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Fat thickness measuring device

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CN103126726A
CN103126726A CN 201210031518 CN201210031518A CN103126726A CN 103126726 A CN103126726 A CN 103126726A CN 201210031518 CN201210031518 CN 201210031518 CN 201210031518 A CN201210031518 A CN 201210031518A CN 103126726 A CN103126726 A CN 103126726A
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ultrasonic
unit
thickness
fat
probe
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CN 201210031518
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CN103126726B (en )
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毛爱华
敬李
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重庆海扶医疗科技股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides a fat thickness measuring device which comprises an ultrasonic probe, a control unit, a display unit and a power supply unit, wherein the ultrasonic probe is used for emitting ultrasonic wave to an object to be measured, receiving ultrasonic echoes of the ultrasonic wave emitted by the ultrasonic probe at the same time, and outputting received ultrasonic echo signals; the control unit is used for controlling the ultrasonic probe to emit the ultrasonic wave, receiving the ultrasonic echo signals outputted by the ultrasonic probe, processing and calculating the ultrasonic echo signals, obtaining the fat thickness of the object to be measured through calculation, and then outputting fat thickness data; the display unit is used for receiving and displaying the fat thickness data outputted by the control unit; and the power supply unit is used for providing electric energy for the ultrasonic probe, the control unit and the display unit. The fat thickness measuring device is small in size, convenient to carry, easy to operate, visualized in numerical reading, and especially suitable for fat thickness monitoring utilization by an individual of families or fitness centers.

Description

一种脂肪厚度测量装置 An aliphatic thickness measuring device

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于超声波应用技术领域,具体涉及一种脂肪厚度测量装置。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the technical field of ultrasonic application, in particular to a fat thickness measuring apparatus.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 随着社会经济的发展以及人们生活方式的改变,人们生活水平得到了极大的改善,然而这也使得肥胖现象越来越普遍,肥胖及其所引发的健康问题已成为人们所关注的执占。 [0002] With the changing social and economic development and people's way of life, people's living standard has been greatly improved, but it also makes obesity increasingly common, obesity and health problems caused by has become a concern the account executive.

[0003] 人体中脂肪的百分含量是衡量健康状况的重要标志,研究表明,大多数个体的体重指数(Body Mass Index:简称BMI)与身体脂肪的百分含量之间具有明显的相关性,因此目前一些体检机构常用体重指数来衡量机体的肥胖程度。 [0003] percentage of body fat is an important indicator to measure health status, research shows that most individuals BMI (Body Mass Index: referred to as BMI) has a significant correlation between the percentage of body fat, Therefore, the current number of medical institutions commonly used body mass index to measure the degree of obesity of the body. 但是,肥胖的原因与多种因素息息相关,体重指数并不能全面地反应肥胖的具体状况,也无法确定身体脂肪主要分布于身体的哪个部位,身体某个部位的脂肪厚度具体是多少。 However, the cause of obesity is closely related to many factors, body mass index and obesity can not fully reflect the specific situation, can not determine which body fat is mainly distributed in the body, fat thickness of a body part specifically how much.

[0004] 经临床实践证明,皮下脂肪是人体脂肪的主要组成部分,皮下脂肪层大约储存了人体脂肪总量的2/3。 [0004] The clinically proven, subcutaneous fat is the main component of the body fat, subcutaneous fat stored about 2/3 of the total body fat. 因此,测量皮下脂肪厚度成为估计体内总脂肪状况的有效指数,此外,对特定部位皮下脂肪厚度进行测定还可为相应塑身减肥方法提供参考依据。 Therefore, the measurement of subcutaneous fat thickness estimated to become effective index of the total fat in vivo conditions, in addition, a specific region of subcutaneous fat thickness may be measured to provide reference for shaping a respective weight loss. 目前,测量皮下脂肪厚度常用方法包括皮脂计(也叫指捏法)和卡尺法,然而这两种方法都有一定的局限性,而且都不能直观反映皮下脂肪厚度。 Currently, conventional subcutaneous fat thickness measuring method comprising Sebumeter (also called finger pinch method) and the caliper method, but both methods have some limitations, and can not directly reflect the thickness of subcutaneous fat.

[0005] 近年来随着医学技术的发展,在国内外已有应用超声法、CT (ComputedTomography:电子计算机X射线断层扫描技术)法、MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging:磁共振成像)法等测量皮下脂肪厚度。 [0005] In recent years, with the development of medical technology, existing applications at home and abroad ultrasound, CT (ComputedTomography: X-ray computer tomography) method, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging) subcutaneous fat measuring method, thickness. 目前认为,CT法和MRI法是测量脂肪分布和含量准确性和可重复性最好的方法,但因成本较高和操作不便等原因不利于推行。 Currently think, CT and MRI method is the method of fat distribution and content accuracy and repeatability of the best ways to measure, but the high cost and inconvenience is not conducive to the implementation of operational and other reasons.

[0006] 超声法主要是利用超声波穿过人体中各种组织声学特性的差异(如声阻抗不同),会在两种不同声阻抗的界面处产生反射、折射和散射的性质,通过检测不同器官和组织产生不同的反射、折射和散射规律的信号,显示出脏器的界面和组织内部的细微结构,以此作为诊断和测量的依据。 [0006] Ultrasonic difference is the use of ultrasonic waves through the acoustic properties of various tissues in the human body (e.g., a different acoustic impedance) generated at the interface between two different reflected acoustic impedance, refraction and scattering properties, by detecting different organs and produce different tissues and signal reflection, refraction, scattering law, showing the fine structure of the interface and internal organ tissue, as the basis for measurement and diagnosis. 目前,国内外应用超声法测量皮下脂肪厚度基本都是采用B超诊断装置,但在实际临床应用中,B超诊断装置基本上都是专用于疾病诊断,测量脂肪厚度只是其附带的一个测量项目;而且,B超诊断装置一般只在医疗机构才有,其体积庞大、价格昂贵,而且需要具备相关医学知识的特定人员才能使用并进行准确地测量,目前市面上还没有适合家庭监控脂肪厚度或健身房个人随时观察脂肪厚度,以便随时检验运动和节食效果的小型的、便携式脂肪厚度测量装置。 At present, domestic ultrasonic subcutaneous fat thickness measuring method basically uses B-diagnostic apparatus, but in actual clinical application, the B-diagnostic apparatus is basically dedicated to a diagnosis of a disease, a measuring fat thickness measurement item which is only incidental ; moreover, B-diagnostic devices are generally found only in medical institutions, its bulky, expensive, and requires specific knowledge of relevant medical personnel to use and accurately measure current market has not yet suitable for home monitoring or fat thickness gym individual fat thickness observed at any time, at any time in order to test the effect of exercise and diet of small, portable fat thickness measuring apparatus.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是针对现有技术中存在的上述不足,提供一种体积小、便于携带的脂肪厚度测量装置,该脂肪厚度测量装置尤其适合家庭监控脂肪厚度或健身房个人随时观察脂肪厚度时使用。 [0007] The present invention solves the technical problem of the problems mentioned above in the prior art, there is provided a small, easy to carry fat thickness measuring apparatus, the fat thickness measuring apparatus is particularly suitable for home monitoring fat thickness at any individual or gym use as viewed fat thickness.

[0008] 现有市面上还没有专用于进行脂肪厚度测量的测量装置,目前,脂肪厚度的测量一般是在采用B型超声诊断装置进行疾病诊断的同时,附带地测量皮下脂肪厚度。 [0008] prior to the market has not dedicated for measuring fat thickness measuring apparatus, the current measuring fat thickness is in general use while B-type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus for diagnosing a disease, with measured thickness of subcutaneous fat.

[0009] 按医学超声设备体系分类,现有的超声诊断设备主要包括A型超声诊断装置和B型超声诊断装置。 [0009] Medical ultrasound apparatus according to the classification system, the conventional ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus includes an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus A type and B-type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. 在形成机理上,B型超声诊断装置采用灰度调制成像方式,当其中的超声探头发射超声波之后,返回一个二维切面断层图像,因此能直观地看到每一层面的图像,并进行直观测量,应用范围较广,但由于该探头返回的是二维图像,因而数据量也大,很难制成便携式设备;由于A型超声诊断装置采用幅度调制成像方式,当其中的超声探头发射超声波之后,返回的是一个一维超声回波信号,由于该回波信号只能反映局部组织的信息,不能获得在临床诊断上需要的解剖图形,且操作者的识图经验对诊断的准确性影响很大,因此其应用价值已渐渐低落,目前国内外都很少再生产和使用A型超声诊断装置。 On the formation mechanism, B-mode ultrasound imaging diagnostic apparatus grayscale modulation mode, wherein when the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, a two-dimensional slices returns tomographic image surface, it is possible to visually see the images of each slice, and measured visually , a wide range of applications, but because of the two-dimensional image of the probe is returned, a large amount of data and therefore, difficult to make the portable device; a-type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus due to the amplitude modulation imaging mode, wherein when the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves after , it returns a one-dimensional ultrasound echo signals, since the echo signal information can only reflect local tissue anatomy graphics on clinical diagnosis needs can not be obtained, and the impact of the knowledge map on the experience of the operator of diagnostic accuracy is large, so its value has gradually low, at home and abroad are rarely reproduction and use of A-type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus.

[0010] 然而,本发明人发现,虽然在A型超声诊断装置中的超声探头所接收的超声回波信号无法获得临床诊断所需要的解剖图形,但该超声回波携带有人体组织结构的原始信号,含有丰富的信息源,排除操作者具有识图差异的因素,其所接收的超声回波信号能真实、准确地反映人体组织结构特性,通过获取此超声回波并对之进行分析处理,就能够测量得到个体的皮下脂肪厚度;并且,A型超声诊断装置中超声探头获得的超声回波虽然没有B型超声诊断装置中超声探头返回的二维超声断层图像那么直观,但是由于其返回的是一个一维信号,因此数据量小,较易于制成便携式设备。 [0010] However, the present inventors have found that, although the A type ultrasound probe in an ultrasound diagnostic apparatus of the received ultrasound echo signals required for clinical diagnosis anatomical pattern can not be obtained, but the ultrasonic echo carries the original human tissue structure signal, rich source of information, the operator has to exclude FIG recognition factor differences, it receives ultrasonic echo signals can truly, accurately reflect the structural properties of human tissue, and the ultrasonic echo by acquiring this analysis and processing, can be measured thickness of subcutaneous fat of an individual; and, a type ultrasound echo ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus is an ultrasound probe is obtained though there is no B-mode ultrasound diagnostic apparatus returned ultrasound probe so intuitive two-dimensional ultrasound tomographic image, but because of its return It is a one-dimensional signal, so a small amount of data, the portable device is easier to be made.

