CN103074625B - Movable laser cladding and repairing system - Google Patents

Movable laser cladding and repairing system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103074625B
CN103074625B CN201310016660.4A CN201310016660A CN103074625B CN 103074625 B CN103074625 B CN 103074625B CN 201310016660 A CN201310016660 A CN 201310016660A CN 103074625 B CN103074625 B CN 103074625B
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laser
cladding
robot
bath temperature
master control
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CN103074625A (en
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张轲
李铸国
张悦
黄坚
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Shanghai Jiao Tong University
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Shanghai Jiao Tong University
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Abstract

The invention provides a movable laser cladding and repairing system in the field of laser cladding and repairing. The movable laser cladding and repairing system comprises a movable platform, wherein a laser, a robot, a position changing machine, a powder feeder, an image processing system, a control system (comprises a PLC (programmable logic controller) main control system, a PC (personal computer) computing workstation), a video camera, a three-dimensional laser scanning sensor, a laser processing head and a coaxial powder feeding head are fixedly arranged on the movable platform. The movable laser cladding and repairing system takes the robot as a moving body, controls the clad pool size, the temperature and other information by using an image acquiring and processing system, and scans a workpiece to slice, stratify and automatically clad a three-dimensional workpiece model based on the three-dimensional laser sensor; the movable laser cladding and repairing system is convenient and flexible, simplifies a repairing process, achieves precision and self-adaptive control of a cladding process, effectively improves the cladding quality, and facilitates field application of a large component through the movable platform.

Description

A kind of packaged type laser melting coating and repair system
Technical field
The invention belongs to surface cladding and the recovery technique field of high added value, precision or large parts, be specifically related to the computer-controlled packaged type laser melting coating of a kind of employing and repair system.
Background technology
The method of component reparation mainly contains the methods such as laser melting coating, vacuum brazing, vacuum coat weldering, tig welding and plasma body cladding reparation.Laser melting coating is the working condition requirement according to workpiece, the metal of the various design mix of cladding or nonmetal, prepare heat-resisting, anti-corrosion, wear-resisting, anti-oxidant, antifatigue or there is surface fused coating that is optical, electrical, magnetic properties.Laser melting coating be a kind of quick cooling process, few to the heat input of base material, heat affected zone is little, microstructure of surface cladding layer is tiny, easily be automated, therefore use the method for laser melting coating to carry out the component such as repairing rotor, than additive method, there is larger advantage.Laser melting and coating technique solves more inevitable row technical barriers such as thermal distortion, Thermal Fatigue Damage in the hot procedures such as traditional electric welding, argon arc welding, also solves the contradiction of the coating such as tradition plating, spraying and basic poor bonding strength simultaneously.Therefore, compare with other method, laser melting coating is a kind of more satisfactory surface cladding or Repair gene method.
Generator, steam turbine rotor shaft, the surface cladding of aircraft turbine blade, car body die equal-volume is comparatively large, and own wt reaches tens tons, even hundreds of ton, if will carry out surface cladding or reparation, then transportation cost is very high,
Generator, steam turbine rotor shaft, the surface cladding of aircraft turbine blade, car body die equal-volume is comparatively large, and own wt reaches tens tons, even hundreds of ton.Such as, the axle system gross weight of 200,000 kW generating set is at about 100 tons, and the axle system gross weight of 300,000 kW generating set is at about 150 tons.The length of each rotor is at more than 7-8m.These large-scale components need to carry out surface cladding or reparation, if transport to producer to keep in repair, then transportation cost is very high, transport is very inconvenience also, also deposit safety problem in transit simultaneously, so optimal situation is that laser process equipment is transported to scene, directly at the scene surface cladding or reparation are carried out to large-scale component.
But general laser-processing system comprises several sub-system composition such as laser apparatus, laser machine, Controlling System, water chiller, because component devices is more, complex structure, so be all generally disperse fixed placement at either inside, is not suitable for being transported to site work.
