production is our ongoing requirements.

[0003] 长期以来,棉花产量的提高是以氮素的高投入为基础,而氮素的投入主要是通过施加尿素到棉田。 [0003] For a long time, improve nitrogen is high input cotton production basis, and nitrogen inputs mainly through the application of urea to the cotton fields. 随着循环经济理论的提出以及生态农业的兴起和发展,越来越多的学者关注有机肥的研究。 With the proposal as well as the rise and development of ecological agriculture circular economy theory, the study of organic fertilizer more and more scholars are concerned about. 沼液是沼气厌氧发酵后的残留物,它是一种优质的有机液体肥料,不仅含有丰富的N、P、K等营养元素和Na、Ca、Mg、Cl、S、Fe、B、Cu、Zn、Mn和Cr等矿物质元素,而且还含有生物活性物质, 如氨基酸类、植物生长素、B族维生素、抗生素类、抗逆类物质和各类水解酶类等,这些物质可有效地参与植物体内的氧化还原反应,从而促进植物体有机物质的代谢,满足植物对营养物质的需求。 Biogas is methane residue after anaerobic fermentation, which is a high-quality organic liquid fertilizer, not only rich in N, P, K and other nutrients and Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, S, Fe, B, Cu , Zn, Mn and Cr and other minerals, but also contains biologically active substances, such as amino acids, auxin, B vitamins, antibiotics, and various species resilience hydrolase, these substances can be effectively oxidation reduction reactions involved in plants, so as to promote the metabolism of organic plant material, to meet the demand for plant nutrients. 沼液可被用作为肥料、饲料、生物农药以及培养料液。 Slurry may be used as fertilizer, feed, feed liquid culture and biological pesticides. 然而,目前沼液最主要的应用方式还是作为肥料使用。 However, the most important application of biogas slurry manner or used as fertilizer. 沼液作为肥源返还到农田中,不仅可以避免沼液直接排放到周边环境导致的地表水富营养化和土壤盐溃化,而且还可以减少化肥的施用量。 Biogas slurry returned to farmland as fertilizer sources, not only to avoid biogas directly discharged into the surrounding environment cause eutrophication of surface water and soil salinization, and chemical fertilizer can also be reduced.

[0004] 水资源同样是制约棉花高产的重要因子。 [0004] Water is also an important factor restricting the yield of cotton. 干旱地区,膜下滴灌被认为是一种最有效的灌溉方式,它不仅能有效地保持土壤团粒结构,防止水分深层渗漏和地表流失,同时又具有保温、保墒及减少地表蒸发,提高水分利用效率的作用。 Arid areas, Drip Irrigation is considered to be one of the most efficient irrigation methods, not only is able to keep the soil aggregate structure, prevent the loss of moisture deep percolation and surface, but also has insulation, soil moisture and reduce surface evaporation, improve water use the role of efficiency. 研究表明,膜下滴灌可以给作物生长提供适宜的水、汽、热环境,提高作物产量和品质。 Studies have shown that the growth of Drip Irrigation can provide appropriate water, steam, thermal environment to crops, improve crop yield and quality.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的在于提供一种提高棉花产量的施肥方法,这种施肥方法不仅可以将沼液资源化应用于农田,减少化肥的施用量,降低生产成本,而且还可以结合膜下滴灌的优势,提高水和肥料的利用率,提高棉花产量。 [0005] The object of the present invention is to provide a fertilization method of increasing the yield of cotton, this treatment method can not only be used in agricultural resources slurry, reduce the amount of fertilizer, reduce production costs, but also may be combined Drip Irrigation advantage, improve the utilization of water and fertilizer, increase cotton production.

[0006] 本发明是通过以下技术方案得以实现的: [0006] The present invention is achieved by the following technical solution:

[0007] 将正常产气沼气池发酵好的沼液,收集运输至田间试验区,采集沼液样品并分析其速效氮、速效磷和速效钾的含量。 [0007] The normal gas producing fermented slurry digesters, collection and transportation to the field test area, slurry samples were collected and analyzed for its content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of.