[0011]同时,从人体解剖学角度来看,人体中包括遍布全身的浅筋膜和深筋膜。 [0011] Also, from the point of view of human anatomy, including the human body superficial fascia and deep fascia throughout the body. 其中,浅筋膜又称皮下筋膜,位于皮下,由疏松结缔组织构成,大多含有脂肪;深筋膜又称固有筋膜,位于浅筋膜以下,由致密结缔组织构成,用于包覆体壁、四肢的组织以及血管、神经等。 Wherein the superficial fascia, also known as the subcutaneous fascia, in the skin, composed of loose connective tissue, mostly with fat; also known as intrinsic deep fascia the fascia, the fascia is located, is constituted by dense connective tissue, for coating bodies wall, limbs, and vascular tissue, nerves and the like. 而人体的脂肪组织包括皮下脂肪和体内层状分布的脂肪。 And the body's adipose tissue comprising a layered body fat and subcutaneous fat distribution. 其中,皮下脂肪是指贮存于皮下的脂肪组织,位于皮肤层(即真皮层)以下,深筋膜层以上;体内脂肪主要是指贮存于腹腔的内脏脂肪组织和存在于骨髓中的黄色脂肪组织。 Wherein, it refers to subcutaneous fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue depots located layers of the skin (i.e., dermis) or less, or more layers deep fascia; primarily refers to body fat stored in adipose tissue abdominal cavity and the visceral adipose tissue present in the yellow marrow . 由于人体中的脂肪约有2/3均为皮下脂肪,而分布于人体内脏中的脂肪难以进行测量,因此目前脂肪厚度的测量主要是针对皮下脂肪进行的。 Because the human body fat are about two-thirds of subcutaneous fat, visceral fat distribution in the body it is difficult to measure, so the current measuring fat thickness of subcutaneous fat is mainly aimed conducted. 当超声波穿过人体时,皮下脂肪遇超声波会产生低强度回声,该低强度回声为分散的点状回声;当超声波到达皮下筋膜包覆脂肪的部位(即脂肪层与筋膜层的交界处)时,由于筋膜遇超声波后反射产生的超声回波为幅值较强的高强度回声,因此利用超声探头对该高强度的超声回波进行接收,并通过对所接收到的超声回波的强度进行分析,从而可以识别出皮下不同深度的脂肪层与该脂肪层相邻的皮下筋膜层交界处的超声回波,并依据接收到该超声回波的时间,可得到超声波从进入皮肤到穿过某脂肪层所用的时长,由于超声波在人体组织内的传播速度是公知的,通过计算距离值,最后可得到此脂肪层的厚度。 When the ultrasonic wave passes through the body, in case of subcutaneous fat produces a low intensity ultrasonic wave echo, the echo of the low intensity scattered point-like echo; when the ultrasonic wave reaches the subcutaneous fat fascia covering a portion (i.e., at the junction of the fat layer and the fascia ), the fascia case since the ultrasonic echoes reflected ultrasonic wave is generated echo strength magnitude stronger, so the use of the ultrasound probe receives ultrasonic echo high strength, and by the received ultrasound echoes to analysis of intensity, which can identify the different depth of subcutaneous fat layer and the fat layer adjacent to the junction of the ultrasonic echo subcutaneous fascia, and based on the time of the received ultrasonic echo, obtained from the ultrasound into the skin long to pass through a layer of fat used, since the ultrasonic propagation velocity in the body tissues are well known, by calculating the distance value, the final thickness of this fat layer is obtained.

[0012] 解决本发明技术问题所采用的技术方案是该脂肪厚度测量装置包括: [0012] Solving the problem of the present invention is used in the fat thickness measuring apparatus comprising:

[0013] 超声探头,用于向被测对象发射超声波,同时接收其所发射超声波的超声回波,并将接收到的超声回波信号输出; [0013] The ultrasonic probe for transmitting ultrasonic waves to a measured object, while receiving an ultrasonic echo ultrasonic waves emitted therefrom, and outputs the signal received ultrasound echoes;

[0014] 控制单元,用于控制超声探头发射超声波,接收超声探头输出的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行处理和计算,通过计算得到被测对象的脂肪厚度,再将该脂肪厚度数据输出; [0014] a control unit for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, and the ultrasonic echo signal receiving ultrasound echo signals outputted from the ultrasound probe are processed and calculated, obtained by calculating fat thickness measured object, and then the fat thickness data output;

[0015] 显示单元,用于接收和显示控制单元输出的脂肪厚度数据; [0015] a display unit for receiving and displaying fat thickness data output from the control unit;

[0016] 电源单元,用于为超声探头、控制单元、以及显示单元提供电能。 [0016] The power supply unit for supplying power to the ultrasound probe, the control unit, and a display unit.

[0017] 优选的是,所述控制单元包括:[0018] 发射单元,用于控制超声探头发射超声波; [0017] Preferably, the control unit comprising: [0018] transmitting unit, for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves;

[0019] 超声回波处理单元,用于接收超声探头输出的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行处理,以得到皮肤下的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的超声回波; [0019] The ultrasound echo processing unit, between the subcutaneous fat layer under the fascia and the fat layer under the skin for receiving an output from the ultrasonic probe and the ultrasonic echo signals of the ultrasonic echo signal is processed to obtain ultrasonic echo junction;

[0020] 计算单元,用于根据得到的超声回波计算皮肤下脂肪层的厚度,再将计算得到的脂肪厚度数据输出至显示单元。 [0020] The calculating unit according to the thickness of the ultrasonic echo obtained calculating the fat layer of the skin, fat thickness and then outputs the calculated data to the display unit.

[0021] 优选的是,所述超声回波处理单元包括前期处理单元和后期处理单元,其中: [0021] Preferably, the ultrasound echo processing unit comprises a pre-processing unit and a post-processing unit, wherein:

[0022] 前期处理单元,用于对所述超声探头输出的超声回波信号进行幅值放大和消除干扰处理,并将处理后的超声回波信号数字化后进行存储; [0022] The pre-processing unit for an ultrasonic echo signal outputted by the ultrasound probe amplitude noise elimination and amplification, and stores the digitized ultrasonic echo signal is processed;

[0023] 后期处理单元,用于提取前期处理单元中的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行识别,识别出超声探头接收到的皮肤下各个脂肪层与所述各脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波,并滤除其他的多次反射回波,再将识别得到的一次反射回波信号输出至计算单元; [0023] The post-processing unit for extracting an ultrasonic echo signal pre-processing unit and the ultrasonic echo signal to identify, at each identified fat layer under the skin of the received ultrasound probe with the respective layers of fat a reflection echo at the interface between the subcutaneous fascia, and other multiple filter out the reflected echo, and then identifying a reflection echo signal output to the computing means obtained;

[0024] 所述计算单元用于根据后期处理单元输出的一次反射回波信号,通过公式h =(T*V)/2计算被测对象的脂肪厚度,其中,h表示脂肪厚度,T表示时长,即指超声探头发射的超声波从进入皮肤开始直至接收到皮肤下最深处的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波信号的时长,或者指超声探头接收到第N界面的一次反射回波与接收到第(N+1)界面的一次反射回波的时差,V表示超声波在人体中的传播速度,V作为一个固定值预设在计算单元中。 [0024] The calculating unit according to a reflection echo signal output from the post-processing unit, by the equation h = (T * V) / 2 calculating fat thickness measured object, wherein, h represents fat thickness, T represents the time length , meaning that the ultrasound emitted from the ultrasound probe into the skin begins long time until receiving the reflected echo signal at the junction between the deepest skin layer and subcutaneous fatty layer under the fascia of the fat layer, or from the ultrasound probe means receiving a reflection echo of the received N-th interface of the (N + 1) of the interface echo time difference, V denotes an ultrasonic propagation velocity in the human body, V preset as a fixed value in the calculation unit.

[0025] 其中,所述预设于计算单元中的超声波在人体中的传播速度V = 1540m/so [0025] wherein, in the predetermined calculation unit ultrasonic wave propagation velocity in the human body V = 1540m / so

[0026] 进一步优选的是,所述前期处理单元中包括有放大电路、滤波电路、检波电路、A/D转换电路和存储器,其中: [0026] Further preferably, the processing unit comprises a pre-amplifier circuit, a filter circuit, the detector circuit, A / D conversion circuit and a memory, wherein:

[0027] 放大电路,用于接收超声探头中的超声回波信号,并对超声探头输出的超声回波信号进行放大,再将放大后的超声回波信号输出; [0027] The amplifier circuit for receiving an ultrasonic echo signal of the ultrasound probe, the ultrasound probe and the ultrasonic echo signals amplified output signal and then outputs the amplified ultrasound echo;

[0028] 滤波电路,用于接收放大电路输出的超声回波信号,并滤除其中混杂的电磁干扰波以及高次谐波,再将滤波后的超声回波信号输出; [0028] The filter circuit for receiving the ultrasonic echo signal output from the amplifying circuit, wherein the mix and filter electromagnetic interference and harmonic waves, the ultrasound echo signals and then outputs the filtered;

[0029] 检波电路,用于接收滤波电路输出的超声回波信号,并对接收到的超声回波电路进行峰值包络检波处理,再将经峰值包络检波处理后的超声回波信号输出; [0029] The detector circuit for receiving an ultrasonic echo signal output from the filter circuit, and received ultrasound echo circuit peak envelope detection processing, and then outputs the signal after the ultrasound echo envelope peak detection processing by the packet;

[0030] A/D转换电路,用于将超声回波信号转换成数字化的超声回波信号,再将数字化的超声回波信号输出; [0030] A / D conversion circuit for converting the ultrasonic echo signal into a digitized ultrasonic echo signal, an ultrasonic echo signal and then outputs the digitized;

[0031] 存储器,用于接收和存储A/D转换电路输出的数字化的超声回波信号。 [0031] The memory for the digitized ultrasonic echo signals and storing the received A / D conversion circuit outputs.

[0032] 进一步优选的是,所述后期处理单元中包括有补偿单元、小信号回波滤除单元、多次反射回波滤除单元和整波单元,所述补偿单元内预设有补偿因子,其中: [0032] Further preferably, the post-processing unit comprises a compensation unit, the echo signal is small filtering unit, multiple reflection echo filtering unit and wave-shaping unit, said compensation unit with a predetermined compensation factor ,among them:

[0033] 补偿单元,用于提取存储器中的数字化的超声回波信号,并将所提取的超声回波信号幅值加上补偿因子后得到补偿后的超声回波信号,再将补偿后的超声回波信号输出; [0033] The compensating means for the digitized ultrasonic echo signals to extract the memory, and the resulting ultrasound echo compensated signal after adding the extracted compensation factor ultrasonic echo signal amplitude, then the compensated ultrasound echo signal output;

[0034]小信号回波滤除单元,用于接收补偿单元输出的经补偿后的超声回波信号,并滤除其中的小信号回波,再将滤除小信号回波后的超声回波信号输出; [0034] Small echo signal filtering unit, an ultrasonic echo signal compensation unit for receiving the compensated output, and wherein the small signal filtered echo, then filtered off and the ultrasound echo signals return small signal output;

[0035]多次反射回波滤除单元,用于接收小信号回波滤除单元输出的超声回波信号,并对滤除小信号回波后的超声回波信号进行分析,从中识别出超声探头接收到的皮肤下各个脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波,滤除其他的多次反射回波,再将滤除了多次反射回波后的一次反射回波信号输出; [0035] The multiple echo filtering unit, a small ultrasonic echo signal received echo is filtered cell output signal, and analyzes the ultrasound echo signal small signal filtered echo ultrasound identified from after a reflection echo at the interface between the respective layers of fat and fascia subcutaneous fat layer in this, other multiple filter out the reflected echo received by the probe under the skin, and then filtered out of the reflected echo times primary reflection echo signal output;

[0036] 整波单元,用于接收多次反射回波滤除单元输出的一次反射回波信号,并对其进行整波,再将整波后的一次反射回波信号输出至计算单元。 [0036] The wave-shaping means for receiving a reflected echo signals outputted a plurality of times of reflected echo filtering unit, and subjected to wave-shaping, a reflection echo signal output from the wave-shaping and then to the computing unit.

