CN103163480A - Method for estimating health state of lithium battery - Google Patents

Method for estimating health state of lithium battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103163480A
CN103163480A CN2013101138809A CN201310113880A CN103163480A CN 103163480 A CN103163480 A CN 103163480A CN 2013101138809 A CN2013101138809 A CN 2013101138809A CN 201310113880 A CN201310113880 A CN 201310113880A CN 103163480 A CN103163480 A CN 103163480A
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capacity
battery
rate
change
constant
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CN2013101138809A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103163480B (en
Inventor
杨帆
黄勇
朱永利
魏向辉
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长城汽车股份有限公司
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Abstract

The embodiment of the invention discloses a method for estimating the health state of a lithium battery, and relates to the technical field of batteries. In order to fulfill the aims of high accuracy of data estimation, simple estimation method and low cost, the invention provides the method. The method comprises the following steps of: acquiring the capacity fading rate of a battery pack in the using process; acquiring the capacity difference change rate of difference between capacity at a constant-current charge section and capacity at a constant-voltage charge section of the battery pack in the using process; and selecting a minimum value in the capacity fading rate and the capacity difference change rate, and judging the health state of the battery by the minimum value, wherein the capacity fading rate is close to the capacity difference change rate. The method is mainly applied to the judgment of the health state of the battery.

