CN103144769B - Pneumatic layout of vertical taking-off and landing aircraft with tilted duct - Google Patents

Pneumatic layout of vertical taking-off and landing aircraft with tilted duct Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103144769B
CN103144769B CN201310069667.2A CN201310069667A CN103144769B CN 103144769 B CN103144769 B CN 103144769B CN 201310069667 A CN201310069667 A CN 201310069667A CN 103144769 B CN103144769 B CN 103144769B
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China
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fuselage
duct
wing
ducted fan
aircraft
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CN201310069667.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103144769A (en
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叶正寅
杨磊
张伟伟
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西北工业大学
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Priority to CN201310069667.2A priority Critical patent/CN103144769B/en
Publication of CN103144769A publication Critical patent/CN103144769A/en
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Publication of CN103144769B publication Critical patent/CN103144769B/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a pneumatic layout of a vertical taking-off and landing aircraft with a tilted duct. The pneumatic layout is characterized in that front duct fans are symmetrically arranged at the outer sides of the head parts of all the aircraft bodies; rear duct fans are symmetrically arranged at the inner sides of the middle parts of all the aircraft bodies; and all the duct fans are respectively connected with transmission components in the aircraft bodies by duct rotating shafts in the transmission components. The axial distance between protection points of the axial lines of all the duct rotating shafts on the axial lines of the aircraft bodies and the center of gravity of the whole aircraft along the aircraft bodies is 1.125 times of the chord length of wings. In the pneumatic layout, the duct fans can rotate around the duct rotating shafts; when the aircraft takes off or lands vertically, the duct fans are positioned at the vertical 90-degree position, the thrust vector is upward; in the transition stage, the duct fans rotate forwards around the duct rotating shafts; and in the cruise stage, the duct fans are positioned at a horizontal 0-degree position, and the thrust vector is forward, so that vertical taking off and landing and high-speed cruise flying are realized. The pneumatic layout disclosed by the invention has the advantages of high pneumatic efficiency, compact structure, strong reliability, strong maneuverability, flexible operation, long voyage and low noise and the like.

Description

A kind of aerodynamic arrangement of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer
Technical field
The present invention relates to modern aerospace field, be specially a kind of aerodynamic arrangement of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer.
Background technology
Aircraft will reduce flying speed and touchdown speed as much as possible in the takeoff and anding stage, reduce the dependence even broken away from airport condition, make aircraft can carry out takeoff and anding safely under circumstances, improve alerting ability and the convenience of aircraft utilization, better to complete aerial mission.At present, short distance/vertically taking off and landing flyer more and more receives the military and civilian concern, and it has site condition and requires low, mobility strong, the features such as good concealment, in military fields such as investigation, firepower deliveries and take photo by plane, survey and draw, the civil area such as municipal transport has very large utilization potentiality.
Current short take-off and landing (STOL) technology mainly contains: 1. adopt advanced aerodynamic arrangement, changes wing profile and aspect, as adopted complicated mechanical high lift device etc.; 2. adopt as power-boosting devices such as jet flaps; 3. adopt the engine installation that verts.Wherein mechanical high lift device needs complicated and accurate wing flap jack, and additional mechanism design cost and structural weight are all very large, are suitable for large transport airplane; Jet flap technical pattern is more complicated, and cost is also very high, and has higher requirement to the stability and control of aircraft; By contrast, the engine installation that verts is more suitable for the use of middle-size and small-size aircraft and unmanned plane.
Current use vert engine installation realize short distance/vertical takeoff and landing comparatively successfully aircraft be tilt rotor aircraft, tilt rotor aircraft is a kind of new ideas aerocraft between helicopter and fixed wing aircraft, it can be similar to helicopter and equally take off vertically, hovers, again can as fixed wing aircraft high speed cruise flight, expand the flight envelope of conventional aircraft.But tilt rotor aircraft is owing to realizing vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), the take-off weight of aircraft can only be about 85% of engine thrust, this just makes the capacity weight of aircraft greatly be restricted, have impact on the fuel load of aircraft, and engine operation is at maximum rating when taking off vertically, consumption of fuel is very big, reduces flight.
