CN103098688A - Wall body greening composite culture substrate and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Wall body greening composite culture substrate and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103098688A
CN103098688A CN2011103520733A CN201110352073A CN103098688A CN 103098688 A CN103098688 A CN 103098688A CN 2011103520733 A CN2011103520733 A CN 2011103520733A CN 201110352073 A CN201110352073 A CN 201110352073A CN 103098688 A CN103098688 A CN 103098688A
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vermiculite
perlite
urea
formaldehyde foam
preparation
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CN103098688B (en
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周贤军
徐建峰
刘丽春
钱丹
刘春常
程国兴
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Cecep Tiehan ecological environment Co.,Ltd.
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Shenzhen Techand Ecology and Environment Co Ltd
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention relates to plant culture substrates, and discloses a wall body greening composite culture substrate and a preparation method thereof. The culture substrate comprises moss, urea formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite, wherein the volume ratio of the moss, the urea formaldehyde foam, the vermiculite and the perlite is 1-4:1-4:1-2:1-2. The preparation method comprises treating the perlite in an expansion mode to obtain granular perlite, cleaning and drying the moss and the granular perlit, and evenly mixing the moss, the granular perlit, the urea formaldehyde foam with the vermiculite to obtain the wall body greening composite culture substrate. According to the wall body greening composite culture substrate and the preparation method of the wall body greening composite culture substrate, the wall body greening composite culture substrate has the advantages of being simple in preparation, light in weight, strong in water retaining capacity, good in breathability and the like, and can reduce load of a wall body when being used for the wall body. Meanwhile, components are wide in sources and low in price, and cost of the prepared culture substrate can be reduced. The preparation of the wall body greening composite culture substrate is simple in process and convenient to operate.

Description

A kind of wall greening composite cultivation substrate and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to the afforestation field, and relate to plant cultivation media, more specifically, relate to a kind of wall greening composite cultivation substrate and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Along with the quickening of urbanization process, for the ecotope of the large-scale city that improves land resource scarcity, the technology such as wall greening, roof greening have become common greening measure.When carrying out large-scale plant cultivation on body of wall, can provide the base of the cultivation with cultivation matrix in order to allow plant take root.This cultivation matrix is not only the carrier that root system of plant adheres to, and is that the important channel of moisture, nutrition and air is provided for plant.Therefore, for promoting the growth of plant, the unit weight of cultivation matrix, overall porosity, moisture capacity, gas permeability etc. all should meet the requirement of plant growth.Due to the particularity of using at surface of wall, use traditional soil inevitably to bring burden to building itself as cultivation matrix.The soilless culture substrate of body of wall at present occurs successively can be applicable to, but lightweight, moisture capacity and the gas permeability etc. of these cultivation matrixes of the prior art remain still to be improved.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is, for lightweight, moisture capacity and the gas permeability etc. of cultivation matrix in prior art, plant growth is still remained the problem that improves, provide a kind of lightweight, water retention capacity strong, ventilative good, waterpower diffusion Quick uniform and the low wall greening composite cultivation substrate of cost and preparation method thereof.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is achieved by the following technical programs: a kind of wall greening composite cultivation substrate is provided, wherein, described cultivation matrix comprises liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite, and wherein said liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlitic volume ratio are 1~4: 1~4: 1~2: 1~2.
In above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, liver moss described in described cultivation matrix, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlitic volume ratio are 1: 1: 1: 1.
In above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, described perlite is the graininess perlite of expansion process.
In above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, the perlitic particle size of described graininess is 1~5mm.
In above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, the particle size of described vermiculite is 2~3mm.
According to a further aspect in the invention, provide a kind of preparation method of wall greening composite cultivation substrate, wherein, said method comprising the steps of:
S1: selecting liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite is raw material, and described perlite obtains the graininess perlite through expansion process, and described liver moss and described graininess perlite clean and dry rear standby;
S2: the urea-formaldehyde foam in step S1, vermiculite and standby liver moss and graininess perlite are mixed, obtain described wall greening composite cultivation substrate;
Wherein, the perlitic volume ratio of liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and graininess described in described cultivation matrix is 1~4: 1~4: 1~2: 1~2.
In the preparation method of above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, in described step S 1, the perlitic particle size of described graininess is 1~5mm.
In the preparation method of above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, in described step S 1, the particle size of described vermiculite is 2~3mm.
In the preparation method of above-mentioned wall greening composite cultivation substrate, in described step S2, the perlitic volume ratio of described liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and graininess is 1: 1: 1: 1.