Description

The appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status
Technical field
The present invention relates to the technical field of battery, in particular to a kind of appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status.
Background technology
At present, the SOH of most lithium batteries (State of Health, health status) is that the ageing state by battery judges, the major parameter that characterizing battery is aging comprises the decay of battery capacity, the increase of the internal resistance of cell.
The battery capacity decay refers to, inside battery is because the generation of subsidiary reaction, passivating film causes parcel effect and SEI film to reactive material to thicken consumption to lithium ion etc., and make the reversible lithium ion of inside battery constantly reduce in the life total amount, during final arrival lower bound of capacity, arriving end-of-life status (for example works as battery capacity and can drop to 80%, when being SOH<80%, battery just should be replaced).The increase of battery resistance refers to, and considers from the angle of battery output energy efficiency: in the time of the external output power of battery, carry out the consumption of portion of energy on the internal resistance of cell; When consuming arrival certain proportion (ratio of useful power to gross output), think that battery arrives end-of-life status.General think battery end of life when selecting the internal resistance of cell to be increased to original 1.5 or 2 times.Wherein capacity attenuation and resistance increase, both one of reach limits value and all can assert end-of-life.
The evaluation method of lithium battery SOH is included in direct electric discharge, internal resistance method etc., electrochemical analysis, modelling etc.
Directly electric discharge is mainly to test the electric weight of emitting by the actual discharge of battery cell.
The internal resistance method is mainly to estimate SOH by the relation of setting up between internal resistance and SOH, namely can estimate SOH (R) by internal resistance of cell rate of change, as formula S OH (R)=(R now-R new)/(R old-R new), perhaps SOH (R)=(R old-R now)/(R old-R new, R wherein nowThe current internal resistance of expression battery, R newInternal resistance when the expression battery dispatches from the factory, R oldThe internal resistance of the battery when the expression battery capacity drops to end of life.
Can find out from above-mentioned, along with the growth of service time of battery, the internal resistance of cell is increasing, and battery capacity descends, thereby can estimate SOH.But the capacity loss to 25% of some battery even 30% rear internal resistance of cell just can obviously increase, and relies on like this accuracy that the internal resistance method will affect the SOH data estimation; In addition, battery operated at different temperature, the impedance of battery is discrepant, and the internal resistance that temperature not only affects battery also affects polarization resistance, and the difference of temperature will affect the accuracy (impact of low temperature environment is particularly serious) of SOH data estimation like this.
Electrochemical analysis is mainly to apply the different sinusoidal signal of a plurality of frequencies to battery, and the data message analysis to having collected, the current performance of prediction battery.But before with the method, usually need to do a large amount of data collection and analysis, to obtain the characteristic of battery, the method is the comparatively complicated trouble of process not only, and cost is also comparatively expensive.
Modelling is mainly to analyze the chemical reaction that inside battery occurs, and sets up based on this model of battery, calculates the rate of decay of battery capacity with this model, draws the SOH of battery.Utilize Erying equation, by the activation enthalpy, the relation of activation entropy and temperature is judged capacity attenuation speed, but present the method difficulty is larger, consuming time longer, and theoretical calculating with actual operating condition has larger difference simultaneously, and the numerical precision reliability is not high.
Summary of the invention
Embodiments of the invention provide a kind of appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status, can make the accuracy of data estimation higher, evaluation method is comparatively simple and cost is lower.
For achieving the above object, embodiments of the invention adopt following technical scheme:
The appraisal procedure of a kind of lithium battery health status that the embodiment of the present invention provides comprises:
A kind of appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status is characterized in that, comprising:
Obtain electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use;
Obtain the in use capacity difference rate of change of the difference of the capacity of constant-current charge section and constant-voltage charge section of electric battery;
Described capacity attenuation rate is chosen the minimum value in described capacity attenuation rate and described capacity difference rate of change near described capacity difference rate of change, with the health status of this minimum value judgement battery.
Further, described electric battery is comprised of a plurality of battery cells, obtains the capacity attenuation rate of each battery cell, and chooses wherein the minimum capacity attenuation rate as the capacity attenuation rate of electric battery.
The computing formula of the capacity attenuation rate of each described battery cell is: SOH (C i)=C i/ C i0
Wherein, SOH (C i) the capacity attenuation rate of an i battery cell, C iRepresent the actual capacity value that records after i battery cell uses, C i0Represent i the rated capacity value under the battery cell original state.
Wherein, obtain the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell, and choose wherein the poor rate of change of minimum capacity as the poor rate of change of battery capacity.
The computing formula of the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell is: SOH (D i)=D i/ D i0
Wherein, SOH (D i) the capacity difference rate of change of an i monomer; D iCapacity poor that represents the capacity of i battery cell constant-current charge section after use and constant-voltage charge section; D i0Capacity poor that represents the capacity of i battery cell constant-current charge section under original state and constant-voltage charge section.
In addition, described C i, C i0Can obtain from battery management system.
Described D i, D i0Also can obtain from battery management system.
The appraisal procedure of the lithium battery health status that the embodiment of the present invention provides comprises: obtain electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use; Obtain the in use capacity difference rate of change of the difference of the capacity of constant-current charge section and constant-voltage charge section of electric battery.can find out like this, compare the health status that judges battery from electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use, the embodiment of the present invention judges the health status of battery by comparing capacity attenuation rate and capacity difference rate of change, and due to described capacity attenuation rate near described capacity difference rate of change, therefore choose the minimum value in described capacity attenuation rate and described capacity difference rate of change, health status with this minimum value estimating battery, can improve like this estimation accuracy rate of lithium battery health status, and this evaluation method does not need to carry out a large amount of data collection and analysis, therefore this evaluation method is comparatively simple, and cost is lower.
Description of drawings
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, the below will do to introduce simply to the accompanying drawing of required use in embodiment or description of the Prior Art, apparently, accompanying drawing in the following describes is only some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skills, under the prerequisite of not paying creative work, can also obtain according to these accompanying drawings other accompanying drawing.
The appraisal procedure schematic flow sheet of the lithium battery health status that Fig. 1 provides for the embodiment of the present invention;
The curve map of capacity attenuation rate and capacity difference rate of change in the appraisal procedure of the lithium battery health status that Fig. 2 provides for the embodiment of the present invention;