[0008] 氮肥、磷肥和钾肥的施用量分别为300kg/hm2、135kg/hm2和90kg/hm2,并且所用肥料分别为尿素(46.4% N)、三料磷肥(46% P)和硫酸钾(51% K)。 [0008] The application amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 300kg / hm2,135kg / hm2 and 90kg / hm2 of, and are used in fertilizer urea (46.4% N), three phosphate feed (46% P) and potassium (51 % K). 磷肥和钾肥作为基肥一次性施加,30%氮肥作为基肥在播种前施加,沼液用作基肥,和化肥同时并均匀地撒泼到田面,立即翻土,耙平,I〜2d后铺设滴灌带并覆膜,播种。 Phosphate and potash is applied as basal-time, 30% of nitrogen as basal applied before sowing, as basal biogas, and fertilizer at the same time and acting up to the soil surface uniformly, dig immediately, raking, the drip tape and laying I~2d film, sowing. 70%氮肥分别在棉花蕾期、花期和铃期作为追肥施加。 Nitrogen of 70% cotton bud stage, respectively, is applied as a top dressing of flowering and boll. 沼液用作追肥,施入方式为滴灌。 As slurry dressing, application way of drip irrigation.

[0009] 所述沼液用于滴灌,沼气池发酵原料为猪粪。 [0009] The slurry for drip irrigation, biogas fermentation feedstock is a pig. [0010] 所述沼液用于滴灌,沼液用量设计以总氮量相等为原则,根据其速效氮的含量来计算沼液的施用量。 [0010] The slurry for irrigation, the amount of slurry in the total nitrogen content equal to the design principle, to calculate the amount of slurry applied in accordance with the content of available nitrogen.

[0011] 所述沼液用于滴灌,沼液经沉淀后过滤,装入施肥罐,沼液和水经过80目筛的过滤器,用于滴灌施肥。 [0011] After the slurry for drip irrigation, by slurry precipitate was filtered, charged fertilizer tank, and water slurry through a 80 mesh filter for drip fertigation.

[0012] 所述氮肥作为追肥,蕾期、花期和铃期氮肥的施加量分别为10^^30%和30%。 [0012] As the nitrogen fertilizer, bud stage, flowering and boll of nitrogen fertilizer is applied in an amount of 10 ^^ 30% and 30%, respectively.

[0013] 本发明的优点是:本发明方法将沼液资源化应用于农田,避免了沼液因利用率低而造成的二次污染问题, 实现了废弃物资源的合理再利用,保护了环境;沼液施用于农田,提高了棉花产量,减少了化肥的施用量,降低了生产成本,提高了农民的收入。 [0013] The advantage of the present invention are: the slurry process of the invention used in agricultural resources, avoiding the secondary pollution due to low utilization caused slurry to achieve reasonable reuse of waste resources, protection of the environment ; slurry applied to farmland to improve cotton production, reducing the amount of chemical fertilizer, reduce production costs and improve the income of farmers. 符合我国可持续发展、循环经济和生态农业的发展需求。 Meet the development needs of sustainable development, circular economy and ecological agriculture in China.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0014] 下面结合实施例对本发明做进一步的说明, [0014] The following embodiments in conjunction with embodiments of the present invention will be further described,

[0015] 实施例1:沼液膜下滴灌对棉花产量影响试验 [0015] Example 1: Test on the Effect of biogas Drip Irrigation Cotton Yield

[0016] 为验证沼液膜下滴灌对棉花的施用效果,大田试验按随机区组试验设计,共设6个处理,处理1:空白对照(不施肥);处理2:仅施尿素;处理3:仅施沼液;处理4:总氮量的25%由沼液提供,剩余75%由尿素提供,记为1/4B+3/4U ;处理5:总氮量的50%由沼液提供,剩余50%由尿素提供,记为1/2B+1/2U ;处理6:总氮量的75%由沼液提供,剩余25%由尿素提供,记为3/4B+1/4U。 [0016] To verify the effect of administration Drip Irrigation slurry on cotton, field trials by randomized block design, a total of six treatments provided, processing 1: control (no fertilizer); Treatment 2: Only urea; Treatment 3 : only applied slurry; treatment 4: 25% of the total nitrogen content provided by the slurry, the remaining 75% provided by urea, referred to as 1 / 4B + 3 / 4U; for 5: 50% of the total nitrogen content provided by the slurry , the remaining 50% provided by urea, referred to as 1 / 2B + 1 / 2U; treatment 6: 75% of the total nitrogen content provided by the slurry, the remaining 25% provided by urea, referred to as a 3 / 4B + 1 / 4U. 每个处理3次重复,共18个小区,每个小区的面积为20m2(4mX5m)。 3 replicates of each treatment, a total area of ​​18 cells, each cell of 20m2 (4mX5m). 氮肥、磷肥和钾肥的施用量分别为300kg/hm2、135kg/hm2和90kg/hm2。 Administration of the amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 300kg / hm2,135kg / hm2 and 90kg / hm2. 除空白对照外,其余处理在播种前将三料磷肥和硫酸钾作为基肥一次性施加,30%氮肥作为基肥施加,沼液用作基肥,和化肥同时并均匀地撒泼到田面,立即翻土,耙平,I〜2d后铺设滴灌带并覆膜,播种。 Addition to the control, other treatments before sowing and tri potassium phosphate material is applied as basal-time, 30% of the nitrogen applied as basal, basal slurry used, and fertilizer at the same time and acting up to the soil surface uniformly, dig immediately, raked, after I~2d laying drip tape and film, sowing. 70%氮肥分三次追施,其中棉花蕾期、花期和铃期,氮肥的施加量分别为10^^30%和30%。 70% nitrogen three times topdressing, wherein cotton bud stage, flowering and boll stage, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer was applied to 10 ^^ 30% and 30%, respectively. 沼液用作追肥,施入方式为滴灌。 As slurry dressing, application way of drip irrigation.