Implement wall greening composite cultivation substrate of the present invention and preparation method thereof, can obtain following beneficial effect: the selected raw material of the present invention is the strong material of water absorbing force, is conducive to the cultivation matrix water conservation and provides adequate water for plant; Raw materials used unit weight and total porosity etc. all meet the needs of plant cultivation, are conducive to Quick uniform diffusion, root system abundant stretching, extension in cultivation matrix and the gas permeability that improve cultivation matrix of moisture in cultivation matrix; The equal wide material sources of above-mentioned raw materials and cheap, help to reduce the cost of cultivation matrix of the present invention, and be the lightweight base material, can effectively avoid when being applied to body of wall body of wall is caused too much burden; In addition, urea-formaldehyde foam is rich in the elements such as nitrogen phosphate and sulfur, potassium, zinc, can improve the fertility of prepared cultivation matrix, reduces the use of other dedicated fertilizers.Wall greening composite cultivation substrate of the present invention is lightweight, water retention capacity strong, it is good to breathe freely, waterpower spreads Quick uniform and cost is low, and preparation method's technique of the present invention is simple, convenient operation.
Embodiment
For the present invention is further understood by those skilled in the art, below will be described in further detail the present invention by specific embodiment.
PH value, electrical conductivity (EC), unit weight and overall porosity are to weigh the several important indicators whether prepared wall greening composite cultivation substrate (being designated hereinafter simply as cultivation matrix) meets the plant growth needs.Wherein, the pH value is relevant with the solvability of plant nutrient, and the pH value scope of most Ornamental plants is in the 5.5-6.5 scope, and the pH value of cultivation matrix is therefore take the 6.5-7.0 scope as benefit.Electrical conductivity is used for representing the total amount (being also salt content) of various ions, has correlation between it and nitrate nitrogen, can be inferred by electrical conductivity the content of nitrogen element in cultivation matrix, thereby need judge whether applied nitrogen.Unit weight refers to the weight of cultivation matrix one constant volume, and the total porosity of it and cultivation matrix is closely related; Gas permeability and the water imbibition of the too small cultivation matrix of the excessive total porosity of unit weight are poor, are unfavorable for that root system stretches; The too small cultivation matrix of unit weight is unfavorable for very likely that root system of plant adheres to.Total porosity and the gas-water ratio of cultivation matrix are closely related, can hold more air and moisture when total porosity is large, are conducive to root system of plant and stretch.Find by test of many times, can need not fertilising when electrical conductivity is 0.5-1.3ms/cm, unit weight is at 0.1-0.8g/cm 3And total porosity is conducive to plant growth in the 54-96% scope time.
Based on the above-mentioned index relevant to plant growth, select liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite as the raw material of preparation cultivation matrix in the present invention.The advantage of above-mentioned raw materials is that it is the material that water absorbing capacity is strong, total porosity is suitable with unit weight, and the pH value of the cultivation matrix that makes of cooperation can satisfy the requirement of above-mentioned pH value scope.Preferably use through expansion process in the present invention and be the perlite of graininess form.Those skilled in the art are familiar with perlitic expansion process, therefore do not launch narration at this.In addition, commercially available urea-formaldehyde foam comprises two kinds of acid urea-formaldehyde foam and neutral urea-formaldehyde foams, satisfy the pH value area requirement of plant cultivation for the pH value of the cultivation matrix that makes preparation, should regulate extremely neutrality of pH value before acid urea-formaldehyde foam uses, just can be used for the preparation of cultivation matrix.At first the urea-formaldehyde foam that the present invention buys uses ash to regulate the pH value of urea-formaldehyde foam for acid before the preparation cultivation matrix, and being adjusted to neutral urea-formaldehyde foam and the volume ratio of ash is 50-100: 1.Therefore the ratio shared due to ash is very little, usually ignores the impact of ash in actual fabrication process, and the urea-formaldehyde foam that measures and the mixture of ash are considered as urea-formaldehyde foam.