The curve map of capacity attenuation rate and internal resistance of cell rate of growth in the appraisal procedure of the lithium battery health status that Fig. 3 provides for the embodiment of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is clearly and completely described, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, rather than whole embodiment.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, the every other embodiment that those of ordinary skills obtain under the prerequisite of not making creative work belongs to the scope of protection of the invention.
As shown in Figure 1, the appraisal procedure of a kind of lithium battery health status of providing of the embodiment of the present invention comprises:
Step S10 obtains electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use;
Step S11 obtains the in use capacity difference rate of change of the difference of the capacity of constant-current charge section and constant-voltage charge section of electric battery;
Step S12, described capacity attenuation rate is chosen the minimum value in described capacity attenuation rate and described capacity difference rate of change near described capacity difference rate of change, with the health status of this minimum value judgement battery.
can find out like this, compare the health status that judges battery from electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use, the embodiment of the present invention can judge by comparing capacity attenuation rate and capacity difference rate of change the health status of battery, and due to described capacity attenuation rate near described capacity difference rate of change, therefore choose the minimum value in described capacity attenuation rate and described capacity difference rate of change, health status with this minimum value estimating battery, can improve like this estimation accuracy rate of lithium battery health status, can also avoid the internal resistance of cell changes little and temperature due to early stage Different Effects cubic content measurement to make the drawback of cell health state estimation accuracy rate, and this evaluation method does not need to carry out a large amount of data collection and analysis, therefore this evaluation method is comparatively simple, and cost is lower.
Here constant current, constant-voltage charge are illustrated under carrying out, in the constant-current charge process, battery is not filled when arriving cut-off voltage, therefore in being right after ground constant-voltage charge process, battery is filled zero the time when the electric current of battery levels off to gradually, and battery capacity is compensated.Battery constant current particularly, constant-voltage charge process are:
At first carry out constant-current charge, (C represents the rated capacity of battery to the steady current 0.2C~1C of the less multiplying power of constant-current charge stage employing, unit is generally mAh) electric current of scope charges, after arriving final voltage, standing 0.5h-1h again, then utilize the magnitude of voltage equal final voltage to carry out constant-voltage charge, during less than 0.01C-0.02C, stop charging when electric current.
Above-mentioned electric battery is comprised of a plurality of battery cells, obtains the capacity attenuation rate of each battery cell, and chooses wherein the minimum capacity attenuation rate and form described capacity attenuation rate SOH (C), i.e. SOH (C)=min{SOH (C 1), SOH (C 2), SOH (C 3) ..., SOH (C i) ..., SOH (C n).
Wherein, before the capacity attenuation rate of electric battery can be used according to electric battery, the capacity of (being under original state) and the ratio of the capacity after use obtain.
Particularly, the computing formula of the capacity attenuation rate of each described battery cell is: SOH (C i)=C i/ C i0Wherein, SOH (C i) the capacity attenuation rate of an i battery cell, C iRepresent that i battery cell using the actual capacity value that records by overdischarge, C i0Represent i the rated capacity value (or also can refer to the actual capacity that cell records when first the use) under the battery cell original state.
Obtain the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell, and choose wherein the poor rate of change of minimum capacity as described capacity difference rate of change SOH (D), be i.e. SOH (D)=min{SOH (D 1), SOH (D 2), SOH (D 3) ..., SOH (D i) ..., SOH (D n).
Wherein, before the capacity difference rate of change of electric battery uses according to electric battery the capacity difference of constant current, constant-voltage charge section with use after obtain at the ratio of the capacity difference of constant current, constant-voltage charge section.
Particularly, the computing formula of the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell is:: SOH (D i)=D i/ D i0Wherein, SOH (D i) the capacity difference rate of change of an i monomer; D iThe capacity Q that represents i battery cell constant-current charge section after use 1' with the capacity Q of constant-voltage charge section 2' poor (be D i=Q 1'-Q 2'); D i0The capacity Q that represents i battery cell constant-current charge section under original state 1Capacity Q with the constant-voltage charge section 2Poor (be D i0=Q 1-Q 2).
Be for example the 3.6v battery for nominal voltage, its discharge lower voltage limit can be decided to be 3.0V, begins to carry out constant current 0.8C charging from 3.0V, stops charging when voltage reaches 4.2V, records the capability value (Q described above in constant-current charge stage 1Or Q 1'), and standing 0.5h; Then begin to carry out the 4.2V constant-voltage charge, during less than 0.02C, stop charging when electric current, record the capability value (Q described above in constant-voltage charge stage 2Or Q 2').
Mention the capacity attenuation rate in aforementioned close to the capacity difference rate of change, specifically can be with reference to Fig. 2, wherein horizontal ordinate represents the cycle index of battery discharge and constant current, constant-voltage charge, ordinate represents capacity attenuation rate and the capacity difference rate of change of battery, the curve of curve 1 expression capacity attenuation rate, the curve of curve 2 expression capacity difference rate of change.
As seen from Figure 2, the battery of starting stage also is in active state in circulation in early stage (cycle index is approximately the left and right 20 times) charging, and the capacity difference rate of change is in rising trend in the early stage cycle charging, therefore has larger difference with the capacity attenuation rate, but the capacity attenuation rate in all the other stages except this stage and capacity difference rate of change are very approaching, and overall average error is approximately 3.1%.The cycle index that the cycle index that differs greatly due to capacity attenuation rate and capacity difference rate of change approaches much smaller than both, therefore early stage cycle charging data can consider, remove like this after the data of activation stage in early stage average error and be contracted to and be about 1.9%.
In Fig. 3, horizontal ordinate represents the cycle index of battery discharge, and ordinate represents capacity attenuation rate and the internal resistance of cell rate of change of battery, and wherein internal resistance of cell rate of change can represent with SOH (R), i.e. SOH (R)=(R now-R new)/(R old-R new), perhaps SOH (R)=(R old-R now)/(R old-R new), the curve of curve 3 expression internal resistance of cell rate of change, the curve of curve 4 expression capacity attenuation rates.The average error of the capacity attenuation rate in battery discharge stage and the rate of change of its internal resistance is about 4.07%, and the average error of the capacity difference rate of change in the capacity attenuation rate in battery discharge stage and battery constant current, constant-voltage charge stage is about 1.9%, therefore can further illustrate by the constant current of judgement battery, the capacity difference rate of change in constant-voltage charge stage to improve the estimation accuracy rate of lithium battery health status.
In addition, above-mentioned C i, C i0And D i, D i0All can directly obtain this a kind of optional scheme wherein just certainly, C from battery management system (BMS) i, C i0, D i, D i0Can also obtain by the mode known to other those skilled in that art.
Above-mentioned i, n value all according in battery particularly battery cell quantity decide, but be not open numerical value yet.
The evaluation method of the embodiment of the present invention not only accuracy rate is higher, but also comparatively simple and cost is lower, goes for being applied in the battery on a lot of equipment, such as being applied in lithium battery on electric automobile or the lithium battery on mobile phone etc.
The above; be only the specific embodiment of the present invention, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to this, anyly is familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the present invention discloses; can expect easily changing or replacing, within all should being encompassed in protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of described claim.