Compared to propeller aircraft, ducted fan engine installation has the advantage of low oil consumption, low noise.Duct ring that ducted fan is similar to the annular wing by a circle is drawn together propeller aircraft and is formed.Wind tunnel test and numerical modelling show, in low advance than in situation, the pulling force of the ducted fan generation of equal-wattage is more than 2 times of isolated rotor, therefore, as engine installation when taking off vertically, ducted fan can provide larger pulling force, has less oil consumption, adds capacity weight and the voyage of aircraft.And due to the existence of duct, wrapped the screw propeller of High Rotation Speed, had more safety, duct has isolated the noise of screw propeller, also has the advantage of low noise.
Summary of the invention
In order to realize the vertical takeoff and landing of aircraft, and increase voyage, be easy to manipulation, the present invention proposes a kind of aerodynamic arrangement of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer.
The present invention includes 4 transmission components, 4 ducted fans; Described vertically taking off and landing flyer comprises fuselage, vertical tail and wing; 4 ducted fans are divided into two groups, and wherein one group is front ducted fan, and another group is rear ducted fan; Described front ducted fan symmetry be arranged on outside each fuselage head; Described rear ducted fan symmetry be arranged on inside each waist; Described each ducted fan is connected with the transmission component being positioned at fuselage respectively by the duct turning cylinder in transmission component;
The subpoint of axis on fuselage axis of described each duct turning cylinder and the axial distance entirely along fuselage between machine center of gravity are 1.125 times of wing chord lengths; The axes normal of described duct turning cylinder in ducted fan axis and cross the center of gravity of ducted fan;
Wing is between front ducted fan and rear ducted fan; 25% relative chord positions of wing is by full machine center of gravity, and wing length is 1.5m, and area is 0.3m 2, aspect ratio is 7.5; The wing aspect ratio being positioned at fuselage outer side is 2.25; The stagger angle of described wing is 3 °; Wing panel between two fuselages is central wing, described central wing aspect ratio 1.5;
Fuselage adopts twin fuselage; The length of each fuselage is 1.2m, and the equivalent diameter of maximum cross section is 0.14m; The design con-trol face of described each fuselage is x i, i=1,2,3,4,5; X is the along slope coordinate of fuselage, and subscript i represents the numbering of each control surface.
Described transmission component comprises duct turning cylinder, fuselage wallboard bearing, central link span bearing, transmission arm, pipe link, steering wheel transmission arm, steering wheel and steering wheel frame; Described central link span is positioned at fuselage, on the anterior bulkhead that two ends are separately fixed at fuselage transmission cabin section and rear portion bulkhead; Described central link span has the bearing hole of pipe link motion hole and duct turning cylinder; Steering wheel is positioned at central link span side, and is fixed on fuselage wallboard by steering wheel frame; The output shaft of described steering wheel is connected by steering wheel transmission arm one end with two pipe links through central link span; At described central link span opposite side, one end of duct turning cylinder is arranged on central link span by central link span bearing, the other end of this duct turning cylinder passes fuselage wallboard, be connected with the duct wall of a ducted fan, and by fuselage wallboard bearing, described duct turning cylinder be supported on fuselage wallboard.
Described left and right two fuselage aerodynamic configuration is all identical with size, is described with left fuselage, and it is as shown in the table for each design con-trol face of described each fuselage and each control coordinate points:
Pipe link motion hole on described central link span near rear portion bulkhead on one side; This pipe link motion hole for the center of circle, is that radius is formed with the center of duct turning cylinder with transmission arm, and the motion angle in pipe link motion hole is+30 ° to-70 °.
The present invention proposes a kind of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer layout, aircraft designs for twin fuselage, the ducted fan that can vert by four drives, vertical takeoff and landing, high speed cruise flight can be realized, there is the advantages such as pneumatic efficiency is high, compact conformation, reliability strong, mobility strong, manoeuvrable, oceangoing voyage journey, low noise.