In addition, also can add the auxiliary material of a certain amount of raising cultivation matrix fertility in prepared cultivation matrix.The auxiliary material that multiple extensive sale is arranged on market, those skilled in the art can select and use needed auxiliary material type, such as spend precious No. one, spend precious No. four etc.In cultivation matrix, needed auxiliary material is less, is generally 3-5kg/m 3
Embodiment 1:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 4L liver moss, 4L urea-formaldehyde foam, 2L particle size and be 2mm are the perlite of 3mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 2:
The vermiculite and the 1L particle size that measure respectively 1L liver moss, 1L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 1mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 3:
The vermiculite and the 1L particle size that measure respectively 4L liver moss, 1L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 2.5mm are the perlite of 5mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 4:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 1L liver moss, 4L urea-formaldehyde foam, 2L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 2mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 5:
The vermiculite and the 1L particle size that measure respectively 1L liver moss, 4L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 4mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 6:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 4L liver moss, 1L urea-formaldehyde foam, 2L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 2mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 7:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 4L liver moss, 4L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 2mm are the perlite of 1mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 8:
The vermiculite and the 1L particle size that measure respectively 1L liver moss, 1L urea-formaldehyde foam, 2L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 4mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 9:
The vermiculite and the 1L particle size that measure respectively 4L liver moss, 4L urea-formaldehyde foam, 2L particle size and be 2mm are the perlite of 5mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 10:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 1L liver moss, 1L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 2mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
Embodiment 11:
The vermiculite and the 2L particle size that measure respectively 3L liver moss, 2L urea-formaldehyde foam, 1L particle size and be 3mm are the perlite of 3mm, liver moss and perlite are cleaned fully mix with urea-formaldehyde foam and vermiculite after drying, and make the cultivation matrix that mixes.
The physicochemical property of cultivation matrix in table 1 embodiment 1-11
Hybrid substrate pH EC(ms/cm) Dry density (g/cm3) Total porosity
Embodiment 1 7.5±0.058 0.51±0.033 0.18±0.002 88.01±0.2
Embodiment 2 6.97±0.067 0.87±0.031 0.43±0.015 79.76±0.16
Embodiment 3 7.27±0.296 0.52±0.022 0.14±0.015 89.33±0.23
Embodiment 4 7.57±0.12 0.78±0.017 0.28±0.003 84.71±0.09
Embodiment 5 7.4±0.1 0.63±0.013 0.13±0.005 89.66±0.15
Embodiment 6 7.13±0.12 0.44±0.051 0.25±0.004 85.7±0.22
Embodiment 7 6.97±0.088 0.69±0.013 0.11±0.002 90.32±0.13
Embodiment 8 6.9±0.115 0.58±0.025 0.23±0.001 86.36±0.31
Embodiment 9 6.43±0.233 0.73±0.067 0.3±0.05 84.05±0.25
Embodiment 10 6.87±0.285 0.32±0.01 0.15±0.02 89±0.37
Embodiment 11 7.67±0.058 0.73±0.033 0.28±0.015 84.71±0.2
(wherein, total porosity (%)=93.947-32.995* unit weight)
In embodiment 1-11, preparation-obtained cultivation matrix is graininess and is mingled with a small amount of raw fiber.Table 1 is the physicochemical property of cultivation matrix in embodiment 1-11.As can be seen from Table 1, the physicochemical property of the cultivation matrix of embodiment 1-11 all meets the needs of plant growth, and moisture capacity is strong, total porosity is suitable for root system of plant and stretches, and therefore can be applicable to the plant cultivation of wall greening.The density of prepared cultivation matrix is 1.0-1.7mg/m 3, be significantly less than the density of common soil, can significantly reduce the burden of body of wall when being applied to body of wall.Wherein, the cultivation matrix for preparing in embodiment 2 has optimum physicochemical property, is the preferred embodiments of the present invention.
For verifying that further cultivation matrix of the present invention is suitable for plant cultivation, get the cultivation matrix of embodiment 1-5 equal volume and the plantation that Comparative Examples 1 is used for bugle.Cultivated plant, cultivating the one-tenth long pointer (specifically referring to fresh weight here) that finishes rear each plant of mensuration under the same conditions.Each cultivation matrix all arranges 4 experimental group.Concrete measurement result sees Table 2.
Comparative Examples 1: measure the plantation that the 10L vermiculite is used for bugle.
The fresh weight of the bugle of cultivating in table 2 embodiment 1-5
Cultivation matrix Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4 Embodiment 5 Comparative Examples 1
Fresh weight (g) 1.85±0.06 2.07g±0.12 1.48±0.21 1.23±0.07 1.67±0.13 0.64±0.09
Be apparent that in table 2, cultivation matrix of the present invention (embodiment 1-5) is compared the needs that more meet plant growth, is more suitable for plant cultivation with the cultivation matrix in Comparative Examples 1.Be embodied in that to cultivate after same time the fresh weight of bugle maximum.This shows, cultivation matrix of the present invention is fit to plant cultivation.