Through analyzing prior art literature search, find name be called laser cladding equipment, application number be 200920133909.9 Chinese patent literature propose a kind of switching mechanism of large-scale component laser melting coating, this switching mechanism can make part become arbitrarily angled with ground, coordinate rotating mechanism can cover whole cladding face, thus improve efficiency and the quality of laser melting coating.And only need carry out clamped one time, reduce production cost, improve production efficiency.Application number devises a laser machine for the movable laser processing system of light source " a kind of be with semiconductor laser " disclosed in the Chinese patent literature of 200520090374.3, laser generator and laser machine are arranged in mount pad respective on same stand, the pillar of stand has up-down adjustment mechanism, and laser generator and laser machine are maintained at the same horizontal plane.This invention is actual is the laser machine merely providing a designed, designed, does not relate to the other parts etc. of motion, control section and system.Application number is " mobile laser repairing equipment and the restorative procedure thereof " disclosed in the Chinese patent literature of 20081000060.4, propose and a kind ofly carry out mobile laser repairing equipment and the restorative procedure thereof of hierarchy slicing based on three dimension scanning, the reparation of degree of precision, high added value or main equipment and component can be widely used in, but the mobile supporting body of this equipment is automobile, use and inconvenience, system does not have pool size adaptive control function yet, does not relate to control section further in this patent yet.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art and defect, a kind of movable laser melting coating and repair system are provided, this system motion track is flexible, cladding and the reparation of complex-curved or space tracking can be adapted to, can according to treating the part model auto slice of cladding, then trajectory planning carry out cladding or reparation, in cladding process, also can carry out adaptive control to the size of cladding, effectively improve the quality of cladding.Due to the mobile handiness of this system, be particularly suitable for onsite surface cladding or the reparation of these large-scale components such as picture turbine rotor, engine blade and car body die.
According to an aspect of the present invention, a kind of packaged type laser melting coating and repair system are provided, comprise moveable platform, the robot of 6 degree of freedom, laser apparatus, laser Machining head and coaxial powder feeding head, powder feeder, bath temperature pick up camera and corresponding bath temperature image processing system, PC evaluation work station, PLC master control system, positioner, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor, supplementary unit, described robot, laser apparatus, laser Machining head and coaxial powder feeding head, powder feeder, bath temperature pick up camera and corresponding bath temperature image processing system, PC evaluation work station, PLC master control system, positioner, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor, supplementary unit is all arranged on described moveable platform, and the 6th shaft end of robot is provided with laser Machining head, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor, bath temperature pick up camera, laser Machining head lower end is connected with coaxial powder feeding head, powder feeder is communicated to coaxial powder feeding head, bath temperature image processing system connects bath temperature pick up camera, the position of the flow of powder convergence of coaxial powder feeding head is exactly the position of the laser focal of laser apparatus, and PLC master control system connects powder feeder by Profibus bus, robot, laser apparatus, bath temperature image processing system, PC evaluation work station, robot, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor connects PC evaluation work station by Ethernet.
Preferably, described bath temperature image processing system is used for by controlling bath temperature pick up camera to obtain the crater image in laser cladding process, then carries out feature extraction to crater image and to the width in PLC master control system transmission molten bath, area and temperature information; PLC master control system judges that whether the width in molten bath, area and temperature are interval in expected value, if in expected value interval, do not adjusted, on the contrary then by real time the adjustment power stage of laser apparatus and/or the travelling speed of robot to realize the adaptive control of cladding size and temperature;
Preferably, described PLC master control system is connected with the state of transferring robot, laser apparatus, powder feeder, bath temperature image processing system and processing parameter data message with PC evaluation work station, to check the state of packaged type laser melting coating and repair system, Real-time Collection and analysis are carried out to processing parameter, wherein, described processing parameter comprises welding speed, laser power, powder feeding rate.
