CN103160717B - A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing - Google Patents

A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing Download PDF

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CN103160717B
CN103160717B CN201110405443.5A CN201110405443A CN103160717B CN 103160717 B CN103160717 B CN 103160717B CN 201110405443 A CN201110405443 A CN 201110405443A CN 103160717 B CN103160717 B CN 103160717B
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molten metal
mould
alloy
billet
rotten
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CN103160717A (en
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李润霞
荀诗文
吴雪丰
刘兰吉
勾洋洋
孙菊
曲迎东
白彦华
李荣德
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Nantong Shuangyao Stamping Co., Ltd.
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Shenyang University of Technology
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Abstract

A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing, the processing of going bad before pouring metal melt, then injects mould, and the extrusion head of extruder is declined rapidly, start molten metal pressurization, make the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, after pressurize, billet is taken out. By the enforcement of technical scheme of the present invention, prior art is produced relatively product quality and property indices homogeneous phase should be improved, and foundry goods has high strength and high tenacity.

Description

A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing
Technical field
The present invention relates to squeeze cast form method, specifically refer to a kind of about the rotten Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy of processing, the method for employing squeeze cast form.
Background technology
Hypereutectic high-seleium aluminium alloy has that good wearability is good, corrosion resistance is good, hot cracking tendency is little, volume stability is high and the feature such as low thermal coefficient of expansion, is a kind of desirable piston alloy such as new automobile, motorcycle. In increase tissue along with silicon content in this material, there is a large amount of primary silicons, particularly present the primary silicon of thick faller gill shape, seriously isolate alloy substrate, and silicon mutually most advanced and sophisticated and property at parts of edges and corners can cause that stress is concentrated, thereby obviously reduce the mechanical property of alloy, especially affected its plasticity. The method of the refinement silicon phase adopting at present has multiple, as Suspending Cast method, spray deposition, ultrasonic vibration method, rapid solidification method etc., though these methods have obtained certain effect, require too harshness owing to being subject to production scale restriction and process conditions, thereby be all subject to certain restriction on producing. The mechanical property of hypereutectic high-seleium aluminium alloy foundry goods depends on pattern and the distribution of Si in matrix to a great extent, therefore, improve pattern and the distribution of eutectic Si phase and primary Si phase, not only can put forward heavy alloyed mechanical property, but also can further put forward heavy alloyed wearability. Be mainly the crystallization crystal grain of refinement primary Si phase to the rotten processing of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy, the crystal grain of original block primary Si phase and thick needle-like eutectic Si phase become to acinous, to improve its combination property. The rotten processing of the primary Si phase of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy is mainly by external crystallization nuclei is provided in aluminium alloy, become the crystallization nuclei of primary Si phase, thereby crystallization nuclei quantity is increased, grow up to suppress it, realize the uniform object of crystalline structure refinement. Extrution casting technique, is characterized in that stock utilization is high, and the defects such as foundry goods internal porosity and shrinkage cavity significantly reduce, grain refinement and dense structure etc., and not only can make alloy structure refinement at Under Pressure Solidification, and the eutectic point of A1-Si alloy is moved to right, reduce thick primary Si phase quantity. Therefore, adopt the mode of squeeze cast form, also can make the refinement of hypereutectic A1-Si Silicon In Alloys phase, the mechanical property of alloy increases substantially. Two kinds of techniques of appeal are combined, thereby the refinement of guarantee silicon phase improved alloy mechanical property, and while production technology is simple, convenient operation.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method of preparing high tough Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy foundry goods, its objective is: improve Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy casting compactness, mechanical property and productivity ratio.
For achieving the above object, the present invention is by the following technical solutions:
A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing, is characterized in that: described method is carried out according to following steps:
Die tip is provided with the guiding gutter being connected with crucible, utilize tilting device that molten metal is injected to mould by guiding gutter, molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 17.0~19.0%, copper 1.0~2.0%, magnesium 0.3~0.7%, nickel 0.5~1.0%, iron 0.5~1.0%, manganese 0.3~0.7%, chromium 0.5~1.0%, molybdenum 0.3~0.7%, phosphorus 0.07~0.15%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, and the extrusion head of extruder is declined rapidly, start molten metal to pressurize, make the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, after pressurize, billet is taken out.
Before described molten metal injects mould, add alterant processings of go bad, be incubated 5-15min, and then pour into a mould.
Described alterant is strontium, and addition is the 0.02-0.06% of molten metal gross mass, can add with intermediate alloy form, also can be used as powder and is pressed into molten metal and stirs, and can also add together with refining agent.
Described alterant is phosphorus, and addition is the 0.5-1.5% of molten metal gross mass, can add with intermediate alloy form, also can be used as powder and is pressed into molten metal and stirs, and can also add together with refining agent.
Before described molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 200~300 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating.