Claims (7)

1. the appraisal procedure of a lithium battery health status, is characterized in that, comprising:
Obtain electric battery capacity attenuation rate in use;
Obtain the in use capacity difference rate of change of the difference of the capacity of constant-current charge section and constant-voltage charge section of electric battery;
Described capacity attenuation rate is chosen the minimum value in described capacity attenuation rate and described capacity difference rate of change near described capacity difference rate of change, with the health status of this minimum value judgement battery.
2. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described electric battery is comprised of a plurality of battery cells, obtains the capacity attenuation rate of each battery cell, and chooses wherein the minimum capacity attenuation rate as the capacity attenuation rate of electric battery.
3. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 2, is characterized in that, the computing formula of the capacity attenuation rate of each described battery cell is: SOH (C i)=C i/ C i0
Wherein, SOH (C i) the capacity attenuation rate of an i battery cell, C iRepresent the actual capacity value that i battery cell records after use, C i0Represent the rated capacity value under the original state of i battery cell.
4. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 2, is characterized in that, obtains the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell, and choose wherein the poor rate of change of minimum capacity as the capacity difference rate of change of electric battery.
5. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 4, is characterized in that, the computing formula of the capacity difference rate of change of each described battery cell is: SOH (D i)=D i/ D i0
Wherein, SOH (D i) the capacity difference rate of change of an i monomer; D iCapacity poor that represents the capacity of i battery cell constant-current charge section after use and constant-voltage charge section; D i0Capacity poor that represents the capacity of i battery cell constant-current charge section under original state and constant-voltage charge section.
6. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 3, is characterized in that, described C i, C i0Obtain from battery management system.
7. the appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described D i, D i0Obtain from battery management system.
CN201310113880.9A 2013-03-29 2013-03-29 The appraisal procedure of lithium battery health status CN103163480B (en)