Preferably, described PC evaluation work station comprises human and machine interface unit, part model processing unit and off-line program and simulation unit, wherein:
Described human and machine interface unit is connected with PLC master control system, PLC master control system is by robot, laser apparatus, powder feeder, the state of bath temperature image processing system and processing parameter data information transfer are to PC evaluation work station, and be presented in human and machine interface unit to carry out Real-Time Monitoring to working order, the laser power of PLC master control system Real-time Collection, the welding speed of robot, powder feeding rate is also transferred to PC evaluation work station and is presented in real time in human and machine interface unit, the program number of the robot that human and machine interface unit sets and welding speed, and the program of laser apparatus, laser technical parameters, powder feeding rate, the powder feeding time in advance, preflow time parameter is transferred to robot respectively by PLC master control system, laser apparatus and powder feeder,
Described part model processing unit by laser three-dimensional scanning sensor scan cladding workpiece to obtain the three dimensional point cloud of cladding workpiece, the sweep test of part model processing unit to cladding workpiece sets up three-dimensional stereo model, and cut into slices in the vertical direction, three-dimensional stereo model is converted into two-dimensional model, when the thickness of every layer of section is laser apparatus cladding, the heap of every layer is high, after section, part model processing unit carries out cladding track planning to every layer of section successively, plans every layer of machining path of cutting into slices;
Described off-line program and simulation unit is used for after part model processing unit obtains the machining path of every layer of section, off-line programing is carried out according to machining path, and carry out simulation cladding and reparation, if the processing of robots process simulation result produced meets the demands, then this work program is downloaded in robot and carry out actual cladding, if simulate defective, then part model processing unit re-starts section and trajectory planning operation to three-dimensional stereo model.
The present invention has following characteristics: laser apparatus, robot, powder feeder and molten pool system etc. are all assemblied on moveable platform, form one complete, movably, independently overall, it is on-the-spot that equipment is transported to the large parts needing cladding or reparation by such convenience, maneuverability, has saved time and transportation cost again greatly.System adopts the robot of 6 degree of freedom as motion body, can realize cladding and the reparation of very complicated space tracking motion.The adaptive control of laser melting coating pool size then improves quality and the dimensional precision of cladding effectively, and the hierarchy slicing to three-dimensional space model, trajectory planning function then can realize cladding forming and the reparation of complex parts.
This moves laser melting coating and the section of the AUTOMATIC ZONING of the adaptive control of movability, cladding size, three-dimensional model and trajectory planning, off-line program and simulation combine by repair system, facilitate the laser melting coating of large parts, by the accurate control of computer, effectively improve the quality of cladding, simplify cladding and repair process.Due to the mobile handiness of this system, be particularly suitable for picture turbine rotor, the onsite surface cladding of these large-scale components such as engine blade and car body die or reparation.
This laser melting coating and repair system can extensively should in the repair processes of the equipment of various high degree of accuracy, high added value and component.
Accompanying drawing explanation
By reading the detailed description done non-limiting example with reference to the following drawings, other features, objects and advantages of the present invention will become more obvious:
Figure 1 shows that the composition of packaged type laser melting coating and repair system.
Figure 2 shows that laser melting coating temperature and size adaptive control control method schema.
Figure 3 shows that the laser melting coating based on model and restorative procedure schema.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.Following examples will contribute to those skilled in the art and understand the present invention further, but not limit the present invention in any form.It should be pointed out that to those skilled in the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, some distortion and improvement can also be made.These all belong to protection scope of the present invention.
As shown in Figure 1; in the present embodiment; packaged type laser melting coating and repair system comprise: moveable platform 12, robot 1, laser apparatus 2, laser Machining head 3 and coaxial powder feeding head 11, powder feeder 4, bath temperature pick up camera 5 and corresponding bath temperature image processing system 6, PC evaluation work station 7, PLC master control system 8, positioner 9, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor 10, supplementary unit 13, supplementary unit 13 comprises water cooling plant, protection device of air and laser safety device.
