CN103166903B - The soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method - Google Patents

The soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method Download PDF

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CN103166903B
CN103166903B CN201310088740.0A CN201310088740A CN103166903B CN 103166903 B CN103166903 B CN 103166903B CN 201310088740 A CN201310088740 A CN 201310088740A CN 103166903 B CN103166903 B CN 103166903B
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constellation
region
method
constellation point
soft solution
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CN103166903A (en
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彭克武
陈霜
黄嘉晨
潘长勇
宋健
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清华大学
北京数字电视国家工程实验室有限公司
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method, solves that existing Max-Log-MAP method operand is large, system resource takies mainly with and the problem such as hardware implementation cost is high.The soft solution preprocess method of described constellation mapping comprises step: according to adopted constellation mapping, the signal space including M constellation point is divided into N number of region; Build table B, in table B, record the constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region i; I is the positive integer being not more than N; S icomprise constellation point subset and constellation point subset contain kth bit and be 0 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region; contain kth bit and be 1 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region; K is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M.The soft solution method of constellation mapping for: receive and region i belonging to determination information symbol; Read table B, and press presetting method to information symbol and S iin constellation point carry out log-likelihood calculations.

Description

The soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the digital information communications field, particularly relate to a kind of soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method.

Background technology

The soft solution method of constellation mapping the most frequently used at present comprises the following steps:

Step 1: receive information symbol;

Step 2: according to each constellation point in bit each in information symbol and signal space, ask for log-likelihood ratio by formula (2), this method is called Max-Log-MAP algorithm;

Log-likelihood ratio LLR(Log-Likelihood Ratio) be usually used in the Soft Inform ation of each bit in expressing information symbol;

For certain bit b, its log-likelihood ratio is defined as:

LLR ( b ) = log P ( b = 1 | y ) P ( b = 0 | y ) - - - ( 1 )

The symbology of the log-likelihood ratio the obtained court verdict of this bit, the absolute value of the value of log-likelihood ratio is the confidence level of this result, then completes soft demapping after obtaining log-likelihood ratio.

Such as, in additive white Gaussian noise AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel model, mapping exponent number is that namely M comprises in the planisphere of M constellation point:

LLR ( b i , k ) = 1 2 σ 2 ( min x ∈ S k ( 1 ) ( | y i - G i x | 2 ) - min x ∈ S k ( 0 ) ( | y i - G i x | 2 ) ) - - - ( 2 )

Wherein G ifor the channel fading of i-th information symbol obtained before demapping estimates (i.e. channel condition information); For i-th receiving symbol yi; represent that a kth bit is the set of the constellation symbols (i.e. constellation point) of 1, represent that a kth bit is the set of the constellation symbols of 0.

From the foregoing, the log-likelihood ratio of each bit in information symbol is asked for according to Max-Log-MAP method, then need the computing of O (M) sub-addition, O (M) secondary multiplying and O (MlogM) secondary compare operation, therefore known for map in planisphere exponent number M value larger time, amount of calculation is large, thus the system resource consumed is many, hard-wired cost is large.

Summary of the invention

(1) technical problem that will solve

The present invention aims to provide a kind of log-likelihood calculations amount, computing time and minimizing system resource of reducing and takies, reduces the soft solution preprocess method of the constellation mapping of hardware implementation cost and soft solution method.

(2) technical scheme

For solving the problem, the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping of the present invention comprises the following steps:

According to adopted constellation mapping, the signal space including M constellation point is divided into N number of region;

Build table B, in table B, record the constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region i; I is the integer being not more than N;

Wherein,

Described S icomprise constellation point subset and constellation point subset

Described comprise kth bit and be 0 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region;

Described comprise kth bit and be 1 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region;

Described k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M.

Further, in the soft solution preprocess method of described constellation mapping, according to constellation mapping, Region dividing and performance requirement, one or more preset is set in the i of region.

Further, described constellation point set S iinterior constellation point is calculated by Monte Carlo EGS4 method or greedy algorithm and asks for.

Further, described table B is stored in random access storage device, read-only memory or combinational logic circuit.