[0037] 其中,所述补偿因子=补偿系数*超声波频率,所述补偿系数设定为0.SldB/cm.MHz,超声波频率指超声探头所发射的超声波频率,该超声波频率的取值范围为 [0037] wherein the compensation factor = * ultrasonic frequency compensation coefficient, the compensation coefficient is set to 0.SldB / cm.MHz, ultrasonic frequency refers to frequency of the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, the ultrasonic frequency range which is

1.5MHz 〜15MHzο 1.5MHz ~15MHzο

[0038] 优选的是,该装置中还包括有接口单元,所述接口单元用于将控制单元计算得到的脂肪厚度数据送到外部设备上进行显示或将超声探头接收到的超声回波信号送到外部设备上继续进行处理,或者用于对电源单元进行充电。 [0038] Preferably, the device further comprises an interface unit, the interface unit for the fat thickness data is sent to the control unit displays the calculated ultrasound probe or the received ultrasonic echo signal is supplied to an external device to continue processing the external device, or for charging the power supply unit.

[0039] 优选的是,所述控制单元采用DSP芯片或MCU芯片或ARM芯片。 [0039] Preferably, the control unit MCU chip with DSP or ARM chip or chips.

[0040] 优选超声探头为A型超声诊断装置中的超声探头,该超声探头采用收发分离式超声探头。 [0040] A is preferably an ultrasound probe type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus in the ultrasonic probe, the ultrasonic probe is an ultrasonic probe using separate transceiver.

[0041 ] 本发明的有益效果是:本发明脂肪厚度测量装置不仅可以测量皮下整个脂肪层的厚度,同时也可以根据需要查看皮下脂肪的分布情况,以及测出各个脂肪层的厚度。 [0041] Advantageous effects of the present invention are: fat thickness measuring apparatus according to the present invention can measure not only the entire thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer, but also may need to see the distribution of subcutaneous fat, and the measured thickness of the individual layers of fat. 该脂肪厚度测量装置体积小、便于携带,且操作简单、读数直观、尤其适合家庭监控脂肪厚度或健身房个人使用,以便于随时观察自身的脂肪厚度,随时检验运动和节食的效果,为人们保持健康体型提供必要的参考,从而可有效减少“肥胖病”的发生。 The fat thickness measuring apparatus is small, portable, and easy to operate, intuitive readings, particularly suitable for home monitoring fat thickness or gymnasium for personal use, in order to always observe their fat thickness, ready to test exercise and diet effect, maintaining healthy people body to provide the necessary reference, which can effectively reduce the incidence of "obesity" is.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0042] 图1为本发明一个实施例脂肪厚度测量装置的结构框图; [0042] FIG. 1 a block diagram showing the structure of fat thickness measuring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

[0043] 图2为图1中超声回波处理单元的结构框图; [0043] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of the ultrasound echo processing unit in Figure 1;

[0044] 图3为经放大电路放大后的超声回波信号的波形图; [0044] FIG. 3 is a waveform diagram of ultrasonic echo signals amplified by the amplifying circuit;

[0045] 图4为经检波电路检波后得到的超声回波信号的波形图; [0045] FIG. 4 is a waveform diagram of ultrasonic echo signals obtained after detection of the detection circuit;

[0046] 图5为经整波单元处理后的超声回波信号的波形图; [0046] FIG. 5 is a waveform diagram of ultrasonic echo signals after the processing of the waveform shaping unit;

[0047] 图6为超声探头的结构示意图。 [0047] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of an ultrasound probe.

[0048] 图中:1_声接收层;2_超声晶片;3_声匹配层;4_发射晶片;5_绝缘层;6_接收晶片。 [0048] FIG: 1_ acoustic receiving layer; 2_ ultrasound wafer; 3_ acoustic matching layer; 4_ emission wafer; 5_ insulating layer; 6_ receiving wafer.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0049] 为使本领域技术人员更好地理解本发明的技术方案,下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明脂肪厚度测量装置作进一步详细描述。 [0049] to enable those skilled in the art better understand the technical solutions of the present invention, the following drawings and detailed description of embodiments in conjunction with the fat thickness measuring apparatus according to the present invention is described in further detail.

[0050] 在利用超声波测量人体浅表层的软组织时,根据筋膜的分布可将皮肤以下、深筋膜层以上的人体浅表组织分为多层,其中,皮肤层以下的脂肪层与皮下筋膜层交替分布,设定紧接皮肤的第一脂肪层与第一脂肪层以下紧接第一脂肪层的第一筋膜层之间的界面为第一界面,第一筋膜层以下的第二脂肪层与第二脂肪层以下紧接第二脂肪层的第二筋膜层之间的界面为第二界面,依此类推可能还存在第二筋膜层以下的第三脂肪层与第三脂肪层以下紧接第三脂肪层的第三筋膜层之间的第三界面以及更多的界面。 [0050] In the measurement of the soft tissue of the human body using ultrasonic waves shallow, the distribution may be fascia below the skin, the deep fascia over human superficial tissue layers into layers, wherein the skin layer and the subcutaneous fat layer below the rib alternating distribution layer, first skin immediately set the fat layer and the first fat layer immediately below the interface between the first fascia layer of the first fat layer is a first interface, the first layer below the fascia difatty interface between the second layer and the fascia followed by a second layer of the second fat is a fat layer below the second interface, and so on may be also a third fat layer below the second layer and the third fascial a third fat layer immediately below the interface between the fat layer of the third layer, and a third more fascia interface. 其中,上述第一筋膜层、第二筋膜层、第三筋膜层等多个皮下筋膜层均为厚度很薄的浅筋膜。 A plurality of subcutaneous wherein said first fascia, fascia second layer, the third layer, etc. fascia the fascia are the thickness of thin superficial fascia. [0051] 基于超声波遇到脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界面会产生较强的超声回波的特性,本发明脂肪厚度测量装置将所述交界面所产生的超声回波信号加以接收、放大和处理,并通过对所接收的超声回波的分布特征进行分析,从而可以分别识别出第一界面、第二界面、第三界面以及更多界面处的超声回波,通过分析能够得到第一界面(或 [0051] Based on the ultrasonic wave encounters an interface between the subcutaneous fat layer under the fascia and the fat layer will have a strong characteristic of the ultrasonic echo, fat thickness measuring apparatus according to the present invention, the ultrasonic cross-generated interface echo signal to be received, amplified and processed, and by analyzing the distribution of the received ultrasonic echo, thus identifying each of a first interface, a second ultrasound echo interface, a third interface and at the interface more , can be obtained by analyzing the first interface (or

第二界面、第三界面等)处的一次反射回波、二次反射回波......,再通过识别出皮肤下最 Echo time) at a second interface, the third interface and the like, a secondary echo ......, and then by identifying the most under the skin

深处的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波的波形,并获知接收该超声回波的时间,从而可获得人体皮下脂肪层的总厚度;更细化的,由于皮肤层以下的脂肪层与皮下筋膜层之间的交界面具有多个,通过识别出某一交界面(比如第一界面)的一次超声回波的波形,并获知接收到该波形的时间,就可以计算得到第一脂肪层的厚度。 A reflection echo waveform at the junction between the deep subcutaneous fat layer and the fascia at the fat layer, and the ultrasonic echo receiving know the time to obtain the total thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer of the body; more refinement, since the interface between the skin layer and the subcutaneous fat layer below the fascial layer having a plurality of, by identifying a boundary surface (such as first interface) is a waveform of an ultrasonic echo, is received and informed time of the waveform, can be calculated thickness of the first layer of fat. 同理,可以得到第二脂肪层、第三脂肪层的厚度。 Similarly, the second fat layer can be obtained, the thickness of the third layer of fat.

[0052] 如图1所示,本实施例中,该脂肪厚度测量装置包括超声探头、控制单元、显示单元以及电源单元。 [0052] 1, in the present embodiment, the fat thickness measurement apparatus comprises an ultrasound probe, the control unit, the display unit and a power supply unit.

[0053] 其中,超声探头用于向被测对象发射超声波,同时接收其所发射超声波的超声回波,并将接收到的超声回波信号输出;控制单元用于控制超声探头发射超声波,接收超声探头输出的超声回波并对所述超声回波信号进行处理和计算,通过计算得到被测对象的脂肪厚度,再将该脂肪厚度数据输出;显示单元用于接收和显示控制单元输出的脂肪厚度数据;电源单元用于为超声探头、控制单元以及显示单元提供电能。 [0053] wherein the ultrasonic probe for emitting ultrasonic waves to the object to be measured, while receiving an ultrasonic echo ultrasonic waves emitted therefrom, and outputs the signal received ultrasound echo; a control unit for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, receive ultrasound ultrasonic echo probe and the ultrasound echo signals output by processing and calculation, obtained by calculating the fat thickness measured object, and then the fat thickness data output; fat thickness display unit and a display control unit for receiving output data; power supply unit for an ultrasound probe, the display unit and the control unit provides power.

[0054] 超声探头是整个装置的信号部件,在进行脂肪厚度测量时超声探头与人体直接接触。 [0054] The ultrasound probe signal is a part of the entire apparatus, an ultrasonic probe during direct contact with the body fat thickness measurement. 根据超声波发射与接收是否为同一个探头,可将超声探头分为收发一体式超声探头和收发分离式超声探头。 The ultrasonic transmitting and receiving the same whether a probe, the ultrasound probe may be integrated into the transceiver, and the transceiver separate ultrasound probe of the ultrasound probe. 在本实施例中,超声探头采用收发分离式超声探头,其包括发射探头和接收探头,发射探头通过发射接口与控制单元中的发射单元连接,由发射单元驱动后触发而产生机械振动发射超声波;接收探头通过接收接口与控制单元中的超声回波处理单元连接,将进入人体后遇组织或脏器后反射回来的超声回波送入超声回波处理单元进行处理。 In the present embodiment, the ultrasonic probe using the transceiver separate ultrasonic probe comprising a transmitting probe and a receiving probe, the transmitting probe is connected via transmission interface and the control unit in the transmitting unit, generates a mechanical vibration transmitting ultrasonic waves after the trigger is driven by the transmitting unit; receiving probe connected to the control unit via an interface receiving ultrasound echo processing unit in the case of tissue into the human body organ or an ultrasonic echo reflected back into the processing unit for processing the ultrasonic echo. 采用收发分离式超声探头具有如下优势:其一,电路简单、高效。 Receive separator using ultrasonic probe has the following advantages: First, the circuit is simple and efficient. 本实施例中,发射单元驱动发射探头所发射的激励信号为高压脉冲,而与接收探头电连接的超声回波处理单元中采用的器件均为低压元器件,若采用收发一体式超声探头,为保证电路的安全,必须在控制单元中超声回波处理单元前增加隔离电路,以防止发射单元中的高电压串入超声回波处理单元中而烧毁低压元器件或干扰超声回波接收,从而会导致控制单元中的电路变得复杂;其二,发射和接收灵敏度高。 In this embodiment, the drive excitation signal transmitting unit is transmitted sonde high-voltage pulse, and the device connected to the ultrasound echo processing unit receives the electrical probes are employed in the low-voltage components, the use of ultrasonic transceiver probe, is to ensure the safety circuit must be increased before the isolation circuit ultrasound echo processing unit in the control unit to prevent the transmitter unit in series with a high voltage ultrasound echo processing unit burned low-voltage components or interference received ultrasonic echoes, which will causes the control circuit becomes complicated unit; high Second, transmission and reception sensitivity. 收发一体式超声探头集发射功能和接收功能为一身,即在收发一体式超声探头中发射探头和接收探头均为同一种压电材料,因压电材料性质决定了其发射灵敏度和接收灵敏度不可能完全一样,有的压电材料发射灵敏度很高而接收灵敏度很低,另一些压电材料则接收灵敏度很高而发射灵敏度很低,如果要使探头集发射与接收功能为一体,必使得探头只能将就发射灵敏度或接收灵敏度中较低的一个压电材料,这必然使得收发一体式超声探头的整体灵敏度降低。 Ultrasonic transceiver probe sets transmit and receive functions as a, i.e. in the transmitting probe and the receiving probe ultrasonic transceiver probe are the same piezoelectric material, the piezoelectric material due to the nature of its transmission sensitivity and reception sensitivity can not exactly the same, the piezoelectric material is high and some transmit sensitivity reception sensitivity is low, the other piezoelectric material that emits low reception sensitivity is high sensitivity, make the probe set if the transmit and receive functions as a whole, so that the probe will only it is capable of transmitting or receiving sensitivity to a lower sensitivity of the piezoelectric material, which inevitably makes the overall sensitivity of the ultrasonic transceiver probe is lowered. 而收发分离式超声探头则可很方便地使发射探头采用发射灵敏度高的压电材料制成,而接收探头采用接收灵敏度高的压电材料制成,从而使得超声探头达到尽可能高的灵敏度。 The ultrasonic transceiver probe can be separated easily so that the sonde is made of high emission sensitivity of the piezoelectric material and the receiving probe is made of high reception sensitivity of piezoelectric material, so that the ultrasonic probe to reach the highest possible sensitivity.