Described robot 1 refers to universal, for welding and cut the 6DOF industrial robot in field, be arranged on moveable platform 12 by its base, wherein: the 6th shaft end of robot 1 is connected with laser Machining head 3, laser Machining head 3 lower end is connected with coaxial powder feeding head 11, in cladding process, cladding powder sends into coaxial powder feeding head 11 through powder feeder 4, under the effect of air-flow, flow of powder ejects from coaxial powder feeding head 11 and converges, the position that flow of powder converges under normal circumstances is exactly the position of laser focal, simultaneously, laser three-dimensional scanning sensor 10 and bath temperature pick up camera 5 are also fixedly installed on robot 1 the 6th the tip of the axis.
As shown in Figure 1; described moveable platform, wherein: robot 1, laser apparatus 2, powder feeder 4, bath temperature image processing system 6, PLC master control system 8, PC evaluation work station 7 and comprise water cooling plant, protection device of air, laser safety device supplementary unit 13 all fixed placement above.So this system is an independent completion movable operation system.The constitutional features of moveable platform 12 is a plate steel construction, four angles bottom moveable platform 12 are respectively provided with the universal caster wheel with locking function, castor is provided with stopping lever, when upwards revolving stopping lever and departing from ground, then castor can be walked by any direction, when stopping lever is to backspin, castor is braked, then moveable platform 12 is fixed.When needs carry out site work, by transport trolley, whole moveable platform 12 is carried to scene, fixing after adjusting orientation, can realize the site work of the cladding of large-scale cladding workpiece 14 and reparation, system is flexible.
Described bath temperature image processing system 6 comprises collecting unit, processing unit and control unit, wherein: collecting unit is connected to receive the crater image in laser cladding process by optical fiber with bath temperature pick up camera 5, processing unit then mainly processes the image gathered and carries out feature extraction, to be connected to be transferred through the information such as width, area and the temperature processing the molten bath obtained by Profibus bus with PLC master control system 8.
Described PLC master control system 8 comprises: the amount of opening the light input interface unit, output switch parameter interface unit and Profibus Bus Interface Unit.Wherein: switch value input interface unit be connected with Controlling System operating panel to start with transmission procedure, stop, laser opening/closing, system reset, failure reset, system are anxious the control information such as to stop, the amount of opening the light input interface unit is also connected with relief door, safe light curtain etc., with the state of real-time detecting system.The devices such as output switch parameter interface unit then starts with water-cooled, protect gas opening/closing, system powder feeding start/stop are connected with control information transmission; to make whole system according to certain sequential working, the device such as also, the operation/stopping ready with system of output switch parameter interface unit, system reset, relief door reset, laser is opened, buzzer warning, tri-colour LED is connected to reflect the working order of system.Robot 1, laser apparatus 2, bath temperature image processing system 6 are connected with PLC master control system 8 by Profibus Bus Interface Unit, PLC master control system 8 is also connected with PC evaluation work station 7 by Bus Interface Unit, to transmit corresponding state and control information.EBI is connected with the program number of transferring robot 1, welding speed and some I/O signals with robot 1, the output I/O signal of robot 1 is transferred to PLC master control system 8 by Bus Interface Unit, with the working order of Real-Time Monitoring robot 1, and process accordingly, the output I/O signal of PLC master control system 8 is then transferred to the controller of robot 1 by Bus Interface Unit, with control 1 according to certain sequential action.The program number that the Bus Interface Unit of PLC master control system 8 is connected with laser apparatus 2 to transmit laser apparatus, laser power, laser mode, and some I/O signals, laser apparatus 2 exports I/O signal and transfers to PLC master control system 8 by Bus Interface Unit, with the working order of Real-Time Monitoring laser apparatus 2, and carry out respective handling, such as ready, whether laser the information of reflection system state such as opens, the output I/O signal of PLC master control system 8 is then transferred to the controller of laser apparatus 2 by Bus Interface Unit, to control laser apparatus 2 according to certain sequential action, realize laser cladding process.Bus Interface Unit is also connected with information such as the width receiving cladding molten bath, area and temperature with the bath temperature image processing system 6 of laser melting coating, also send some control informations by Bus Interface Unit to bath temperature image processing system 6, such as start camera shooting and start image procossing etc.PLC master control system 8 receives the information such as width, temperature in molten bath by Profibus Bus Interface Unit, if interval in expected value, then do not adjust, otherwise then adjust the processing parameter such as the power stage of laser apparatus 2 or the travelling speed of robot 1 in real time by certain control strategy, thus realize the adaptive control of cladding size and temperature.Be illustrated in figure 2 pool size and the temperature-controlled process schema of laser melting coating.