[0017] 各处理效果见表I [0017] The respective processing results in Table I

[0018] 表I不同处理对棉花产量及构成的影响 Effect on cotton yield and configuration of [0018] Table I different treatment

[0019] [0019]

Figure CN103190236AD00041

[0020] 注:a, b表不差异显著性P < 0.0δ [0020] Note: a, b Table no significant difference P <0.0δ

[0021] 从试验结果可以看出,施加沼液的各处理与仅施尿素的处理相比,均提高了棉花的皮棉产量,表明沼液的施加有利于棉花产量的提高。 [0021] As can be seen from the test results, each treatment applied to the slurry as compared to treatment is applied to only urea, the cotton lint yield was increased, indicating that the slurry is applied to help improve the production of cotton. 沼液与尿素配施的处理与仅施沼液的处理相比收获更多的皮棉产量,且差异显著,其中3/4B+1/4U处理(处理6)收获最多的籽棉和皮棉产量,是因为其单位面积的铃数最多,为173个。 Processing the slurry process is only applied to slurry as compared with Urea and harvest more lint yield, and the difference was significant, and 3 / 4B + 1 / 4U (processing 6) the most harvested seed cotton and lint yield, is because the maximum number of boll per unit area, is 173. 处理6的皮棉产量分别比处理1、处理2、处理3、处理4 和处理5 增产35.33%,11.48%,11.06%,8.17%和1.16%。 6 are processed lint yield than treatment 1, treatment 2, processing 3, processing and handling 4 5 yield 35.33%, 11.48%, 11.06%, 8.17% and 1.16%. [0022] 综上所述,沼液膜下滴灌对棉花的产量有很大的提高,尤其是沼液与尿素配施的处理,其产量显著高于单施沼液和单施尿素的处理,配施处理中,棉花产量随着沼液施用量的增加而增加。 [0022] In summary, the yield of biogas cotton Drip Irrigation has greatly improved, especially in biogas slurry and urea fertilizer, which is significantly higher than the yield of single application and a single slurry application process urea, fertilizer process, with the increase in cotton yield increases the amount of slurry applied. 因此,通过沼液膜下滴灌这种施肥方法,不仅可以实现沼液的资源化利用,避免沼液因利用率低而造成的二次污染问题,而且还能提高棉花产量,减少化肥的施用量,降低生产成本,提高农民的收入。 Thus, by this Drip Irrigation biogas slurry fertilization methods, not only can achieve utilization of biogas, biogas avoid secondary pollution caused due to low utilization, but also improve cotton production, reduce the amount of fertilizer , reduce production costs and improve the income of farmers.

[0023] 实施例2:沼液膜下滴灌对土壤重金属影响试验 [0023] Example 2: Effect of Test biogas heavy metals in soils Drip Irrigation