When described molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 690~780 DEG C.
The decrease speed of described extrusion head is 0.1mm/s~12mm/s, and specific pressure is 70MPa~1500Mpa.
The described dwell time is 10s~60s.
By the enforcement of technical scheme of the present invention, method is simple to operate, is convenient to control, and product quality is high, can improve qualification rate and the production efficiency of high silicon Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy product.
Brief description of the drawings:
Fig. 1 is extrusion casting metal billet mould structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the not rotten hypereutectic Al-17.5Si alloy phase structure of metal mold gravity casting;
Fig. 3 is the rotten hypereutectic Al-17.5Si alloy phase structure of metal mold gravity casting;
Fig. 4 is the not rotten hypereutectic Al-17.5Si alloy phase structure of metal mold extrusion casint;
Fig. 5 is the rotten hypereutectic Al-17.5Si alloy phase structure of metal mold extrusion casint;
Fig. 6 is process forming process schematic diagram of the present invention.
Description of reference numerals:
1. extrusion head, 2. guiding gutter, 3. cover plate, 4. metal base ingot shape chamber, 5. heating cabinet, 6. choker bar, 7. tightening latch, 8. push rod.
Detailed description of the invention:
The present invention adopts metal type dies and extrusion casting method to improve forming technique, the equipment of wherein preparing Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy product comprises extruder and metal base ingot mould tool and heat treatment heating furnace, wherein extrusion metal billet mould periphery is resistance wire, utilize resistance wire to mold heated and be provided with thermocouple control mold temperature, mould top is that extrusion head can reach the position that needs extruding by fast-descending, mold bottom is choker bar, hinders molten metal and flows out, and mould below is ejecting mechanism. Be accurately to control extruding force for the requirement of extruder, and ensure the speed in when extruding. Heat treatment heating furnace when heating temperature must be evenly and temperature control accurate, otherwise may cause its relevant hydraulic performance decline because billet tissue odds is even, do not reach requirement.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail.
As shown in Figure 1, die tip is provided with the guiding gutter 2 being connected with crucible, by tilting device, molten metal is injected to the metal base ingot shape chamber 4 of mould by guiding gutter 2, is provided with choker bar 6 in 4 bottoms, metal base ingot shape chamber. Before injecting, mould need to heat and scribble coating with heating cabinet 5. Molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 17.0~19.0%, copper 1.0~2.0%, magnesium 0.3~0.7%, nickel 0.5~1.0%, iron 0.5~1.0%, manganese 0.3~0.7%, zirconium 0~0.4%, cerium 0~0.28%, lanthanum 0~0.12%, praseodymium 0~0.02%, niobium 0~0.08%, chromium 0.5~1.0%, molybdenum 0.3~0.7%, phosphorus 0.07~0.15%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium. First, by the molten metal processing of going bad, be then incubated 5-15min, carry out afterwards molten metal to pour into a mould, and extrusion head 1 presses down rapidly, arrive cover plate 3 places, guarantee that molten metal is the pressure that once property is set in liquid situation. In this process, can rely on extruding force to make the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, pressurize a period of time, rise extrusion head 1, utilize push rod 8 slowly billet to be ejected. Related process parameter: the pouring temperature of liquid metal is 780 DEG C, mold temperature is 300 DEG C, extrusion speed 8mm/s, specific pressure is 1000MPa, the dwell time is 40s, billet diameter of phi 70mm, height 100mm.
Take off the metal billet being shaped, except deflashing and peripheral oxide skin and impurity, integrated artistic flow process of the present invention as shown in Figure 6. In this course, due to the effect of pressure, make liquid-solid equilibrium state destroyed, the alloy solid solution degree of Under Pressure Solidification has obtained expansion, and pressure solidified structure is also nonequilibrium metastable phase, and the increase of its solid solubility is similar to rapid solidification. On the one hand, under pressure, molten metal setting temperature rises, and its result is exactly that matrix has started forming core and grown up at also could not be able to do in time forming core and while growing up of alloying element, so just make alloying element be forced to be segmented in the gap between matrix dendrite, form eutectic structure. On the other hand, also have a lot of alloying elements to be dissolved among matrix, make solid solubility increase, this point can be by being explained by diffusion coefficient and melt viscosity relation, to such an extent as to the billet squeezing out has good plasticity.
Modification process is also key of the present invention in addition, and adding of alterant can form metal oxide or intermetallic compound particle as nucleus with a certain composition in aluminium alloy or impurity, and reduces forming core merit, increases nucleation rate. The concrete composition of alterant can be different and different according to aluminium alloy, but have a unified principle to be:
Can not react with the metallic element in aluminium alloy, cause cancelling out each other between element, weaken metamorphism;
Ensure that its metamorphism has necessarily long-lasting, and there is no incubation period;
Ensure that its cost is lower, can not have a significant impact the cost of whole product;
Adding of alterant must be to improve alloy structure pattern, and improves alloy mechanical property, there is no bad side effect for former alloy, also not harmful to human body;
Density and aluminium alloy are close, and fusing point is between the rotten treatment temperature and pouring temperature of aluminium alloy, and easily floating slagging scorification after rotten;
According to concrete aluminium alloy, consider its addition and add method.
For example, strontium alterant acts on mutually to eutectic Si, changes its pin sheet-like morphology, and adding content is the 0.02-0.06% of gross mass; The effect of phosphor alterative primary Si phase, changes its corner angle bulk morphologies, and adding content is the 0.5-1.5% of gross mass.
Add method: can add with intermediate alloy form, also can be used as powder and be pressed into aluminium alloy and stir, can also add together with refining agent.