In the present invention, ducted fan can rotate around duct turning cylinder, when aircraft vertical landing, ducted fan is vertical 90 ° of positions, thrust vectoring upwards, during transition period, ducted fan rotates forward 90 ° around duct turning cylinder, and during cruising phase, ducted fan is level 0 ° of position, and thrust vectoring forward.
As shown in Figure 1, described aircraft is in vertical takeoff and landing state, and four ducted fans are all in the upright position of 90 °, and now ducted fan provides lift upwards, overcomes aircraft weight and completes vertical takeoff and landing.
As shown in Figure 2, described aircraft is in average flight state, and four ducted fans are all horizontal (0 °), and now ducted fan provides thrust forward, overcomes that aircraft is flat flies resistance, and the lift of aircraft is provided by wing.
As shown in Figures 1 to 3, twin fuselage are designed with the layout and connection that are beneficial to ducted fan, such ducted fan can be connected directly between on fuselage, driving system and Servo-controller all can be arranged in fuselage, and duct turning cylinder is shorter, reduce the bending load of duct turning cylinder, and make drive system structure compact, weight is less, is easy to realize
Wing of the present invention is positioned at the position in the middle of the ducted fan of front and back, and is the design of lower single-blade.During cruising flight, the high velocity air that two ducted fans being positioned at fuselage head eject flows through through upper surface of the airfoil, reduces upper surface of the airfoil pressure, and lower aerofoil difference of pressure in increase, plays lift-rising effect; Be positioned at two ducted fans inside waist while the air of suction front, front air-flow is accelerated, and the air-flow after accelerating flows through central wing upper surface, reduce central wing top surface pressure, lower aerofoil difference of pressure in increase, gas is to lift-rising effect.The wing aspect ratio being positioned at fuselage outer side is 2.25, improves the horizontal course stability of aircraft.
Described tailplane is at vertical tail wing root place and between two vertical tails, tailplane and two ducted fans be positioned at inside waist are in sustained height.When cruising flight, be positioned at the high velocity air that two ducted fans inside waist eject and flow through tailplane, improve the pneumatic efficiency of tailplane.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is aircraft vertical landing state appearance figure;
Fig. 2 is aircraft average flight state External view;
Fig. 3 is aircraft vertical landing state three-view diagram, and wherein Fig. 3 a is front view, and Fig. 3 b is lateral plan, and Fig. 3 c is birds-eye view;
Fig. 4 is aircraft left fuselage design control surface schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is fuselage transmission cabin section External view;
Fig. 6 is fuselage transmission cabin section transparent view;
Fig. 7 is fuselage transmission cabin section perspective plan view.In figure:
1. left fuselage; 2. right fuselage; 3. duct wall; 4. duct rotating shaft; 5. rotor; 6. duct turning cylinder; 7. wing; 8. central wing; 9. tailplane; 10. vertical tail; Bulkhead after 11.; Bulkhead before 12.; 13. central link spans; 14. fuselage wallboard bearings; 15. central link span bearings; 16 transmission arms; 17. pipe links; 18. steering wheel transmission arms; 19. steering wheels; 20. steering wheel framves
Detailed description of the invention
Be aircraft vertical landing state appearance figure, aircraft cruising condition External view and aircraft vertical landing state three-view diagram as shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 shows.
The present embodiment is a kind of aerodynamic arrangement of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer, comprises left fuselage 1, right fuselage 2, wing 7, central wing 8, tailplane 9, vertical tail 10 and 4 ducted fans.
As shown in Figures 1 to 3, the present embodiment adopts twin fuselage, two vertical tail, and wing is single-blade under level, and full machine center of gravity is positioned at wing 25% chord positions relatively.4 ducted fans are divided into two groups, and wherein one group is front ducted fan, and another group is rear ducted fan.Described front ducted fan symmetry be arranged on outside each fuselage head, described rear ducted fan symmetry be arranged on inside each waist, described each ducted fan is connected with fuselage by the duct turning cylinder 6 in transmission component.