[0055] 图6所示为超声探头的结构示意图,其中,图6A为收发一体式超声探头的结构示意图,在图6A中,左侧的视图为超声探头的正视图,右侧的视图为所述超声探头的侧剖视图(下同)。 [0055] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of an ultrasound probe, wherein FIG 6A is a schematic view of one ultrasonic transceiver probe, in FIG. 6A, left side view of the ultrasound probe is a front view of the right side view of the side sectional view of an ultrasound probe (below) described later. 该收发一体式超声探头包括声接收层1、超声晶片2和声匹配层3;图6B为收发分离式平面超声探头的结构示意图,图6C为聚焦发射、平面接收的收发分离式超声探头的结构示意图,图6D为平面发射、聚焦接收的收发分离式超声探头的结构示意图,上述收发分离式超声探头包括声接收层1、声匹配层3、发射晶片4 (即发射探头)、绝缘层5和接收晶片6 (即接收探头)。 The ultrasonic probe includes a transceiver acoustic receiving layer 1, the ultrasonic acoustic matching layer 3 of the wafer 2; FIG. 6B is a plane schematic view of the transceiver separate ultrasound probe, a focused emission FIG. 6C, the structure of the transceiver separate receiving ultrasonic probe plane schematic 6D is a plane emission, a schematic view of the transceiver separate ultrasound probe focused received, the transmitting and receiving separate ultrasonic probe includes an acoustic receiving layer 1, the acoustic matching layer 3, the emission of the wafer 4 (i.e. sonde), the insulating layer 5 and receiving wafer 6 (i.e., the receiving probe).

[0056] 电源单元作为整个系统的供电单元为该装置的其他单元提供稳定的电压。 [0056] Other cell power supply unit as a power supply unit for the whole system to provide stable voltage apparatus. 本实施例中,电源单元包括电池、电池充电管理电路以及调压电路。 Embodiment, the power supply unit includes a battery, a battery charge management circuit, and voltage regulator circuit of the present embodiment. 其中,电池一般采用大容量可充电锂电池,电池可采用USB接口充电方式充电,也可采用无线充电方式充电,以使得该装置利于便携式使用;电池充电管理电路包括专用的充电管理芯片,如CN3052、CN3068等,该充电管理芯片具有过压、过流和过温保护,能自动侦测电池电压的高低以获得合适的充电电流,以最大限度保护电池,延长电池的使用寿命,同时还具有充电过程状态(低电流、大电流、充满等)输出,使用户随时掌控该装置的电源状况;调压电路能使电池实现多电源输出,以满足该装置中各个单元的不同电能需求。 Wherein the high-capacity batteries are generally rechargeable lithium battery, charging the battery can be charged USB interface, the wireless charging may also be charged, so that the apparatus facilitates the use of portable; battery charge management circuit includes a dedicated charge management chip, such as CN3052 , CN3068, etc., the charge management chip overvoltage, overcurrent and overtemperature protection, automatically detects the battery voltage level to obtain a suitable charging current, in order to maximize protection of the battery, extending battery life, but also a charging process state (low current, high current, full, etc.) output, allowing users to keep control of the power status of the device; regulator circuit enables multi-cell power supply output, to meet different power requirements of the apparatus in the respective units.

[0057] 显示单元主要包括具有显示功能的IXD显示屏或OLED显示屏,用于显示经控制单元处理后获得的脂肪厚度值,以便人们能直观地读出。 [0057] The display unit includes a display screen or IXD OLED display having a display function for displaying fat thickness value obtained by the processing by the control unit, so that people can read visually.

[0058] 控制单元作为整个测量装置的中央控制器和信息处理中心,具有以下功能:对电源单元的电量进行监测,以使该装置适于便携式使用;用于控制超声探头发射超声波,同时接收超声探头输出的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行处理和计算,通过计算得到被测对象的脂肪厚度,再将该脂肪厚度数据输出至显示单元。 [0058] The control unit as a central controller and the information processing center of the measuring device, having the following functions: power supply monitoring unit, so that the apparatus is adapted to portable use; for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, receive ultrasound while the ultrasonic echo signals and the ultrasound echo signals outputted from the probe are processed and calculated, obtained by calculating fat thickness measured object, and then outputs the data to the display unit fat thickness. 其中,控制单元主要包括发射单元、超声回波处理单元和计算单元。 Wherein the control unit comprises a main transmitting unit, the ultrasound echo processing unit and a computing unit. 本实施例中,控制单元可采用DSP(Digital SignalProcessing)芯片或MCU (Micro Controller Unit)芯片或ARM (Advanced RISC Machines)芯片等现行的多种具有控制功能的芯片。 In this embodiment, the current control unit may employ a variety of DSP (Digital SignalProcessing) chip or a MCU (Micro Controller Unit) chip or ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) chip having a chip control function. 在本实施例中,控制单元采用带DSP功能的PIC单片机芯片。 In the present embodiment, the control unit uses PIC microcontroller chip with DSP functions.

[0059] 发射单元使超声探头获得工作需要的设定电压,并产生高压负脉冲激励信号,该高压负脉冲激励信号输送至超声探头中的发射探头,使发射探头产生机械振动而发射超声波,超声波频率由该超声探头的谐振频率决定,本实施例中超声探头的谐振频率为5MHz。 [0059] The transmitting unit causes the ultrasonic probe to obtain desired working set voltage, and generating a high voltage negative pulse excitation signal, the high-voltage negative pulse excitation signal to the ultrasonic probe in the sonde so that the sonde emit ultrasonic mechanical vibrations, ultrasonic frequency is determined by the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic probe, the present embodiment the resonance frequency of the embodiment is an ultrasound probe 5MHz.

[0060] 超声探头所发射的超声波的探测深度范围可根据实际需要进行调节。 Ultrasonic detection depth range [0060] of the transmitted ultrasonic probe can be adjusted according to actual needs. 研究表明,在不同个体中人体组织声透性具有相同的特性,人体内的深筋膜与人体皮肤层的距离一般不超过120_,而通常所测量的脂肪厚度是指与皮下浅筋膜交替布置的脂肪层,由此可知脂肪厚度测量时所测量的脂肪层的厚度一般不会超过120mm。 Studies have shown that different individuals in human tissues sound permeability have the same characteristics, from the deep fascia and skin layer is generally not more than humans 120_, and fat thickness measured generally refers to the subcutaneous fascia arranged alternately the fat layer, can be seen when measuring fat thickness measured by the thickness of the fat layer is generally not more than 120mm. 因此,在本实施例中,可以设定超声波的探测深度为120mm,即可满足测得一组完整的人体脂肪厚度的超声回波数据。 Accordingly, in the present embodiment, ultrasonic waves may be set as the depth of 120mm, to meet a complete set of the measured body fat thickness ultrasound echo data. 由于发射探头在一次测量过程中只接受一次高压负脉冲激励信号,因此接收探头收到的超声回波信号的幅值必定是逐渐衰减而降低的,即使人体脂肪厚度超过120_,由于在该处所能接收到的超声回波信号较弱,因而可以忽略不计。 Since the measurement sonde in a process only to accept a high voltage negative pulse excitation signal, the amplitude of the ultrasonic echo signal received by the receiving probe must be reduced gradually attenuates even if the thickness of body fat than 120_, since there can be receiving an ultrasonic echo signal is weak, and thus negligible. 当然,在实际应用中,可根据实际需要对超声波的探测深度进行适当调整,以适应不同体型的人体。 Of course, in practical applications, can be appropriately adjusted according to the actual depth of the ultrasonic required to accommodate different size of the body.

[0061] 本实施例中,超声回波处理单元用于对接收到的超声回波信号进行数据处理和保存。 [0061] In this embodiment, the ultrasonic echo signals ultrasound echo processing unit for processing the received and stored data. 超声波进入人体皮肤层后遇脂肪层与皮下筋膜层的交界处发生反射,反射回来的超声回波由超声探头中的接收探头进行接收,并传送至超声回波处理单元。 In case of the subcutaneous fat layer and the fascia into the body of the ultrasonic wave is reflected at the boundary layers of the skin, reflected ultrasonic echo received by the ultrasonic probe receiving probe, and the ultrasonic echo is transmitted to the processing unit. 如图2所示,超声回波处理单元主要包括前期处理单元和后期处理单元,其中前期处理单元包括放大电路、滤波电路、检波电路、A/D转换电路和存储器,后期处理单元包括补偿单元、小信号回波滤除单元、多次反射回波滤除单元和整波单元。 As shown, the ultrasound echo processing unit mainly comprises a pre-processing unit 2 and the post-processing unit, wherein the processing unit includes a pre-amplifier circuit, a filter circuit, the detector circuit, A / D conversion circuit and a memory, the post-processing unit includes a compensation unit, small echo signal filtering unit, multiple reflection echo wave-shaping unit and a filtering unit.

[0062] 由于接收探头接收到的超声回波信号一般是很微弱的超声回波信号,为了便于后续处理,先将接收到的微弱的超声回波信号通过放大电路进行放大。 [0062] Since the received ultrasonic echo received probe signals are typically very weak ultrasonic echo signal, in order to facilitate subsequent processing of the received first weak ultrasonic echo signals amplified by the amplifying circuit. 图3所示为经放大电路放大后的超声回波信号的波形图,在图3中,横坐标为时间轴,也即代表超声波进入人体内部的深度;纵坐标为超声回波信号的幅度,也即代表超声回波的强度。 Figure 3 is a waveform diagram of an ultrasonic echo signal by the amplification circuit is, in FIG. 3, the abscissa is the time axis, i.e., representative of the depth of the ultrasound into the interior of the human body; ordinate is the amplitude of the ultrasonic echo signal, That represents the intensity of the ultrasonic echo.