[0024] 大田试验按随机区组试验设计,共设3个处理,处理1:空白对照(不施肥);处理2:仅施尿素;处理3:仅施沼液。 [0024] The field test by randomized block design, a total of three treatments, treatment 1: control (no fertilizer); Treatment 2: Only urea; Treatment 3: Only applied slurry. 每个处理3次重复。 3 replicates per treatment. 氮肥、磷肥和钾肥的施用量分别为300kg/hm2、135kg/hm2和90kg/hm2。 Administration of the amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 300kg / hm2,135kg / hm2 and 90kg / hm2. 除空白对照外,其余处理在播种前将三料磷肥和硫酸钾作为基肥一次性施加,30%氮肥作为基肥施加,沼液用作基肥,和化肥同时并均匀地撒泼到田面,立即翻土,耙平,I〜2d后铺设滴灌带并覆膜,播种。 Addition to the control, other treatments before sowing and tri potassium phosphate material is applied as basal-time, 30% of the nitrogen applied as basal, basal slurry used, and fertilizer at the same time and acting up to the soil surface uniformly, dig immediately, raked, after I~2d laying drip tape and film, sowing. 70%氮肥分三次追施,其中棉花蕾期、花期和铃期,氮肥的施加量分别为沼液用作追肥,施入方式为滴灌。 70% nitrogen three times topdressing, wherein cotton bud stage, flowering and boll stage, the amount of nitrogen applied as fertilizer slurry, respectively, applied to the embodiment of drip irrigation. 待棉花收获后,采集各处理土壤,测定并分析其重金属含量。 After the cotton harvester, each treatment of soil collected, measured and analyzed for heavy metal content. 试验结果表明,沼液的施加提高了土壤中Cu和Ni的含量,土壤中Pb、Cd和Cr的含量在仅施化肥的处理中最高,所有施加沼液的处理土壤中Pb和Cd的含量在不同程度上有所下降;以上5种重金属的含量均在国家土壤环境质量允许的范围内。 The results showed that the slurry is applied to improve the soil content of Cu and Ni, soil Pb, Cd and Cr content is highest in the process of applying fertilizer only, all the processing is applied to the soil slurry in the content of Pb and Cd declined to varying degrees; the range of heavy metal content of more than 5 are in the national environmental quality soil allowed.

Claims (6)

  1. 1.一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法,其特征在于,所用肥料分别为尿素(46.4% N),三料磷肥(46% P)和硫酸钾(51% K)。 Fertilization Method A cotton yield increase Drip Irrigation harmless slurry, characterized in that the fertilizer are used urea (46.4% N), three phosphate feed (46% P) and potassium (51% K) . 磷肥和钾肥作为基肥一次性施加,30%氮肥作为基肥在播种前施加,沼液用作基肥,和化肥同时并均匀地撒泼到田面;70%氮肥作为追肥分三次施加。 Phosphate and potash is applied as basal-time, 30% of nitrogen as basal applied before sowing, as basal biogas, and fertilizer at the same time and acting up to the soil surface uniformly; 70% of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer three times. 沼液用作追肥,施入方式为滴灌。 As slurry dressing, application way of drip irrigation.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法,其特征在于,氮肥、磷肥和钾肥的施用量分别为300kg/hm2、135kg/hm2和90kg/hm2。 A harmless according to claim 1 of the slurry Drip Irrigation fertilization methods to improve the yield of cotton, wherein the amount of administered nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively 300kg / hm2,135kg / hm2 and was 90kg / hm2.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法,其特征在于,沼液取自正产产气的沼气池,且沼气池发酵原料为猪粪。 The slurry of a harmless according to claim 1 Drip Irrigation fertilization methods to improve the yield of cotton, wherein the gas producing biogas from the digester n, pig manure and biogas fermentation feedstock .
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的一种无害化沼液膜下滴灌提高棉花产量的施肥方法,其特征在于,沼液用量设计以总氮量相等为原则,根据其速效氮的含量来计算沼液的施用量。 The slurry of a harmless according to claim 1 Drip Irrigation fertilization methods to improve the yield of cotton, wherein the total nitrogen content slurry an amount equal to the design principle, calculated according to the available nitrogen content of administration of the amount of slurry.
  5. 5.根据权利要求1所述的沼液用于滴灌,其特征在于,沼液经沉淀后过滤,装入施肥罐,沼液和水经过80目筛的过滤器,用于滴灌施肥。 5. The slurry according to claim 1 for drip irrigation, characterized in that, after the precipitate slurry was filtered, charged fertilizer tank, and water slurry through a 80 mesh filter for drip fertigation.
  6. 6.根据权利要求1所述的沼液作为追肥,其特征在于,蕾期、花期和铃期氮肥的施加量分别为10%、30%和30 %。 6. The slurry according to claim 1 as a fertilizer, wherein the amount of applying bud stage, flowering and boll of nitrogen is 10%, 30% and 30%, respectively.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103460872A (en) * 2013-07-30 2013-12-25 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Method for regulating and controlling root system architecture of under-mulch-drip irrigation cotton in sand through irrigation and nitrogen application
CN104262057A (en) * 2014-09-29 2015-01-07 石河子大学 Rhizosphere acid fertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN105766344A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-07-20 安徽省农业科学院畜牧兽医研究所 High-yield planting method for medicago sativa

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