The subpoint of axis on fuselage axis of described each duct turning cylinder 6 and the axial distance entirely along fuselage between machine center of gravity are 1.125 times of wing chord lengths; The axes normal of described duct turning cylinder 6 in ducted fan axis and cross the center of gravity of ducted fan; Described duct turning cylinder central axis and aircraft longitudinal axis distance are 0.075 times of wing chord length.
Described ducted fan adopts prior art.Duct wall 3 diameter of ducted fan is 0.09m, is highly 0.07m.Described duct rotating shaft 4 diameter is 0.022m, and length is 0.1m.The rotor 5 of ducted fan is 3 oar rotors, and diameter is 0.081m, and the aerofoil profile of rotor adopts NACA2412 aerofoil profile, and the root chord length of rotor is 0.01m, and the tip chord length of rotor is 0.006m, rotor blade root geometric twist 39 °, rotor blade taper geometric twist 16 °; Rotor no periodic displacement.Duct turning cylinder 6 in ducted fan is fixed on the outer side of ducted fan.The axes normal of this duct turning cylinder 6 in ducted fan axis and cross the center of gravity of ducted fan.
Wing 7 is between front ducted fan and rear ducted fan.Described wing 7 adopts NACA4412 aerofoil profile.25% relative chord positions of wing is by full machine center of gravity, and wing length is 1.5m, and area is 0.3m 2, aspect ratio is 7.5.The wing aspect ratio being positioned at fuselage outer side is 2.25.Wing panel between two fuselages is central wing, described central wing aspect ratio 1.5.The stagger angle of described wing is 3 °.
Vertical tail 10 adopts two vertical tail, and adopt NACA0012 aerofoil profile, the aspect ratio of each vertical tail 10 is 1.78, and vertical tail area is 0.0225m 2.The root chord length of each vertical tail 10 is 0.75 times of wing chord length, and tip chord length is 0.375 times of wing chord length.The sweepback angle of each vertical tail 10 is 27 °.
Tailplane 9 adopts NACA0012 aerofoil profile.Described tailplane is at vertical tail wing root place and between two vertical tails, and the center of pressure of tailplane is 3.4 times of chord lengths apart from the distance of full machine center of gravity.Described tailplane and elevator aspect ratio is 3, and chord length is 0.75 times of wing chord length, and area is 0.0675m 2.
Fuselage adopts twin fuselage, is divided into left fuselage 1 and right fuselage 2.Described left fuselage 1 is all identical with size with the aerodynamic configuration of right fuselage 2, in the present embodiment, is described for left fuselage 1.
The length of left fuselage 1 is 1.2m, and the equivalent diameter of maximum cross section is 0.14m.The co-ordinate zero point of left fuselage 1 is arranged on fuselage head foremost, and rear is pointed to along fuselage longitudinal axis in coordinate axle x-axis direction, and coordinate axle z-axis points to top perpendicular to fuselage longitudinal axis, the plane that coordinate axle y-axis forms perpendicular to x-axis and z-axis, points to right.The geometric configuration of described left fuselage 1 is retrained by the SPL on control surface, and SPL by controlling coordinate points to retrain, and obtains fuselage curved surface respectively by interpolation.The position of design con-trol face in the x-axis of coordinate axle of described left fuselage 1 is x i, i=1,2,3,4,5; X is the along slope coordinate of fuselage, and subscript i represents the numbering of each control surface.
In the present embodiment, the design con-trol face x of described left fuselage 1 ibe respectively x 1=20mm, x 2=200mm, x 3=500mm, x 4=800mm and x 5=1100mm place, as shown in Figure 4.