For solving the problem, the soft solution method of constellation mapping of the present invention, for after the preliminary treatment that the soft solution preprocess method of above-mentioned constellation mapping carries out, comprises the following steps:

Receive information symbol, the region i belonging to determination information symbol;

Region i from table B belonging to obtaining information symbol is used for the constellation point set S of log-likelihood calculations i, and press presetting method to information symbol and S iin constellation point carry out log-likelihood calculations.

Preferably, described presetting method is for passing through formula

LLR ( b K ) = 1 2 σ 2 ( min x ∈ S i , k ( 1 ) ( | y - G i x | 2 ) - min x ∈ S i , k ( 0 ) ( | y - G i x | 2 ) ) Calculate the log-likelihood ratio of each bit in described information symbol;

Wherein, LLR is log-likelihood ratio; b kfor a kth bit of information symbol, and k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M.

Preferably, by region that hard decision method determination information symbol belongs to.

Preferably, also comprise and utilize channel condition information to be normalized described information symbol receiving after information symbol with before the region judged belonging to described information symbol, thus obtain normalization information symbol.

(3) beneficial effect of the present invention

By repeatedly studying and verifying in the soft solution preocess of discovery constellation mapping, be usually located at the information symbol of close positions in signal space, when carrying out the log-likelihood calculations of each bit, tagmeme same with it be 0 or 1 the nearest point of constellation point middle distance concentrate on some specific position of signal space, and in traditional Max-Log-MAP method, when the log-likelihood ratio computing carrying out each bit in information symbol, what do not add screening carries out computing with all constellation point;

The soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping of the present invention is then utilize above-mentioned rule, above-mentioned special point is screened, and the soft solution method of constellation mapping of the present invention, it is then the computing that the result utilizing the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping of the present invention to solve carries out log-likelihood ratio, thus greatly reduce operand, decrease taking of system resource, reduce hard-wired cost, especially for mapping the large constellation mapping of exponent number, soft solution effect is especially obvious.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the signal space schematic diagram described in the embodiment of the present invention one;

The soft solution method flow diagram that Fig. 2 is the constellation mapping described in second embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 3 is the signal space schematic diagram described in fourth embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram after the signal space described in Fig. 3 is divided into multiple region;

Fig. 5 is soft solution method and traditional Max-Log-MAP method performance comparison figure under awgn channel of constellation mapping described in fourth embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 6 is soft solution method and traditional Max-Log-MAP method performance comparison figure under i.i.d.Rayleigh channel of constellation mapping described in fourth embodiment of the invention.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with Figure of description and embodiment to the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping of the present invention to be described further.

Embodiment one:

As shown in Figure 1, the soft solution preprocess method of the present embodiment constellation mapping comprises the following steps:

According to adopted constellation mapping, the signal space including 16 constellation point is divided into 4 regions; Each region all distinguishes with different shades, and the digitized representation of each regional center numbering in region, wherein comprises 4 constellation point in each region; Each information symbol comprises 4 bits;

Build table B; The constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region is recorded in table B i; I be not more than 4 integer and i be 1,2,3 or 4; Concrete region 1 as shown in Figure 1, region 2, region 3 and region 4;

Wherein,

Described S icomprise constellation point subset and constellation point subset

Described contain kth bit be 0 and with preset in the i of region---the nearest constellation point of some p;

Described contain kth bit be 1 and with preset in the i of region---the nearest constellation point of some p;

Described k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M, can be less than or equal to 4;

Build table B; The constellation point set of each region for log-likelihood calculations is recorded in table B;

As in region 1, when preset is one and is the central point in region 1, constellation point set includes the constellation point subset that high-order first bit is 0 and high-order first bit is the constellation point subset of 1 therefore in computational process, information symbol only needs to be that 4 constellation point of 0 and 2 constellation point of high-order first bit 1 carry out computing with high-order first bit, relative to traditional Max-Log-MAP method and high-order first bit be 08 constellation point and high-order first bit be 18 constellation point carry out computing, save operand, reduce the consumption of system resource, hardware implementation cost is lower.