Described PC evaluation work station 7 comprises human and machine interface unit, part model processing unit and off-line program and simulation unit.Wherein: human and machine interface unit is connected with PLC master control system 8 by Profibus Bus Interface Unit, PLC master control system 8 by Bus Interface Unit by robot 1, laser apparatus 2, bath temperature image processing system 6, powder feeder 4 and relief door, the status information transmission of the equipment such as safe light curtain is to PC evaluation work station 7, and be presented in man-machine interface and carry out Real-Time Monitoring with the working order of all parts to system, the laser power of PLC master control system 8 Real-time Collection, the welding speed of robot, powder feeding rates etc. also can be transferred to PC evaluation work station 7 by Bus Interface Unit and be presented in real time in man-machine interface, these data also can derive carries out analyzing and printing.Program number, the welding speed of the robot 1 that man-machine interface sets, the program of laser apparatus 2, laser technical parameters, powder feeding rate, the in advance parameter such as powder feeding time, preflow time are then connected with PLC master control system 8 by Bus Interface Unit, and these data are transferred to robot 1, laser apparatus 2 and powder feeder 4 etc. by Bus Interface Unit by PLC master control system 8 more respectively.
The part model processing unit at described PC evaluation work station 7 refers to: laser three-dimensional scanning sensor 10 is connected to transmit the three dimensional point cloud scanning workpiece and obtain by Ethernet interface with PC evaluation work station 7, part model processing unit sets up three-dimensional model to sweep test, and cut into slices in the vertical direction, three-dimensional stereo model is converted into two-dimensional model, and when the thickness of every layer of section is laser apparatus cladding, the heap of every layer is high.After section, models treated unit carries out cladding track planning to every layer of section successively, plans the machining path of every layer.
The off-line program and simulation unit at described PC evaluation work station 7 refers to: obtain the machining path of every layer of section at processing unit after, three-dimensional off-line programing unit carries out off-line programing according to machining path, and carry out simulation cladding and reparation, if the processing of robots process simulation result produced meets the demands, then this work program is downloaded in robot 1 and carry out actual cladding.If simulate defective, then models treated unit is needed to re-start section and trajectory planning operation to model.Be illustrated in figure 3 the schematic flow sheet carrying out laser melting coating and reparation based on three-dimensional model.
The present embodiment achieves conveniently, efficient, mobile flexible and high-precision laser melting coating.Can the complex-curved surface cladding in implementation space in conjunction with the hierarchy slicing of three-dimensional model, off-line programming technique based on robot technology, so that cladding and the reparation of three-dimensional stereo model can be realized easily.The adaptive control of laser melting coating pool size and temperature then ensure that the consistence of cladding process, improves quality and the stability of product.All parts of laser melting coating system are all arranged on a moveable platform, scientific research or the rig-site utilization of large-scale component all very convenient, substantially increase system use handiness.Therefore, this cladding system and method is no matter to the adaptivity improving cladding quality, precision or complex large-sized component cladding, or from the angle of economic benefit and social benefit, this system and method all has larger application value.