Table 1 is the design con-trol face x of left fuselage 1 iin respectively control coordinate points;
The design con-trol face x of the left fuselage 1 of table 1 iin respectively control coordinate points
Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Figure 7 shows that transmission component.Fig. 5 is fuselage transmission cabin section External view, and Fig. 6 is fuselage transmission cabin section transparent view, and Fig. 7 is fuselage transmission cabin section perspective plan view.
Fuselage transmission cabin section comprises rear portion bulkhead 11, anterior bulkhead 12, central link span 13.
As shown in Figure 6, Figure 7, transmission component comprises duct turning cylinder 6, fuselage wallboard bearing 14, central link span bearing 15, transmission arm 16, pipe link 17, steering wheel transmission arm 18, steering wheel 19, steering wheel frame 20.Described central link span 13 is positioned at fuselage, on the anterior bulkhead 12 that two ends are separately fixed at fuselage transmission cabin section and rear portion bulkhead 11.
Described central link span 13 has the bearing hole of pipe link motion hole and duct turning cylinder 6.Steering wheel 19 is positioned at central link span 13 side, and is fixed on fuselage wallboard by steering wheel frame 20; The output shaft of described steering wheel 19 is connected by steering wheel transmission arm 18 one end with two pipe links 17 through central link span 13.At described central link span 13 opposite side, one end of duct turning cylinder 6 is arranged on central link span 13 by central link span bearing 15, the other end of this duct turning cylinder 6 passes fuselage wallboard, be connected with the duct wall 3 of a ducted fan, and the middle part of duct turning cylinder 6 is arranged on fuselage wallboard by fuselage wallboard bearing 14, to support described duct turning cylinder 6.Described pipe link 17 is made up of the rod iron that two are installed side by side.Pipe link motion hole on described central link span 13 near rear portion bulkhead 11 on one side; Described pipe link motion hole is the arc-shaped through-hole of through central link span.This pipe link motion hole is with the center of duct turning cylinder 6 for the center of circle, and with transmission arm 16 for radius is formed, the motion angle in pipe link motion hole is 30 ° to-70 °.The motion angle in described pipe link motion hole is 0 ° of benchmark with aircraft longitudinal axis, is just upwards.When pipe link 17 is positioned at the position in pipe link motion 25 °, hole, ducted fan is in 0 ° of level attitude, and when pipe link 17 is positioned at the position in pipe link motion-65 °, hole, ducted fan is in 90 ° of upright positions.
In the present embodiment, steering wheel 19 selects Futaba S3305 steering wheel, and bear moment of torsion 8.9kgcm, steering wheel is connected with control system by wire, accepts the control signal that Ore-controlling Role sends, and drives ducted fan to rotate.
In the present embodiment, central link span bearing 15 and fuselage wallboard bearing 14 are deep groove ball bearing 6001.The internal diameter 12mm of described central link span bearing 15 and fuselage wallboard bearing 14, external diameter 28mm, thickness 8mm.
The specific works process of the present embodiment:
When aircraft is in vertical takeoff and landing state, steering wheel is under the effect of control system, and four ducted fans (90 °) in vertical position, now ducted fan thrust vectoring vertically upward, provides lift upwards, overcomes aircraft weight and complete vertical takeoff and landing.
When aircraft is in the transition flight stage, steering wheel is under the effect of control signal, produce propulsive effort, by steering wheel transmission arm, the connection of pipe link and transmission arm drives duct turning cylinder to rotate, duct turning cylinder is by being connected with ducted fan, drive ducted fan rotates, ducted fan is rotated forward, thrust vectoring gradually becomes horizontal direction by vertical direction, aircraft flies to preacceleration under the effect of thrust vectoring horizontal component, when ducted fan forwards level attitude (0 °) to, aircraft flies with certain speed, the lift that wing produces enough overcomes the gravity of aircraft.