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CN103344921A (en) * 2013-07-08 2013-10-09 华南师范大学 Lithium-ion power battery health state evaluating system and method
CN103698716A (en) * 2014-01-20 2014-04-02 哈尔滨工业大学 Attenuation coefficient-based method for evaluating dischargeable electric quantity of series battery pack
CN103698713A (en) * 2013-12-30 2014-04-02 长城汽车股份有限公司 Method for assessing SOH (state of health) of lithium ion battery
CN103869256A (en) * 2014-03-27 2014-06-18 华南师范大学 Method for estimating SOH of power lithium ion battery based on alternating current impedance test
CN103995236A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-20 长城汽车股份有限公司 Capacity loss measuring method for battery system and battery system
CN104198949A (en) * 2014-09-09 2014-12-10 上虞安卡拖车配件有限公司 Battery health state detection method
CN104569847A (en) * 2015-01-28 2015-04-29 国网冀北电力有限公司电力科学研究院 Lithium battery performance evaluation method and device
CN104678317A (en) * 2015-03-05 2015-06-03 普天新能源车辆技术有限公司 Method and device for detecting capacity fading of power lithium battery
CN104849670A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-08-19 威睿电动汽车技术(苏州)有限公司 Test method for lithium ion battery life prediction
CN105334462A (en) * 2014-08-07 2016-02-17 华为技术有限公司 Online estimation method for battery capacity loss
CN105607004A (en) * 2014-11-20 2016-05-25 北京普莱德新能源电池科技有限公司 Lithium ion battery pack state-of-health evaluation method and lithium ion battery pack state-of-health evaluation system
CN106033114A (en) * 2015-03-19 2016-10-19 国家电网公司 Health state evaluation method of energy storage battery
CN106842065A (en) * 2017-04-10 2017-06-13 北京新能源汽车股份有限公司 The preparation method and device of a kind of cell health state
CN106970334A (en) * 2017-05-05 2017-07-21 安徽锐能科技有限公司 The method and device of cell health state detection
CN109143099A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-04 潍柴动力股份有限公司 A kind of method and device of preestimating battery system health

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CN103344921A (en) * 2013-07-08 2013-10-09 华南师范大学 Lithium-ion power battery health state evaluating system and method
CN103344921B (en) * 2013-07-08 2015-11-11 华南师范大学 Lithium-ion-power cell health state evaluation system and method
CN103698713A (en) * 2013-12-30 2014-04-02 长城汽车股份有限公司 Method for assessing SOH (state of health) of lithium ion battery
CN103698716A (en) * 2014-01-20 2014-04-02 哈尔滨工业大学 Attenuation coefficient-based method for evaluating dischargeable electric quantity of series battery pack
CN103869256B (en) * 2014-03-27 2017-02-15 华南师范大学 Method for estimating SOH of power lithium ion battery based on alternating current impedance test
CN103869256A (en) * 2014-03-27 2014-06-18 华南师范大学 Method for estimating SOH of power lithium ion battery based on alternating current impedance test
CN103995236A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-20 长城汽车股份有限公司 Capacity loss measuring method for battery system and battery system
CN103995236B (en) * 2014-05-30 2017-07-28 长城汽车股份有限公司 The capacitance loss method of testing and battery system of battery system
CN105334462B (en) * 2014-08-07 2018-09-07 华为技术有限公司 Battery capacity loses estimation on line method
CN105334462A (en) * 2014-08-07 2016-02-17 华为技术有限公司 Online estimation method for battery capacity loss
CN104198949A (en) * 2014-09-09 2014-12-10 上虞安卡拖车配件有限公司 Battery health state detection method
CN105607004B (en) * 2014-11-20 2018-07-17 北京普莱德新能源电池科技有限公司 A kind of lithium ion battery packet health state evaluation method and system
CN105607004A (en) * 2014-11-20 2016-05-25 北京普莱德新能源电池科技有限公司 Lithium ion battery pack state-of-health evaluation method and lithium ion battery pack state-of-health evaluation system
CN104569847A (en) * 2015-01-28 2015-04-29 国网冀北电力有限公司电力科学研究院 Lithium battery performance evaluation method and device
CN104678317A (en) * 2015-03-05 2015-06-03 普天新能源车辆技术有限公司 Method and device for detecting capacity fading of power lithium battery
CN106033114B (en) * 2015-03-19 2019-07-09 国家电网公司 A kind of energy-storage battery health state evaluation method
CN106033114A (en) * 2015-03-19 2016-10-19 国家电网公司 Health state evaluation method of energy storage battery
CN104849670B (en) * 2015-05-20 2018-09-04 威睿电动汽车技术(苏州)有限公司 The test method of lithium ion battery life prediction
CN104849670A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-08-19 威睿电动汽车技术(苏州)有限公司 Test method for lithium ion battery life prediction
CN106842065B (en) * 2017-04-10 2020-01-17 北京新能源汽车股份有限公司 Method and device for acquiring battery health state
CN106842065A (en) * 2017-04-10 2017-06-13 北京新能源汽车股份有限公司 The preparation method and device of a kind of cell health state
CN106970334B (en) * 2017-05-05 2019-08-13 安徽锐能科技有限公司 The method and device of cell health state detection
CN106970334A (en) * 2017-05-05 2017-07-21 安徽锐能科技有限公司 The method and device of cell health state detection
CN109143099A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-04 潍柴动力股份有限公司 A kind of method and device of preestimating battery system health

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