And in traditional Max-Log-MAP method, there is no the soft solution preprocessing process of constellation mapping, wherein computing each time included M/2 and information symbol with tagmeme be 0 or be 1 constellation point calculate; And the soft solution preprocess method of the present embodiment constellation mapping, first confirmed the nearest point that may occur in follow-up log-likelihood calculations by preliminary treatment, not only reduce the multiplication between information symbol and constellation point and add operation; Also reduce comparison operation, be applied in effect of optimization in the soft solution preocess of the constellation mapping of high-order especially obvious.

In concrete implementation process, described preset is one or more according to the requirement of constellation mapping, Region dividing and performance, is distributed in the diverse location of region i; Required precision is higher, and the value of preset should be more.As in region 1, when preset comprises center and two marginal points in region 1, and described marginal point one is positioned at the central point of the edge line had a common boundary with region 2, a central point being positioned at the edge line had a common boundary with region 3; Then described constellation point set includes the constellation point subset that high-order first bit is 0 and high-order first bit is the constellation point subset of 1

As from the foregoing, the number of preset and position are all related to the composition of constellation point subset, be related to the accuracy etc. of final operation result equally, therefore in concrete implementation process, the position of preset and number decide according to Region dividing, constellation mapping and performance requirement again, when the number of preset is 1, be usually chosen for the center of constellation point in region.

In concrete implementation process, the division in region should according to different types of constellation mapping, divide the required precision of solving result and the size of operand, and the region divided is unsuitable excessive.

Embodiment two:

On the basis of a upper embodiment, provide at the soft solution preprocess method of the present embodiment constellation mapping the method that two kinds are asked for constellation point set,

Described constellation point set S iinterior constellation point is asked for by Monte Carlo EGS4 method or greedy algorithm computing method.

Method one: Monte Carlo EGS4 method is asked for:

Based on statistics and probability, through checking repeatedly, the described constellation point set obtained;

Method two: greedy algorithm is asked for:

A: the point in definition information mark signal space to the distance of region i,

B: then calculate and n is the n-th bit of information symbol, and n is for being not more than log 2arrive a little the distance of region i in M (the mapping exponent number that M is planisphere), get several the shortest conducts be expressed as i-th region, u is expressed as u bit of the information symbol of reception; W is 0 or 1; Wherein, the constellation point in signal space can have different definition modes to the distance of region i.Especially, when having in the i of region and only have a constellation point, can using the Euclidean distance to this point as the distance to region i.

In the present embodiment, provide in particular two kinds and obtain regional for solving the method for information symbol each bit log-likelihood ratio, have and realize advantage simply and easily.

Comprehensive above-mentioned known, described constellation point concentrates the constellation point number of subsets comprised to be at most 2*log 2m.

At the soft solution preprocess method of the present embodiment constellation mapping, provide the method for optimizing that two kinds solve constellation point set, above two kinds of equal technology maturations of method, apply easy, thus the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping described in the present embodiment have use simply, feature easily.

Particularly, described table B is stored in random access storage device, read-only memory or combinational logic circuit.The number of the constellation point that described constellation point is concentrated is different from the difference of the region at place, the mode of constellation mapping and implementation, usually all much smaller than the mapping exponent number M of constellation mapping.

Below in conjunction with Figure of description and embodiment to the soft solution method of constellation mapping of the present invention to be described further.

First embodiment:

The soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping, after the preliminary treatment that the soft solution preprocess method being applied to above-mentioned constellation mapping carries out, comprises the following steps particularly:

Receive information symbol, the region i belonging to determination information symbol;

Region i from table B belonging to obtaining information symbol is used for the constellation point set S of log-likelihood calculations i, and press presetting method to information symbol and S iin constellation point carry out log-likelihood calculations.

In the soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping, owing to being obtained the table B for log-likelihood calculations by the soft solution preprocess method of the constellation mapping as described in embodiment one or embodiment two, and the number of the constellation point recorded in table B, the number of the constellation point of carrying out log-likelihood calculations is needed much smaller than Max-Log-MAP method, thus decrease amount of calculation, decrease taking of system resource simultaneously, reduce hard-wired cost.The particularly constellation mapping of high-order, the bit number that information symbol carries is many, and constellation point in information space is also many, but concentrate on some specific position with the nearest point of arbitrfary point in the i of region, when adopting traditional Max-Log-MAP method to go to calculate, carry out the calculating that much obviously can not be conducive to final result, and screened out these useless points by pretreated method in the present embodiment, thus reach the object reducing amount of calculation.