When aircraft is in average flight state, steering wheel is under the effect of control system, and four ducted fans are horizontal (0 °), and now ducted fan provides thrust forward, overcomes aircraft resistance, and the lift of aircraft is provided by wing.Now, the high velocity air that front ducted fan ejects flows through through wing 7 upper surface, reduces upper surface of the airfoil pressure, and lower aerofoil difference of pressure in increase, plays lift-rising effect; Rear ducted fan, while the air of suction front, front air-flow is accelerated, and the air-flow after accelerating flows through central wing 8 upper surface, reduces central wing top surface pressure, lower aerofoil difference of pressure in increase, plays lift-rising effect; The high velocity air that rear ducted fan ejects flows through tailplane, improves the pneumatic efficiency of tailplane.
In the transition flight stage, steering wheel 19 is under the effect of control signal, produce propulsive effort, duct turning cylinder 6 is driven to rotate by the connection of steering wheel transmission arm 18, pipe link 17, transmission arm 16, duct turning cylinder 6 drives ducted fan to rotate, and the load now suffered by steering wheel is made up of the friction force of drive disk assembly and the rotation inertia force of ducted fan.

Claims (3)

1. an aerodynamic arrangement for tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer, is characterized in that, comprises 4 transmission components, 4 ducted fans; Described vertically taking off and landing flyer comprises fuselage, vertical tail and wing; 4 ducted fans are divided into two groups, and wherein one group is front ducted fan, and another group is rear ducted fan; Described front ducted fan symmetry be arranged on outside each fuselage head; Described rear ducted fan symmetry be arranged on inside each waist; Described each ducted fan is connected with the transmission component being positioned at fuselage respectively by the duct turning cylinder in transmission component;
The subpoint of axis on fuselage axis of described each duct turning cylinder and the axial distance entirely along fuselage between machine center of gravity are 1.125 times of wing chord lengths; The axes normal of described duct turning cylinder in ducted fan axis and cross the center of gravity of ducted fan;
Wing is between front ducted fan and rear ducted fan; 25% relative chord positions of wing is by full machine center of gravity, and wing length is 1.5m, and area is 0.3m 2, aspect ratio is 7.5; The wing aspect ratio being positioned at fuselage outer side is 2.25; The stagger angle of described wing is 3 °; Wing panel between two fuselages is central wing, described central wing aspect ratio 1.5;
Fuselage adopts twin fuselage; The length of each fuselage is 1.2m, and the equivalent diameter of maximum cross section is 0.14m; The design con-trol face of described each fuselage 1 is x i, i=1,2,3,4,5; X is the along slope coordinate of fuselage, and subscript i represents the numbering of each control surface;
It is as shown in the table for each design con-trol face of described each fuselage and each control coordinate points:
2. the aerodynamic arrangement of a kind of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, transmission component comprises duct turning cylinder, fuselage wallboard bearing, central link span bearing, transmission arm, pipe link, steering wheel transmission arm, steering wheel and steering wheel frame; Described central link span is positioned at fuselage, on the anterior bulkhead that two ends are separately fixed at fuselage transmission cabin section and rear portion bulkhead; Described central link span has the bearing hole of pipe link motion hole and duct turning cylinder; Steering wheel is positioned at central link span side, and is fixed on fuselage wallboard by steering wheel frame; The output shaft of described steering wheel is connected by steering wheel transmission arm one end with two pipe links through central link span; At described central link span opposite side, one end of duct turning cylinder is arranged on central link span by central link span bearing, the other end of this duct turning cylinder passes fuselage wallboard, be connected with the duct wall of a ducted fan, and by fuselage wallboard bearing, described duct turning cylinder be supported on fuselage wallboard.
3. the aerodynamic arrangement of a kind of tilting duct vertically taking off and landing flyer as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, the pipe link motion hole on described central link span is near rear portion bulkhead; This pipe link motion hole for the center of circle, is that radius is formed with the center of duct turning cylinder with transmission arm, and the motion angle in pipe link motion hole is+30 ° to-70 °.
CN201310069667.2A 2013-03-05 2013-03-05 Pneumatic layout of vertical taking-off and landing aircraft with tilted duct CN103144769B (en)

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