In sum, can prepare according to the present invention and comprise liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlitic wall greening composite cultivation substrate; Wherein, selected above-mentioned raw materials is the strong material of water absorbing force, is conducive to the cultivation matrix water conservation and provides adequate water for plant; The unit weight of raw material and total porosity etc. all meet the needs of plant cultivation, are conducive to Quick uniform diffusion, the abundant stretching, extension of root system of plant and the gas permeability that improve cultivation matrix of moisture in cultivation matrix; The equal wide material sources of above-mentioned raw materials and cheap, help to reduce the cost of cultivation matrix of the present invention, and be the lightweight base material, can effectively avoid when being applied to body of wall body of wall is caused too much burden; Urea-formaldehyde foam is rich in the elements such as nitrogen phosphate and sulfur, potassium, zinc, can improve the fertility of prepared cultivation matrix, reduces the use of other dedicated fertilizers.Wall greening composite cultivation substrate of the present invention is lightweight, water retention capacity strong, it is good to breathe freely, waterpower spreads Quick uniform and cost is low, and preparation method of the present invention only relates to the operations such as cleaning is dried, expansion process, and technique is simple, convenient operation.
The above is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limiting the present invention, all any modifications of doing within the spirit and principles in the present invention, is equal to and replaces and improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a wall greening composite cultivation substrate, is characterized in that, described cultivation matrix comprises liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite, and wherein said liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlitic volume ratio are 1 ~ 4:1 ~ 4:1 ~ 2:1 ~ 2.
2. wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 1, is characterized in that, liver moss described in described cultivation matrix, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlitic volume ratio are 1:1:1:1.
3. wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described perlite is the graininess perlite of expansion process.
4. wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the perlitic particle size of described graininess is 1 ~ 5mm.
5. wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the particle size of described vermiculite is 2 ~ 3mm.
6. the preparation method of a wall greening composite cultivation substrate, is characterized in that, said method comprising the steps of:
S1: selecting liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and perlite is raw material, and described perlite obtains the graininess perlite through expansion process, and described liver moss and described graininess perlite clean and dry rear standby;
S2: the urea-formaldehyde foam in step S1, vermiculite and standby liver moss and graininess perlite are mixed, obtain described wall greening composite cultivation substrate;
Wherein, the perlitic volume ratio of liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and graininess described in described cultivation matrix is 1 ~ 4:1 ~ 4:1 ~ 2:1 ~ 2.
7. the preparation method of wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 6, is characterized in that, in described step S1, the perlitic particle size of described graininess is 1 ~ 5mm.
8. the preparation method of wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 6, is characterized in that, in described step S1, the particle size of described vermiculite is 2 ~ 3mm.
9. the preparation method of wall greening composite cultivation substrate according to claim 6, is characterized in that, in described step S2, the perlitic volume ratio of described liver moss, urea-formaldehyde foam, vermiculite and graininess is 1:1:1:1.
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Cited By (5)

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CN104429872A (en) * 2014-11-21 2015-03-25 广州市东篱环境艺术有限公司 Greening wall built through moss/ pteridophyte and building method
CN104429860A (en) * 2014-12-16 2015-03-25 五洲丰农业科技有限公司 Seedling culturing substrate slow in nutrition release
CN104838853A (en) * 2015-05-12 2015-08-19 中国科学院武汉植物园 Rapid indoor wall moss planting method
CN105367234A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-03-02 山东商道生物科技有限公司 Cultivation and seedling growing matrix for melons and vegetables
CN105384481A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-03-09 山东商道生物科技有限公司 Culturing and seedling medium for cucurbits and vegetables

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CN107278890B (en) * 2017-06-22 2020-11-13 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 Bryophyte wall greening method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104429872A (en) * 2014-11-21 2015-03-25 广州市东篱环境艺术有限公司 Greening wall built through moss/ pteridophyte and building method
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CN104429860A (en) * 2014-12-16 2015-03-25 五洲丰农业科技有限公司 Seedling culturing substrate slow in nutrition release
CN104838853A (en) * 2015-05-12 2015-08-19 中国科学院武汉植物园 Rapid indoor wall moss planting method
CN105367234A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-03-02 山东商道生物科技有限公司 Cultivation and seedling growing matrix for melons and vegetables
CN105384481A (en) * 2015-11-19 2016-03-09 山东商道生物科技有限公司 Culturing and seedling medium for cucurbits and vegetables

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