[0063] 在接收探头所接收的超声回波信号中,携带有人体丰富的人体组织结构特征,例如:通过组织界面之间反射回来的超声回波信号能直观反映人体组织层间的厚度;但是,在这些超声回波信号中,也不可避免的包含了一些干扰信号,例如:电磁干扰波、高次谐波和小幅值信号及其它们所产生的小信号回波。 [0063] In the ultrasonic echo signal received in the receiving probe, carries a rich feature of human body tissues, for example: by the interface between the tissue of the reflected ultrasonic echo signals can directly reflect human tissue thickness between layers; however in which the ultrasonic echo signals, inevitably contains some interfering signals, for example: electromagnetic wave interference, and the small-amplitude harmonic signal and the small signal generated by the echo thereof.

[0064] 在本实施例中,通过滤波电路,具体的采用带通滤波器来消除超声回波信号中的电磁干扰波以及高次谐波。 [0064] In the present embodiment, by the filter circuit, particularly the band-pass filter to eliminate the interference of electromagnetic waves in the ultrasonic echo signal and a harmonic. 然后,滤波后得到的超声回波信号再通过检波电路进行峰值包络检波处理,由于超声回波的波形关于时间轴(水平轴)对称,为减少数据量的分析,在检波电路中只取大于O的波形部分进行分析。 Then, an ultrasonic echo signal is then filtered by an envelope peak detection processing by a detection circuit, since the waveform of the ultrasonic echo on the time axis (horizontal axis) of symmetry, to reduce the amount of data analysis, the detector circuit only takes greater than O for analysis of waveform portion. 图4所示即为经检波电路检波后得到的超声回波信号的波形图。 Waveform diagram of ultrasonic echo signals that is obtained after the detection of the detection circuit 4 shown in FIG. 在图4中,横坐标为时间轴,也即代表超声波进入人体内部的深度;纵坐标为超声回波的幅度,也即代表超声回波的强度。 In FIG. 4, the abscissa is the time axis, i.e., representative of the depth of the ultrasound into the interior of the human body; ordinate is the amplitude of the ultrasonic echo, i.e. represents the intensity of the ultrasonic echo.

[0065] 经取峰值包络检波处理后,超声回波信号的数据量降低,但是其数据仍为连续时间信号,即模拟信号。 [0065] by taking the peak envelope detection processing, the data amount of ultrasonic echo signal decreases, but the data is still continuous time signal, i.e. an analog signal. 而在本实施例中,超声回波处理单元采用带DSP功能的PIC单片机芯片,一般用于处理复杂的数字信号,因此,为了便于后续数据处理,先将经检波后的超声回波信号通过高速A/D转换电路转换为数字化的超声回波信号,并将转换后的一组完整的超声回波数据送入存储器中进行保存。 In the present embodiment, the ultrasound echo processing unit uses PIC single chip DSP are typically used to process complex digital signals, and therefore, in order to facilitate subsequent data processing, the first ultrasonic echo signal by detecting a high speed a / D converter circuit into digitized ultrasonic echo signals and a complete set of ultrasound echo data is converted into the save memory. 其中,A/D转换电路的采样频率由设置在A/D转换电路中的高精度高频晶体振荡器提供,综合精度与成本考虑,采样频率一般选择需采集信号频率的3-8倍。 Wherein the sampling frequency of A / D conversion circuit is provided by the A / D conversion circuit with high accuracy crystal oscillator frequency, accuracy and cost considerations integrated sampling frequency is typically 3-8 times need to collect selected signal frequency. 在本实施例中,由于超声探头的谐振频率为5MHz,因此将该晶体振荡器的采样频率设置为24MHz。 In the present embodiment, since the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic probe is 5MHz, and therefore the sampling frequency of the crystal oscillator is set to 24MHz.

[0066] 上述保存于存储器中的超声回波信号中,包括有小信号回波信号、人体组织层间的一次反射回波信号以及多次反射回波信号。 [0066] The ultrasound echo signals stored in the memory, the echo signal includes a small signal, a reflected echo signal between the tissue layer and the human multiple reflection echo signal. 为准确提取出人体皮肤下各脂肪层与皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的超声回波信号,本实施例中的后期处理单元可基于超声回波分布特征的衰减补偿和阈值滤波进行波形识别,如图2所示,其中后期处理单元包括补偿单元、小信号回波滤除单元、多次反射回波滤除单元、以及整波单元,其主要工作过程如下所述。 To accurately extract the ultrasound echo signals at the junction between the subcutaneous fat layer and the fascia under the skin, in the present embodiment, post-processing unit may identify the distribution waveform of an ultrasonic echo attenuation compensation filtering and threshold-based as shown in FIG 2, wherein the post-processing unit includes a compensation unit, the echo signal is small filtering unit, multiple reflection echo-filtering unit, and a waveform shaping unit, the main work procedure is as follows.

[0067] 首先,由补偿单元将经过A/D转换后的一组完整的超声回波数据从存储器读取出来。 [0067] First, by the compensation unit through a complete set of ultrasound echo data A / D conversion is read out from the memory. 由于超声波在人体组织传播过程中,当遇到各种不同的物理界面时不可避免的会产生反射、散射、折射和吸收现象,从而导致超声能量衰减而产生信号差异,即随着超声波传播距离的增加,接收探头所接收的超声回波信号会逐渐减弱。 Since the ultrasonic wave propagation in body tissue, when faced with a variety of physical interfaces inevitably produce reflection, scattering, refraction and absorption phenomenon, resulting in attenuation of the ultrasonic energy generated by the difference signal, i.e. the propagation distance of the ultrasonic wave with increases, the received ultrasound probe receiving echo signals gradually decrease. 因此,通过在补偿单元中设定补偿因子来补偿超声波在人体组织传播过程中的衰减,以提升远距离信号的强度,从而可使所获得的超声回波的信号强度一致或趋于一致,以便于后续数据的甄别、分析和处理。 Accordingly, the compensation factor is set by the compensation unit to compensate for attenuation of the ultrasonic propagation in human tissues in order to enhance the strength of the remote signal, thereby allowing uniform ultrasonic echo signal intensity or the convergence obtained for in screening subsequent data analysis and processing. 补偿因子由不同频率的超声波在人体组织中的衰减因子决定,一般是按照超声波在人体组织中的吸收系数来计算。 Compensation factor is determined by the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves of different frequencies in the human tissues, is generally calculated according to the ultrasonic absorption coefficient in human tissues. 研究表明,当超声波频率在1.5MHz〜15MHz范围内时,超声波被人体组织吸收的系数几乎与频率成正比。 Studies have shown that, when the ultrasonic frequency is in the range 1.5MHz~15MHz, ultrasonic absorption coefficient of the human tissue is almost proportional to the frequency. 因此,在本实施例中,将超声波在人体组织中的平均吸收系数选定为0.81dB/cm.MHz,由于超声探头的谐振频率为5MHz,因此设定的补偿系数为 Accordingly, in the present embodiment, the ultrasonic wave in human tissue selected as an average absorption coefficient of 0.81dB / cm.MHz, since the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic probe is 5MHz, the compensation coefficient is set so as

0.81 X 5dB/cm = 4.05dB/cm。 0.81 X 5dB / cm = 4.05dB / cm. [0068] 根据补偿单元中预先设定好的补偿因子,对超声回波信号进行衰减补偿,具体为将按距离远近,将从存储器读出的超声回波信号幅值加上对应设定的补偿因子幅值,以将超声回波信号强度提升到一个合适的水平,方便后续的处理。 [0068] The compensating unit preset compensation factor, to compensate for attenuation of the ultrasonic echo signal, as will be specifically distance, the amplitude of the ultrasonic echo signal read out from the memory corresponding to the set compensation plus amplitude factor so as to enhance the strength of the ultrasound echo signal to an appropriate level, to facilitate subsequent processing.

[0069] 小信号回波滤除单元用于滤除超声回波中的小信号回波。 [0069] Small-filtering unit for filtering the echo signal small signal echoes of the ultrasonic echo. 在经衰减补偿后的超声回波信号中,对于其中只出现一次且幅值较小的超声回波信号而言,可认为其分布不存在任何规律,则将其判断为小信号回波信号并进行滤除。 Ultrasonic echo signal attenuation compensation, which occurs only once and for a small amplitude ultrasonic echo signal, it can be considered that any distribution law does not exist, then it is determined that the small-signal and echo signal filter out. 在本实施例中,小信号回波的滤波 In the present embodiment, the small-signal echo filter

阈值设定为经验值,该经验值取该组测量数据中最大峰值的20-60 %,如图4所示,其中的波形B、波形C、波形D、波形H和波形I由于小于设定的滤波阈值,因此将它们作为小信号回波而滤除。 Threshold is set to an empirical value, an empirical value which takes the set of measurement data, 20-60% of the maximum peak shown in Figure 4, wherein the waveform B, the waveform C, the waveform D, and waveform I due to the waveform H of less than a set the filtering threshold, and thus their small as an echo signal and filtered. 实际上,波形C是人体中表皮层与真皮层的交界面,波形D是真皮层与第一脂肪层的交界面,由于表皮层、真皮层和第一脂肪层的声阻抗较为接近,使得在表皮层与真皮层、真皮层与第一脂肪层这两个交界面产生的超声回波信号较小;同时,由于在人体中表皮层和真皮层与第一脂肪层相比均较薄,因此,在本实施例中,将表皮层和真皮层视为第一脂肪层的一部分,而将波形C和波形D滤除。 Indeed, the waveform C is human skin and dermis table of the interface, the interface waveform D is the dermis and the first fat layer, since the epidermis, the dermis and the acoustic impedance of the first fat layer is closer, so that epidermis and dermis, the dermis ultrasound echo signals and the first fat layer interface produced by these two small; Meanwhile, since the table body in the epidermis and dermis are thin compared to the first layer of fat, so in the present embodiment, the epidermis and dermis considered part of the first layer of fat, and the waveform C and the waveform D was filtered off.

[0070]多次反射回波滤除单元用于滤除人体组织层间的多次反射回波。 [0070] The multiple reflection echo filtering unit for filtering an echo multiple reflections between the layers of body tissue. 在本实施例中,通过所述多次反射回波滤除单元来判断所接收的反射回波中的哪些超声回波为一次反射回波,哪些是多次反射回波,并将这些多次反射回波滤除,只留下一次反射回波。 In the present embodiment, to determine which echo ultrasound echoes received through said filtering unit to multiple reflection echo primary echo, which is multiple reflection echoes, and these multiple echo filtered out, leaving only a reflection echo.