As the improvement further of the present embodiment, the soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping gives the method for solving of the log-likelihood ratio of each bit in information symbol further, and concrete passes through following formula

Described presetting method is for passing through formula

LLR ( b K ) = 1 2 σ 2 ( min x ∈ S i , k ( 1 ) ( | y - G i x | 2 ) - min x ∈ S i , k ( 0 ) ( | y - G i x | 2 ) )

Calculate the log-likelihood ratio of each bit in described information symbol;

Wherein, LLR is log-likelihood ratio; b kfor a kth bit of information symbol, and k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M.

As the constellation mapping on 16 rank, then each information symbol in signal space and constellation point form (as 0000,1111 etc.) by 4 bits.The constellation mapping on 256 rank, then each information symbol in signal space and star chart o'clock are by 8 bits compositions (as 00010010 etc.).

By above-mentioned formula, when soft solution constellation mapping, there is directly easy advantage, the soft solution method of constellation mapping described in the present embodiment is adopted to ask for solving of the log-likelihood ratio of each bit of information symbol convenient, fast, operand is little, it is few that system takies resource, realizes cost low in concrete hardware implementing process.

Second embodiment:

As shown in Figure 2, the soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping comprises the following steps:

The pre-treatment step of the soft solution preprocess method realization of the constellation mapping as described in embodiment one or embodiment two;

Step S1: receive information symbol;

Step S2: utilize the information symbol of channel condition information to described reception to be normalized, thus obtain normalization information symbol.When the state of channel changes, usually need to be normalized the information symbol received according to the decay behavior of signal, thus obtain equal strong and weak information symbol so that follow-up process;

Step S3: judge the region i belonging to described information symbol;

Step S4: obtaining information symbol area i is used for the constellation point set of log-likelihood calculations from table B, and by presetting method, log-likelihood calculations is carried out to the constellation point that information symbol and constellation point are concentrated.

The multiple advantages such as adopt the soft solution method of the constellation mapping described in the present embodiment, the log-likelihood ratio solving each bit of information symbol obtains final soft solution result, and have amount of calculation few, system resource is few, and operation time is few.

3rd embodiment:

The soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping comprises the following steps:

Step S1: receive information symbol, judgement judges the region belonging to described information symbol; In concrete implementation process, hard decision (namely comparing with the Region dividing border) region belonging to determination information symbol can be adopted; Much more no longer hard decision is the decision method being applied to decoding of technology maturation, to repeat at this;

Step S2: the region from table B belonging to obtaining information symbol is used for the constellation point set of log-likelihood calculations, and by presetting method, log-likelihood calculations is carried out to the constellation point that information symbol and constellation point are concentrated;

Wherein, show B to be obtained by the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping; The soft solution preprocess method of described constellation mapping comprises the following steps again:

The signal space including M constellation point is divided into N number of region according to adopted constellation mapping by S0.1;

S0.2 builds table B; The constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region is recorded in table B i; I is the integer being not more than N;

Preferred hard decision in the present embodiment, adopt the decision method of this technology maturation, ensure that the realizability of judgement on the one hand, ensure that the simple and efficient property of realization simultaneously, adopt the table B generated in preprocessing process to carry out solving of follow-up log-likelihood ratio, operand is little, and result acquisition time is short simultaneously, system resource is few, and hardware implementation cost is low.

4th embodiment:

As shown in figures 3 to 6, the soft solution method of the present embodiment constellation mapping, the environment applied is, constellation mapping is the Gray-APSK(Amplitude-Phase Shift Keying on 256 rank) Gray-Amplitude phase shift keying; Chnnel coding adopts LDPC code---the low density parity check code Low Density Parity Check Code in DVB-S2 standard; LDPC decoding algorithm adopts modified min-sum algorithm, and maximum iteration time is 50 times; Transmission channel is AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel or i.i.d.Rayleigh channel---independent Rayleigh channel;

Wherein, shown signal space annular signal space as shown in Figure 3;

First, the pretreated of the constellation mapping of carrying out arrives table B, and concrete operation is as follows:

According to adopted constellation mapping, the signal space including 256 constellation point is divided into 256 regions, the signal space after division as shown in Figure 4;

Build table B; The constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region is recorded in table B i; I be not more than 256 integer;

Wherein,

Described S icomprise constellation point subset and constellation point subset

Described contain kth bit and be 0 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region;

Described contain kth bit and be 1 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region; Wherein described preset is the point of constellation point position in each region in the present embodiment;

Described k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M

Receive information symbol and channel condition information;

Utilize channel condition information to be normalized information symbol, obtain the normalization information symbol after processing;

Judging the region belonging to normalization information symbol;

Region from table B belonging to obtaining information symbol is used for the constellation point set of log-likelihood calculations, and carries out log-likelihood calculations by presetting method to the constellation point that information symbol and constellation point are concentrated.

What the soft solution method of the constellation mapping described in the present embodiment was applied in the arithmetic speed of Max-Log-MAP method in the communication being provided with above-mentioned parameter with traditional and operand is compared as follows table:

In addition, the performance of the soft solution method of the constellation mapping described in the present embodiment is also very little relative to the difference of traditional Max-Log-MAP method on error rate of system, concrete as shown in Fig. 5-Fig. 6:

Fig. 5 is when transmission channel is awgn channel (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel, the soft solution method of constellation mapping described in the present embodiment and the comparison diagram of Max-Log-MAP method.

Fig. 6 is when transmission channel is i.i.d.Rayleigh channel---during independent Rayleigh channel, and the soft solution method of constellation mapping described in the present embodiment and the comparison diagram of Max-Log-MAP method.

Comprehensive above-mentioned known, the soft solution method of the constellation mapping described in the present embodiment, under the condition almost not having performance loss, greatly reducing the operand of the log-likelihood ratio of each bit of information symbol, especially in the constellation mapping of high-order is as the constellation mapping on 256 rank, effect is especially obvious, thus decrease the system resource taken when adjudicating in soft solution preocess, also reduce hard-wired cost.

Above execution mode is only for illustration of the present invention; and be not limitation of the present invention; the those of ordinary skill of relevant technical field; without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention; can also make a variety of changes and modification; therefore all equivalent technical schemes also belong to category of the present invention, and scope of patent protection of the present invention should be defined by the claims.

Claims (7)

1. a soft solution preprocess method for constellation mapping, is characterized in that, the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping comprises the following steps:
According to adopted constellation mapping, the signal space including M constellation point is divided into N number of region;
Build table B, in table B, record the constellation point set S for log-likelihood calculations in the i of region i; I is the integer being not more than N;
Wherein,
Described S icomprise constellation point subset and constellation point subset
Described contain kth bit and be 0 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region;
Described contain kth bit and be 1 and the constellation point nearest with preset in the i of region;
Described k is for being not more than log 2the positive integer of M.
2. the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in the soft solution preprocess method of described constellation mapping, arranges one or more preset according to constellation mapping, Region dividing and performance requirement in the i of region.
3. the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, described constellation point set S iinterior constellation point is calculated by Monte Carlo EGS4 method or greedy algorithm and asks for.
4. the soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, described table B is stored in random access storage device, read-only memory or combinational logic circuit.
5. a soft solution method for constellation mapping, for after the preliminary treatment that the soft solution preprocess method of the arbitrary described constellation mapping of claim 1-4 carries out, it is characterized in that, the soft solution method of described constellation mapping comprises the following steps:
Receive information symbol,
Region i belonging to determination information symbol;
For the constellation point set S of log-likelihood calculations in region i from table B belonging to obtaining information symbol i, and utilize S by presetting method iin constellation point carry out log-likelihood calculations.
6. the soft solution method of constellation mapping according to claim 5, is characterized in that, the region belonged to by hard decision method determination information symbol.
7. the soft solution method of constellation mapping according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, also comprise and utilize channel condition information to be normalized described information symbol receiving after information symbol with before the region judged belonging to described information symbol, thus obtain normalization information symbol.
CN201310088740.0A 2013-03-19 2013-03-19 The soft solution preprocess method of constellation mapping and soft solution method CN103166903B (en)

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