Below only with Al-17.5Si bianry alloy squeeze cast form description of the process problem.
As Fig. 2,3 is respectively the contrast of gravitational casting tissue, obviously visible, gravitational casting alloy structure, its Main Tissues is primary Si phase and eutectic Si phase constitution and Al matrix. Not rotten processing, as seen from Figure 2, primary Si phase is thick bulk, and out-of-shape and corner angle distinctness, produced serious isolating to Al matrix, seriously falls low-alloyed mechanical property, particularly plasticity. Eutectic Si is faller gill or lath-shaped mutually, and disorderly and unsystematic being distributed in Al matrix is easy to produce stress and concentrates under force-bearing situation, causes formation of crack to generate, and reduces alloy property. And add after Sr modification, as seen from Figure 3, primary Si phase remains thick bulk, with unmetamorphosed basic identical, but eutectic Si phase, but there is marked change, the form that is eutectic Si phase has started the transformation to branch shape by sheet, to the transformation of deteriorated structure, thereby, reduced stress and concentrated, the performance of alloy is also significantly increased.
As Fig. 4,5 is respectively the contrast of extrusion casint tissue, with sample ingredient alloy, be that primary Si phase almost can not find by primary α-Al arborescent structure and eutectic Si phase at the tissue of Under Pressure Solidification. Not rotten processing, as seen from Figure 4, primary α-Al arborescent structure is very flourishing, and very intensive, be conducive to the raising of alloy property, eutectic Si becomes very thin lamellar from original faller gill or lath-shaped, thereby reduce the effect of isolating to its matrix, reduced issuable stress in matrix and concentrated, thereby the mechanical performance of alloy is improved largely, especially plasticity has a very significant increase. And add after Sr modification, as seen from Figure 5, primary α-Al arborescent structure is still very flourishing, and very intensive, be conducive to equally the raising of alloy property, eutectic Si changes intensive tiny coralliform into by original very thin lamellar to be organized, be distributed between dendrite, just because of this point, the mechanical property of alloy also has further and improves, in table 1:
Table 1.
Be the specific embodiment of the invention below:
Embodiment 1:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and adds 0.02% the strontium that accounts for molten metal gross mass with intermediate alloy form, is then incubated 5min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 17.0%, copper 1.0%, magnesium 0.3%, nickel 0.5%, iron 0.5%, manganese 0.3%, chromium 0.5%, molybdenum 0.3%, phosphorus 0.07%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 200 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 690 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 0.1mm/s, and specific pressure is 70Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 10s.
Embodiment 2:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and the strontium powder that accounts for molten metal gross mass 0.06% is pressed into molten metal and stirs, and is then incubated 15min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 19.0%, copper 2.0%, magnesium 0.7%, nickel 1.0%, iron 1.0%, manganese 0.7%, chromium 1.0%, molybdenum 0.7%, phosphorus 0.15%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 300 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 780 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 12mm/s, and specific pressure is 1500Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 60s.
Embodiment 3:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and the strontium that accounts for molten metal gross mass 0.04% is added to molten metal together with refining agent, is then incubated 10min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 18.0%, copper 1.5%, magnesium 0.5%, nickel 0.8%, iron 0.7%, manganese 0.6%, chromium 0.8%, molybdenum 0.5%, phosphorus 0.1%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 250 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 750 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 8mm/s, and specific pressure is 500Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 30s.
Embodiment 4:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and adds the phosphorus that accounts for molten metal gross mass 1% with intermediate alloy form, is then incubated 8min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 17.5%, copper 1.3%, magnesium 0.4%, nickel 0.6%, iron 0.9%, manganese 0.5%, chromium 0.6%, molybdenum 0.4%, phosphorus 0.09%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 230 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 700 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 10mm/s, and specific pressure is 100Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 40s.
Embodiment 5:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and the phosphor powder that accounts for molten metal gross mass 0.5% is pressed into molten metal and stirs, and is then incubated 12min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 18.5%, copper 1.8%, magnesium 0.6%, nickel 0.7%, iron 0.8%, manganese 0.4%, chromium 0.9%, molybdenum 0.6%, phosphorus 0.12%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 280 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 770 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 1.0mm/s, and specific pressure is 1000Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 20s.
Embodiment 6:
Step 1. molten metal is rotten to be processed, and the phosphorus that accounts for molten metal gross mass 1.5% is added to molten metal together with refining agent, is then incubated 6min;
Step 2. utilizes the tilting device molten metal after treatment that will go bad to inject mould by guiding gutter, and molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 19%, copper 1.1%, magnesium 0.45%, nickel 0.9%, iron 0.6%, manganese 0.55%, chromium 0.7%, molybdenum 0.45%, phosphorus 0.14%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 210 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating; When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 730 DEG C;
Step 3. declines the extrusion head of extruder rapidly, starts molten metal pressurization, makes the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, and extrusion head decrease speed is 0.3mm/s, and specific pressure is 800Mpa;
Step 4. metal billet, after pressurize, takes out billet, and the dwell time is 50s.