[0071] 在多次反射回波滤除单元中,先对已经滤除小信号回波信号的超声回波信号利用统计学原理进行统计并分组,将其中具有相同特性的超声回波归入一个数据组,并统计各数据组的分布规律。 [0071] In the multiple reflection echo filtering unit, a first ultrasonic echo signal using statistical principles already small signal filtered echo signal and a packet statistics, wherein the ultrasonic echo having the same characteristics included in a data sets, and statistical distribution of each data set. 这些能归入同一数据组中的多个超声回波依次为某一脂肪层与该脂肪层下的某一皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波、二次反射回波、三次反射回 These can be classified in the same plurality of ultrasonic echo data group in the order of a reflection echo at the junction between a fat layer and a lower layer of the subcutaneous fascia and the fat layer, the second echo, three reflected back

波......η次反射回波,构成该数据组中多个超声回波的幅值相同或幅值相近(±20%范 ...... [eta] Ci wave echo, the amplitude of the data constituting the same group of a plurality of ultrasound echo amplitude or similar (± 20% range

围内)且出现概率较大(根据情况,可取概率大于20%的所有反射回波)。 All echo probability is large (in some cases, preferably greater than 20% probability of the inner periphery) and appears). 如前所述,超声波在人体组织中传播的过程中,当遇到各种不同的交界面时不可避免的会产生反射,比如,当超声波传播至皮肤下第一脂肪层与第一皮下筋膜层之间的第一界面时,在第一界面处会产生强回声,本实施例将第一界面处第一次产生的超声回波称为一次反射回波,该一次反射回波在向超声探头方向返回的过程中,当碰到另外一个交界处(比如耦合剂与皮肤表面之间的交界处)会再次发生反射,再次发生反射后的超声回波传播至第一界面处又会发生 As described above, the process of ultrasonic wave propagation in human tissues when encountered various interface inevitably reflection, for example, when the ultrasonic wave propagation through a first layer of fat under the skin and subcutaneous fascia first the interface between the first layer at a first interface produces a strong echo, the present embodiment will be first ultrasonic echo produced at the interface is referred to as a first reflection echo, the time in the ultrasound echo process returned direction of the probe, when it comes to a further junction (such as the junction between the coupling agent and the surface of the skin) occurs again reflected ultrasound echo propagates to the first interface reflection occurs again will occur

反射,从而形成二次反射回波,当然还可能形成三次反射回波、四次反射回波......,从而 Reflection, thereby forming a secondary echo, of course, may also be formed of three echo, echo ...... four to

在上述两个交界处之间形成振荡,直至声能全部衰减完为止。 It is formed between the two oscillation junction until all of the acoustic energy attenuation last. 也就是说,该一次反射回波中除了一部分能量返回至接收探头,还有一部分会在第一界面处重复发生多次反射,该重复发生多次反射的超声回波即二次反射回波、三次反射回波、四次反射回波等称为多次发射回波。 That is, in addition to the primary portion of the energy reflected echoes return to the reception probes, some is repeated multiple reflection occurs at a first interface, the multiple reflection of the ultrasonic echo recurring i.e. the secondary echo, echo three times, four times, etc. are called multiple shots echo echo. 该多次反射回波的幅值是逐渐减小的,其幅值一般为小于一次反射回波的幅值,反射次数越多则反射回波的幅值越小。 The multiple echo amplitude is gradually reduced, the amplitude is generally less than the magnitude of the more time, the number of reflections of the smaller echo of the echo amplitude. 然而,相对于同一界面而言,在所述两个交界处之间发生振荡的多次反射回波的时间间隔是相等的。 However, with respect to the same interface, multiple echo time oscillations occurring at the junction between the two intervals are equal. 这是因为对于处于同一个数据组中的多个超声回波而言,这些超声回波均是在两个交界面之间反复反射形成的。 This is because a plurality of the ultrasonic echo in the same data sets, these are repeatedly reflected ultrasonic echo is formed between the two interfaces. 同理,其他数据组中的多个超声回波之间也具有时间间隔相等的特点。 Similarly, the other between the plurality of ultrasonic echo data set also having a time interval equal characteristics. 据此,很容易就可以将所述已经滤除小信号回波信号的多个超声回波信号划分成多个数据组。 Accordingly, it is easy to be filtered out of the plurality of ultrasonic echo signals have a small signal of the echo signal into a plurality of data groups.

[0072] 对于同一个数据组而言,该数据组中的多个超声回波的幅值一般不相等,其中幅值最大的为一次反射回波,并且所述一次反射回波同时也是该数据组中出现时间最早的超声回波,即一次反射回波应是该数据组中的第一个数据,在计算脂肪层厚度时,可以将这些多次反射回波的数据滤除,每个数据组中仅留下一次反射回波的数据。 [0072] For the same data set, the plurality of ultrasonic echo amplitude data set is generally not equal, wherein the maximum amplitude of a reflected echo, and also the primary reflection echo data each time the oldest ultrasound echo data appearing in the group, i.e., echo time should be the first data in the data group, when calculating the thickness of the fat layer, which may be filtered multiple reflection echo data, group, leaving only one reflection echo data.

[0073] 如果要计算整个脂肪层的厚度,所选择的数据组可以仅为一组,即皮下最深处的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的筋膜层之间的交界处所产生的一次反射回波的数据。 [0073] To calculate the overall thickness of the fat layer, the selected data set may be only one set, a reflection echo at the junction between the spaces deepest i.e. subcutaneous fat layer and the fascia at the fat layer resulting The data.

[0074] 如果要分别计算皮肤下每个脂肪层的厚度,则选择的数据组应该为多组。 [0074] If the thickness of each layer of fat under the skin is calculated separately, the groups should be selected for multiple data sets.

[0075] 如图4所示,波形B为耦合层与皮肤表面之间交界处的一次反射回波,如果需要对皮下各脂肪层的厚度分别进行计算,则可以波形B所在位置为计算时间间隔的基准。 [0075] As shown in FIG 4, the waveform B is a reflection echo at the junction between the coupling layer and the skin surface, if desired for the thickness of subcutaneous fat of each layer is calculated separately, it is possible to calculate the waveform position B where the time interval benchmark. 从图4中可知,从波形E到波形G的时间间隔与从波形E到波形B的时间间隔完全相等,因而这两个超声回波同属于一个数据组。 Seen from FIG. 4, waveform E from the waveform G is the time interval exactly equal to the interval from the time waveform E of waveform B, so that the two belong to the same ultrasound echo data group. 同时,波形E在该数据组中幅值最大,波形G的幅值小于波形E的幅值,且波形E为该数据组中最靠近波形B的超声回波,因而可以判断波形E和波形G分别为该界面处的一次反射回波和二次反射回波,进而可判定波形E为第一脂肪层与第一筋膜层之间的第一界面处产生的一次反射回波,而波形G为波形E的二次反射回波,将该数据组定义为第一数据组,多次反射回波滤除单元能够将第一数据组中的波形G滤去,仅仅留下波形E。 Meanwhile, the maximum waveform E, the amplitude of the amplitude waveform G is less than the amplitude of the waveform E in the data set, and the waveform E that is closest to the waveform data sets of the ultrasound echo B, it can be determined waveform G and waveform E respectively, for the primary echo and the secondary echo at the interface, and thus it may be determined as a reflection echo waveform E of a first interface between the first layer and the first fat layer fascia generated, and the waveform G a secondary echo waveform E, the data set is defined as the first data set, multiple echo waveform filtering unit can be a first data group G was filtered off, leaving only the waveform E. 由于波形B在所述波形图上对应皮肤表面的位置,波形E在波形图上对应第一界面的位置,而在本实施例中,是将表皮层和真皮层视为第一脂肪层的一部分,因此,则通过计算波形B与波形E在时间轴上的距离,可以计算出第一脂肪层的厚度。 Because the waveform B corresponds to the position on the skin surface of a waveform pattern, waveform E corresponds to the position of a first interface on the waveform diagram in the present embodiment, the epidermis and dermis is considered part of the first layer of fat layers Therefore, by calculating the distance B and waveform E of the waveform on the time axis, it can be calculated thickness of the first fat layer.

[0076] 在图4中,波形F和波形J分别为不同数据组中的两个不同超声回波,根据以上的判断,可以得知波形F为第二脂肪层与第二筋膜层之间的第二界面处产生的一次反射回波,因而波形F在波形图上对应第二界面的位置,通过计算波形E与波形F在时间轴上的距离,可以计算出第二脂肪层的厚度;同理,波形J在波形图上对应第三界面的位置,通过计算波形F与波形J在时间轴上的距离,可以计算出第三脂肪层的厚度。 [0076] In FIG. 4, waveform F, and J are two different waveforms ultrasonic echo data in different groups, according to the above judgment can be known waveform F between the second layer and the second fascia fat a second echo generated at the interface, and therefore the corresponding position of the second waveform F interface on the waveform, the waveform E and the waveform F on the time axis distance calculation can calculate the fat thickness of the second layer; Similarly, the waveform J corresponds to the position of the third interface on the waveform, the distance waveform F on the time axis waveform J calculation can calculate the thickness of the third layer of fat.

[0077] 其中,在进行数据组的分类时,既可以超声探头与耦合层之间的交界处(即波形A处)产生的超声回波的时间点为参考基准来测算脂肪层的厚度,也可以耦合层与皮肤表面之间的交界处(即波形B处)产生的超声回波的时间点为参考基准来测算脂肪层的厚度。 Ultrasonic echo time point [0077] wherein, when performing the classification of the data set, either the junction between the ultrasound probe and the coupling layer (i.e., the waveform A) produced as a reference to measure the thickness of the reference layer of fat, but also It can be coupled to the junction between the layer and the skin surface (i.e., the waveform at B) generating ultrasonic echo time point as a reference standard to measure the thickness of the fat layer. 即所选的数据组中的超声回波都是在某一界面与此参考基准之间来回振荡得到的反射回波。 I.e. ultrasonic echo selected data in a particular group are the interface between this reference echo obtained reference oscillate back and forth. 当该装置用于人体测量时,超声探头与人体皮肤层之间一般都涂有耦合剂,在一次测量中,耦合层的厚度是一个定值,因此,对上述两个参考基准而言,实际测得的超声回波的时间间隔为一个固定值,而任意一个脂肪层的厚度对应该脂肪层两侧的两个界面的超声回波的距离之差,因此利用上述两种参考基准计算得到的结果是相同的。 When the device for measuring the body, between the ultrasonic probe and the skin layer is generally coated with a coupling agent, in one measurement, the thickness of the coupling layer is a fixed value, and therefore, the above two reference bases, the actual an ultrasonic echo measured time interval to a fixed value, but a thickness of the fat layer of any of the difference in distance should be two ultrasonic echo fat layer on both sides of the interface, so the use of the two reference datum calculated the result is the same. 因此,在图4中,既可以图4中波形A所在的横坐标值作为计算脂肪层厚度的起始时间,其中波形A表示超声探头与耦合层之间的交界处的超声回波,也即该装置的超声波同步信号;又可以波形B所在的横坐标值作为计算脂肪层厚度的起始时间,其中波形B表示耦合层与皮肤表面之间的交界处的超声回波,即超声波穿透皮肤而产生的超声回波。 Thus, in FIG. 4, the value of the abscissa of FIG. 4 may be the waveform where A fat layer thickness is calculated as the start time, wherein A represents an ultrasonic echo waveform at the interface between the ultrasound probe and the coupling layer, i.e. the ultrasonic device of the synchronization signal; and B may be the waveform where the abscissa value is calculated as the start time of the fat layer thickness, wherein the ultrasonic echo waveform B represents the junction between the coupling layer and the skin surface, i.e. ultrasound through the skin the resulting ultrasound echo.

[0078] 如图5所示,在整波单元中,对上述已识别出各个脂肪层的超声回波的波形进行整波,从而得到一个或多个窄脉冲方波,这些窄脉冲方波即各脂肪层与相邻筋膜层之间的界面信号。 [0078] 5, the waveform shaping unit, the above-described ultrasound echo waveform has been identified for each fat layer is wave-shaping to obtain a more narrow pulse or Fang Bo, i.e., the narrow pulse sequence a signal interface between the fat layer and the adjacent fascia.