Above specific embodiments of the invention are described.It is to be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned particular implementation, those skilled in the art can make various distortion or amendment within the scope of the claims, and this does not affect flesh and blood of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. packaged type laser melting coating and a repair system, is characterized in that, comprises moveable platform (12), the robot (1) of 6 degree of freedom, laser apparatus (2), laser Machining head (3) and coaxial powder feeding head (11), powder feeder (4), bath temperature pick up camera (5) and corresponding bath temperature image processing system (6), PC evaluation work station (7), PLC master control system (8), positioner (9), laser three-dimensional scanning sensor (10), supplementary unit (13), described robot (1), laser apparatus (2), laser Machining head (3) and coaxial powder feeding head (11), powder feeder (4), bath temperature pick up camera (5) and corresponding bath temperature image processing system (6), PC evaluation work station (7), PLC master control system (8), positioner (9), laser three-dimensional scanning sensor (10), supplementary unit (13) is all arranged on described moveable platform (12), and the 6th shaft end of robot (1) is provided with laser Machining head (3), laser three-dimensional scanning sensor (10), bath temperature pick up camera (5), laser Machining head (3) lower end is connected with coaxial powder feeding head (11), powder feeder (4) is communicated to coaxial powder feeding head (11), bath temperature image processing system (6) connects bath temperature pick up camera (5), the position of the flow of powder convergence of coaxial powder feeding head (11) is exactly the position of the laser focal of laser apparatus (2), and PLC master control system (8) connects powder feeder (4) by Profibus bus, robot (1), laser apparatus (2), bath temperature image processing system (6), PC evaluation work station (7), robot (1), laser three-dimensional scanning sensor (10) connects PC evaluation work station (7) by Ethernet,
Described PC evaluation work station (7) comprises human and machine interface unit, part model processing unit and off-line program and simulation unit, wherein:
Described human and machine interface unit is connected with PLC master control system (8), PLC master control system (8) is by robot (1), laser apparatus (2), powder feeder (4), the state of bath temperature image processing system (6) and processing parameter data information transfer are to PC evaluation work station (7), and be presented in human and machine interface unit to carry out Real-Time Monitoring to working order, the laser power of PLC master control system (8) Real-time Collection, the welding speed of robot (1), powder feeding rate is also transferred to PC evaluation work station (7) and is presented in real time in human and machine interface unit, the program number of the robot (1) that human and machine interface unit sets and welding speed, and the program of laser apparatus (2), laser technical parameters, powder feeding rate, the powder feeding time in advance, preflow time parameter is transferred to robot (1) respectively by PLC master control system (8), laser apparatus (2) and powder feeder (4),
Described part model processing unit scans cladding workpiece (14) to obtain the three dimensional point cloud of cladding workpiece (14) by laser three-dimensional scanning sensor (10), the sweep test of part model processing unit to cladding workpiece (14) sets up three-dimensional stereo model, and cut into slices in the vertical direction, three-dimensional stereo model is converted into two-dimensional model, when the thickness of every layer of section is laser apparatus (2) cladding, the heap of every layer is high, after section, part model processing unit carries out cladding track planning to every layer of section successively, plan every layer of machining path of cutting into slices,
Described off-line program and simulation unit is used for after part model processing unit obtains the machining path of every layer of section, off-line programing is carried out according to machining path, and carry out simulation cladding and reparation, if the processing of robots process simulation result produced meets the demands, then this work program is downloaded in robot (1) and carry out actual cladding, if simulate defective, then part model processing unit re-starts section and trajectory planning operation to three-dimensional stereo model.
2. packaged type laser melting coating according to claim 1 and repair system, it is characterized in that, described bath temperature image processing system (6), for by controlling bath temperature pick up camera (5) to obtain the crater image in laser cladding process, then being carried out feature extraction to crater image and sending the width in molten bath, area and temperature information to PLC master control system (8); PLC master control system (8) judges that whether the width in molten bath, area and temperature are interval in expected value, if in expected value interval, do not adjusted, on the contrary then by the travelling speed of the power stage and/or robot (1) that adjust laser apparatus (2) in real time to realize the adaptive control of cladding size and temperature.
3. packaged type laser melting coating according to claim 1 and repair system, it is characterized in that, described PLC master control system (8) is connected with PC evaluation work station (7) with the state of transferring robot (1), laser apparatus (2), powder feeder (4), bath temperature image processing system (6) and processing parameter data message, to check the state of packaged type laser melting coating and repair system, Real-time Collection and analysis are carried out to processing parameter, wherein, described processing parameter comprises welding speed, laser power, powder feeding rate.
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