Claims (1)

1. the rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing, is characterized in that: described method is carried out according to following steps:
Die tip is provided with the guiding gutter being connected with crucible, utilize tilting device that molten metal is injected to mould by guiding gutter, molten metal composition is by weight percentage: silicon 17.0~19.0%, copper 1.0~2.0%, magnesium 0.3~0.7%, nickel 0.5~1.0%, iron 0.5~1.0%, manganese 0.3~0.7%, chromium 0.5~1.0%, molybdenum 0.3~0.7%, phosphorus 0.07~0.15%, impurity summation≤0.5%, surplus is aluminium, and the extrusion head of extruder is declined rapidly, start molten metal to pressurize, make the feeding solidifying by force of metal billet, after pressurize, billet is taken out,
The decrease speed of extrusion head is 0.1mm/s~12mm/s, and specific pressure is 70MPa~1500Mpa;
Molten metal injects before mould, adds alterant processings of go bad, is incubated 5-15min, and then pours into a mould;
When alterant is strontium, addition is the 0.02-0.06% of molten metal gross mass, adds, or is pressed into molten metal and stirs as powder, or add together with refining agent with intermediate alloy form;
Or when alterant be phosphorus, addition is the 0.5-1.5% of molten metal gross mass, adds, or be pressed into molten metal and stir as powder with intermediate alloy form, or adds together with refining agent;
Before molten metal injects mould, mould need to be heated to 200~300 DEG C, and on mould, scribbles coating;
When molten metal injects mould, the pouring temperature of molten metal is 690~780 DEG C; Dwell time is 10s~60s.
CN201110405443.5A 2011-12-08 2011-12-08 A kind of rotten hypereutectic Al-Si alloy extrusion casting forming method of processing Expired - Fee Related CN103160717B (en)

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CN104139171B (en) * 2014-08-09 2016-04-13 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of graded composite indenter device being applicable to pressure casting process
CN104480357B (en) * 2014-12-05 2016-09-07 福州大学 A kind of high-silicon aluminum alloy cylinder sleeve and preparation method thereof
CN105088024A (en) * 2015-08-27 2015-11-25 华晨汽车集团控股有限公司 Automobile welding fixture alloy material and preparation method thereof
CN106702228A (en) * 2017-01-23 2017-05-24 沈阳工业大学 Extrusion casting forming hypereutectic Al-Si alloy and preparation method thereof
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CN1951605A (en) * 2006-11-16 2007-04-25 上海交通大学 Extrusion casting preparation method for aluminium alloy automobile engine bracket
CN101229582A (en) * 2008-02-22 2008-07-30 昆明理工大学 Semi-solid rheo-extrusion casting technology and equipment of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy casting
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