[0079] 这里应该理解的是,在实际应用中,只要在整波前能滤除多次反射回波和小信号回波就不会影响到后续信号的判断和识别,而无需考虑多次反射回波和小信号回波被滤除的先后顺序。 [0079] It should be appreciated that, in practical applications, as long as the multiple reflection echo was filtered off and the echo signals in the entire small wavefront will not affect the determination and identification of a subsequent signal, without regard to multiple reflections echo echo signal is small and the filtered sequence. [0080] 在计算单元中,如果要测量整个脂肪层的厚度,则通过公式h = (T*V)/2计算被测对象的脂肪厚度,其中,h表示脂肪厚度,T表示时长,即指超声探头发射的超声波从进入皮肤开始直至接收到皮肤下最深处的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波的时长,V表示超声波在人体中的传播速度,V作为一个固定值预设在计算单元中。 [0080] In the calculation unit, to be measured if the whole thickness of the fat layer, through the equation h = (T * V) / 2 calculating fat thickness measured object, wherein, h represents fat thickness, T represents the time length, referring to the ultrasonic probe duration emitted ultrasound into the skin from the start until it receives a reflection echo to the junction between the deepest skin layer and subcutaneous fatty layer under the fascia of the fat layer, V represents the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the human body velocity, V preset as a fixed value in the calculation unit. 本实施例中,设置V= 1540m/s。 In this embodiment, set V = 1540m / s. 由于皮肤表层和耦合层的厚度极薄,因而超声波穿过皮肤表层和耦合层的时间可以忽略不计。 Since the thickness of the skin surface and the coupling layer is extremely thin, and thus the ultrasonic coupling through the skin and the surface layer of time is negligible. 对应图5,假定皮肤下的脂肪层仅为三层,即第三界面为皮肤下最深处的第三脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处,并采用以超声探头与耦合层之间的交界处(即波形A'处)产生的超声回波的时间点为参考基准来测算脂肪层的厚度,那么时长T即为波形A'与波形J'在时间轴上的间距,即时长T等于波形A'与波形J'的时间间隔。 5 corresponds to FIG, fat layer under the skin is assumed that only three layers, i.e., the junction between the third interface is the deepest third fat layer under the skin to the subcutaneous fascia in the fat layer, and using an ultrasonic probe to and the junction between the coupling layer (i.e., waveform a 'time point of the ultrasonic echo generated) reference thickness of a reference to measure the fat layer, then the duration T of the waveform a' and waveform J 'on the time axis pitch period T is equal to the instant waveform a 'waveform J' interval.

[0081]同理,如果要计算皮下各个脂肪层各自的厚度,则根据各个脂肪层与相邻筋膜层的界面信号的时间间隔利用公式h = (T*V)/2来计算人体组织中的各个脂肪层的厚度值。 Time [0081] Similarly, to calculate the thickness of subcutaneous fat layer of each individual, in accordance with the respective layer of fat and fascia adjacent the interface signal interval using the formula h = (T * V) / 2 is calculated in human tissue the respective values ​​of the thickness of fat layers. 时长T表示超声探头接收到第N界面的一次反射回波与接收到第(N+1)界面的一次反射回波的时差。 T represents the duration of the ultrasound probe receives a reflected echo interface N receiving the first and (N + 1) interface a reflection echo time difference. 比如,在图5中,如果要计算第二脂肪层的厚度,则时长T为波形E与波形F之间的时间间隔。 For example, in FIG. 5, to calculate the fat thickness of the second layer, T is the time duration between the waveform E and the waveform F interval.

[0082] 在本实施例中,由于横坐标为采样时间,因此可以很容易地得到超声波进入人体组织后遇脂肪层与筋膜层界面反射产生的超声回波返回超声探头的先后时间顺序以及时间间隔,图5中任意两个界面对应的两窄脉冲方波之间的时长T即为时间间隔;或者,若横坐标为采样点时,由于在该装置的A/D转换电路中采样频率是确定的,因此采样周期是确定的,则任意两个界面对应的两窄脉冲方波对应的采样点序号之差与采样周期之积即为时间间隔T。 [0082] In the present embodiment, since the abscissa is the sampling time, it is possible to easily get access to human tissues in case the ultrasonic ultrasound echo fat layer and the fascia interface reflection returns the resulting ultrasound probe chronological order and time interval, T is the time duration between two narrow Fang Bo pulse 5 corresponding to the interface of any two spaced; or, if the abscissa sampling points, since the sampling frequency of the apparatus a / D conversion circuit is determination, the sampling period is thus determined, the corresponding product of any two interfaces two narrow Fang Bo pulse corresponding number of sampling points of difference with the sampling period is the time interval T. 然后,根据该时间间隔T计算出对应的人体组织中各个界面与参考基准之间的厚度,即该间隔时间T与超声波在人体组织中的传播速度V之积(即T*V)就是超声波在相应两界面中的传播距离,由于超声波从前一个界面到后一界面再由后一界面反射回前一个界面时,走了一个来回,因此该传播距离的1/2(即T*V/2)即为该两个界面的厚度值。 Then, based on the time interval T between the calculated thickness of the body tissue corresponding to each of the interface with a reference, i.e., the time interval T and the ultrasonic propagation velocity V of the volume (i.e. V * T) in human tissue is ultrasonic two respective propagation distances in the interface, since the ultrasonic wave front to a rear interface and then reflected by an interface latter back to the previous screen when a screen, go back and forth, so that the propagation 1/2 (i.e., T * V / 2) from the is the thickness values ​​of the two interfaces. 由于人体软组织中的声速都很接近,所以在本实施例中,设置V= 1540m/s。 Since the human body soft tissue sound velocity is very close, so in the present embodiment, set V = 1540m / s. 基于上述理由,图5中每相邻两窄脉冲方波之间的距离就是各层脂肪层的厚度h,第一个窄脉冲方波与最后一个窄脉冲方波之间的距离就是被测量者的整个脂肪层的厚度。 For these reasons, in Figure 5 the distance between the two Fang Bo pulses each adjacent narrow thickness of each fat layer is H, the distance between the first Fang Bo with a narrow pulse last narrow pulse Fang Bo is to be measured by the thickness of the entire layer of fat.

[0083] 将经计算得到的脂肪厚度数据输出至显示单元进行显示。 [0083] The output is a calculated fat thickness data to the display unit for display. [0084] 为了扩充该脂肪厚度测量装置的应用,本实施例所述脂肪厚度测量装置中还可以设置接口单元,该接口单元包括USB接口和蓝牙接口,以方便地实现该装置与其他设备(如电脑、手机等)的连接,即可以通过USB接口或蓝牙接口将存储器中的超声回波信号传送到其他设备进行后续处理,或通过USB接口或蓝牙接口将该装置得到的脂肪厚度数值送到其他设备上进行显示,或者通过USB接口对电源单元中的电池进行充电。 [0084] In order to apply the expansion fat thickness measuring apparatus, the present embodiment the fat thickness measuring apparatus may be provided in the interface unit, the interface unit comprises a USB interface and a Bluetooth interface, in order to easily implement the device with other devices (e.g. connected to the computer, mobile phone, etc.) that can be transmitted through the USB interface or a Bluetooth interface ultrasound echo signals to other memory devices for subsequent processing, or by other fat thickness value to a USB interface or a Bluetooth interface of the device to give display device, or the power supply unit to charge the battery through the USB interface.

[0085] 利用本实施例所述脂肪厚度测量装置进行测量及超声回波处理的过程为:将超声探头紧贴人体皮肤,打开该装置电源,操作员按下操作键,则控制单元中的发射单元控制超声探头中的发射探头发射超声波,超声波进入人体,在人体组织内传播,每遇到两种不同声阻抗的交界面时,一部分超声波反射回来产生超声回波,该超声回波由接收探头进行接收,另一部分超声波则穿过交界面继续前进;返回的超声回波信号由超声探头中的接收探头传送到超声回波处理单元;在前期处理单元中,超声回波信号依次经放大电路进行放大、滤波电路滤除高次谐波信号和电磁干扰波、取峰值包络检波电路等处理后,并经过高速A/D转换电路采样后转换成数字超声化的超声回波信号,该数字化的超声回波信号保存在存储器中。 [0085] With the present embodiment the fat thickness measuring apparatus for the measurement embodiment and the ultrasonic echo processing procedure is: the ultrasound probe close to the skin, the power of the apparatus is opened, the operator presses the operation key, transmitting the control unit sonde unit controls the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic waves into the body, propagating in human tissues, when confronted with two different acoustic impedance of the interface, a portion of the reflected ultrasonic wave generating an ultrasonic echo, the ultrasonic echoes received by the probe receiving, through another portion of the ultrasonic waves to move the interface; ultrasound echo signals returned by the receiving probe transmitting ultrasound probe of the processing unit to the ultrasonic echo; in the pre-processing unit, the ultrasonic echo signals sequentially via the amplifying circuit amplifying, filtering circuit filters the higher harmonic signal interference and electromagnetic wave, the peak value of the envelope detection circuit processing, and converted into digital ultrasonic echo of the ultrasonic signal after a high-speed a / D conversion circuit samples the digitized ultrasonic echo signal stored in the memory. 等测量数据采样结束后,该测量数据即从存储器中读出至后期处理单元,在后期处理单元中依次对超声回波信号进行衰减补偿、滤除小信号回波和多次反射回波后,然后经过整波得到间隔分布的多个单脉冲方波,由计算单元根据各个单脉冲方波之间的时间间隔计算得出每层脂肪层的厚度,或者整个脂肪层的厚度。 Once the end of the sampling measurement data, the measurement data that is read out from the memory to the post-processing means for sequentially attenuating the ultrasonic echo compensation signal post-processing unit, the echo signal and filter out small after multiple echo, then through the wave-Fang Bo pulses to obtain a plurality of single spaced, by the calculation unit based on the time between each single Fang Bo pulse interval calculated thickness of each layer of fat, the fat or the thickness of the entire layer. 这样,通过测量从发射超声波到接收超声回波的时间间隔,即可得到皮肤下各层脂肪层的厚度,每一脂肪组织的厚度值都可直接在显示单元中进行显示,以方便测量者读数。 Thus, by measuring the time interval from the transmission ultrasonic waves received ultrasonic echo, to obtain the thickness of each layer of fat under the skin, adipose tissue thickness value of each can be displayed directly on the display unit in order to facilitate the reading of the measurer .

[0086] 这里应该理解的是,本实施例中所述后期处理单元中的处理方式并不限于上述方式,本方式只是出于简单实用的目的而设计的,任何可使得本发明提供的超声脂肪厚度测量装置采集的超声回波信号来实现各层脂肪厚度测量的处理方式均应包括在本发明的保护范围内;当然,本发明提供的测量装置及测量方式也并不限定于测量脂肪厚度,任何根据给定声速值测定物体厚度的应用,例如根据给定声速值测定金属厚度的应用,均落入本发明的保护范围。 [0086] It should be appreciated that the present invention provides an ultrasonic fat embodiment the post-processing unit is not limited to the embodiment described above, the present embodiment just for simple and practical design purposes, the present embodiment such that any ultrasonic echo signals acquired thickness measuring device approach to achieve fat thickness measurement of each layer to be included within the scope of the present invention; of course, the measurement device and measurement method provided in the present invention is not limited to the measurement of fat thickness, application of any given thickness of the object measured sound speed value according to the application example given metal thickness measuring sound speed value according to fall within the scope of the present invention.

[0087] 本实施例中的脂肪厚度测量装置利用超声回波返回超声探头的时间间隔,在超声回波处理单元中得到不同脂肪组织层的分布情况,进而得到脂肪组织层的时间间隔,最后在计算单元中获得脂肪层的厚度数值。 [0087] The present embodiment time fat thickness measurement apparatus of the embodiment using the ultrasound probe ultrasonic echo return time interval to obtain the distribution of the different tissue layers of fat in the ultrasound echo processing unit, and further to obtain adipose tissue layer spacing, and finally obtained thickness value calculating unit fat layer. 该装置体积小、便于携带,且操作简单、读数直观,尤其适合用于家庭或健身房个人监控脂肪厚度使用。 The device is small, portable, and easy to operate, intuitive readings, particularly suitable for home or personal monitoring gym use fat thickness. [0088] 可以理解的是,以上实施方式仅仅是为了说明本发明的原理而采用的示例性实施方式,然而本发明并不局限于此。 [0088] It will be appreciated that the above embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles of the present invention is employed in an exemplary embodiment, but the present invention is not limited thereto. 对于本领域内的普通技术人员而言,在不脱离本发明的精神和实质的情况下,可以做出各种变型和改进,这些变型和改进也视为本发明的保护范围。 For those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the spirit and substance of the invention can be made various modifications and improvements, these modifications and improvements into the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1.一种脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,包括: 超声探头,用于向被测对象发射超声波,同时接收其所发射超声波的超声回波,并将接收到的超声回波信号输出; 控制单元,用于控制超声探头发射超声波,接收超声探头输出的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行处理和计算,通过计算得到被测对象的脂肪厚度,再将该脂肪厚度数据输出; 显示单元,用于接收和显示控制单元输出的脂肪厚度数据; 电源单元,用于为超声探头、控制单元、以及显示单元提供电能。 A fat thickness measuring apparatus, characterized by comprising: an ultrasonic probe for emitting ultrasonic waves to the object to be measured, while receiving an ultrasonic echo ultrasonic waves emitted therefrom, and outputs the received signal to the ultrasonic echo; control means for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves, and the ultrasonic echo signal received ultrasonic echo signal output from the ultrasound probe are processed and calculated, obtained by calculating fat thickness measured object, and then the fat thickness data output; a display unit for receiving and displaying fat thickness data output from the control unit; power supply unit for an ultrasound probe, a control unit and a display unit provides power.
2.根据权利要求1所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述控制单元包括: 发射单元,用于控制超声探头发射超声波; 超声回波处理单元,用于接收超声探头输出的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行处理,以得到皮肤下的脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的超声回波; 计算单元,用于根据得到的超声回波计算皮肤下脂肪层的厚度,再将计算得到的脂肪厚度数据输出至显示单元。 2. fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said control means comprises: a transmitting unit, for controlling the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasonic waves; ultrasound echo processing unit for receiving the output of the ultrasound probe the ultrasound Press an ultrasonic wave signal and the echo signal is processed to obtain ultrasound echo at the interface between the layer of fat under the skin and subcutaneous fascia under the fat layer; calculation unit for ultrasound return obtained according to the thickness of the fat layer under the skin is calculated wave, fat thickness and then outputs the calculated data to the display unit.
3.根据权利要求2所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述超声回波处理单元包括前期处理单元和后期处理单元, 前期处理单元,用于对所述超声探头输出的超声回波信号进行幅值放大和消除干扰处理,并将处理后的超声回波信号数字化后进行存储; 后期处理单元,用于提取前期处理单元中的超声回波信号并对所述超声回波信号进行识别,识别出超声探头接收到的皮肤下各个脂肪层与所述各脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波,并滤除其他的多次反射回波,再将识别得到的一次反射回波信号输出至计算单元; 所述计算单元用于根据后期处理单元输出的一次反射回波信号,通过公式h =(T*V)/2计算被测对象的脂肪厚度,其中,h表示脂肪厚度,T表示时长,即指超声探头发射的超声波从进入皮肤开始直至接收到皮肤下最深处的脂肪层与 3. fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the ultrasound echo processing unit comprises a pre-processing unit and a post-processing unit, pre-processing unit for ultrasonic echo outputted from the ultrasound probe amplifying the signal amplitude and noise elimination, and stores the digitized ultrasonic echo signal is processed; post-processing unit, the ultrasonic echo signals and pre-processing unit for extracting the ultrasound echo signals identifying recognizes that a reflection echo at the interface between the fat layer under the respective received ultrasound probe subcutaneous fascia and skin at each of the fat layer, and other multiple filter out the reflected echo, and then identify the obtained a reflection echo signal output to the computing means; the calculating unit according to a reflection echo signal output from the post-processing unit, by the equation h (T * V) / 2 = calculated fat thickness measured object, wherein , h represents fat thickness, T represents the time length, refers to the ultrasonic probe transmitting ultrasound into the skin until the reception from the start of the next deepest skin and fat layer 脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波信号的时长,或者指超声探头接收到第N界面的一次反射回波与接收到第(N+1)界面的一次反射回波的时差,V表示超声波在人体中的传播速度,V作为一个固定值预设在计算单元中。 When a reflection echo signal is longer at the interface between the subcutaneous fat layer under the fascia, or refers to N-th ultrasound probe receives a reflected echo and the interface receiving the first (N + 1) is reflected back to the primary interface wave moveout, V denotes an ultrasonic propagation velocity in the human body, V preset as a fixed value in the calculation unit.
4.根据权利要求3所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于所述预设于计算单元中的超声波在人体中的传播速度V = 1540m/s。 4. The fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 3, wherein said calculation unit in predetermined ultrasonic propagation velocity in the human body V = 1540m / s.
5.根据权利要求4所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述前期处理单元中包括有放大电路、滤波电路、检波电路、A/D转换电路和存储器,其中: 放大电路,用于接收超声探头中的超声回波信号,并对超声探头输出的超声回波信号进行放大,再将放大后的超声回波信号输出; 滤波电路,用于接收放大电路输出的超声回波信号,并滤除其中混杂的电磁干扰波以及高次谐波,再将滤波后的超声回波信号输出; 检波电路,用于接收滤波电路输出的超声回波信号,并对接收到的超声回波电路进行峰值包络检波处理,再将经峰值包络检波处理后的超声回波信号输出; A/D转换电路,用于将超声回波信号转换成数字化的超声回波信号,再将数字化的超声回波信号输出; 存储器,用于接收和存储A/D转换电路输出的数字化的超声回波信号。 The fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the processing unit comprises a pre-amplifier circuit, a filter circuit, the detector circuit, A / D conversion circuit and a memory, wherein: the amplifier circuit, for receiving an ultrasonic echo signal of the ultrasound probe, the ultrasound probe and the ultrasonic echo signals amplified output signal and then outputs the amplified ultrasound echo; filtering circuit, for amplifying the received ultrasonic echo signal output circuit, and wherein the mixed filtered electromagnetic interference and harmonic waves, the ultrasound echo signals and then outputs the filtered; the detector circuit, for receiving ultrasonic echo signal output from the filter circuit, and an ultrasonic echo is received by the circuit peak envelope detection processing, and then outputs the signal after the ultrasound echo envelope peak detection processing by the packet; a / D conversion circuit for converting the ultrasonic echo signal into the digitized ultrasonic echo signals and then digitized ultrasonic return wave output signal; a memory for receiving and storing the a / D conversion circuit outputs the digitized ultrasonic echo signals.
6.根据权利要求5所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述后期处理单元中包括有补偿单元、小信号回波滤除单元、多次反射回波滤除单元和整波单元,所述补偿单元内预设有补偿因子,其中: 补偿单元,用于提取存储器中的数字化的超声回波信号,并将所提取的超声回波信号幅值加上补偿因子后得到补偿后的超声回波信号,再将补偿后的超声回波信号输出; 小信号回波滤除单元,用于接收补偿单元输出的经补偿后的超声回波信号,并滤除其中的小信号回波,再将滤除小信号回波后的超声回波信号输出; 多次反射回波滤除单元,用于接收小信号回波滤除单元输出的超声回波信号,并对滤除小信号回波后的超声回波信号进行分析,从中识别出超声探头接收到的皮肤下各个脂肪层与该脂肪层下的皮下筋膜层之间的交界处的一次反射回波,滤除其他的 6. A fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said post-processing unit comprises a compensation unit, the echo signal is small filtering unit, multiple reflection echo wave-shaping unit and filtering unit, said compensation unit with a predetermined compensation factor, wherein: the compensation means for the digitized ultrasonic echo signals to extract the memory, and extracted ultrasound echo compensated signal amplitude obtained after adding the compensation factor ultrasound echo signal, an ultrasonic echo signal is output again after the compensation; small echo signal filtering unit, for receiving ultrasonic echo compensation unit outputs the compensated signal, and filter out the small signal echoes therein, and then ultrasonic echo signal is output after the filtered smaller echo signal; filtering unit after multiple reflection echo, the ultrasonic echo signal received for the small-signal output filtering unit echo, the echo signal and filter out small the ultrasonic echo signal is analyzed to identify the primary reflection echo from the junction between the respective layers of fat under the skin of the received ultrasound probe and the subcutaneous fascia in the fat layer, the other filtered 多次反射回波,再将滤除了多次反射回波后的一次反射回波信号输出; 整波单元,用于接收多次反射回波滤除单元输出的一次反射回波信号,并对其进行整波,再将整波后的一次反射回波信号输出至计算单元。 Multiple echo, and then outputs a filtered echo signal after reflection of multiple reflection echo; waveshaping means for receiving a reflected echo signals outputted a plurality of times of reflected echo filtering unit, and its for wave-shaping, a reflection echo signal output from the wave-shaping and then to the computing unit.
7.根据权利要求6所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述补偿因子=补偿系数*超声波频率,所述补偿系数设定为0.81dB/cm.ΜΗζ,超声波频率指超声探头所发射的超声波频率,该超声波频率的取值范围为1.5MHz〜15MHz。 The fat thickness measuring apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the compensation factor = * ultrasonic frequency compensation coefficient, the compensation coefficient is set to 0.81dB / cm.ΜΗζ, ultrasonic frequency emitted ultrasonic probe means ultrasonic frequency range of the ultrasonic frequency to a 1.5MHz~15MHz.
8.根据权利要求1-7之一所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,该装置中还包括有接口单元,所述接口单元用于将控制单元计算得到的脂肪厚度数据送到外部设备上进行显示或将超声探头接收到的超声回波信号送到外部设备上继续进行处理,或者用于对电源单元进行充电。 8. A fat thickness measuring apparatus according to one of claims 1-7, characterized in that the apparatus further comprises an interface unit, the interface unit is configured to calculate fat thickness data obtained by the control unit to an external device on the ultrasound probe display or the received ultrasonic echo signal to continue the processing on the external device, or for charging the power supply unit.
9.根据权利要求1-7之一所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述控制单元采用DSP芯片或MCU芯片或ARM芯片。 9. A fat thickness measuring apparatus according to one of claims 1-7, characterized in that the control unit MCU chip with DSP or ARM chip or chips.
10.根据权利要求1-7之一所述的脂肪厚度测量装置,其特征在于,所述超声探头为A型超声诊断装置中的超声探头,该超声探头采用收发分离式超声探头。 10. A fat thickness measuring apparatus according to one of claims 1-7, wherein said A type ultrasound probe is an ultrasound probe the ultrasound diagnostic apparatus, the ultrasonic probe is an ultrasonic probe using separate transceiver.
CN 201210031518 2011-11-25 2012-02-09 Fat thickness measuring device CN103126726B (en)

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