CN103074093A - Integral process and system for directly drying and pyrolyzing lignite - Google Patents

Integral process and system for directly drying and pyrolyzing lignite Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103074093A
CN103074093A CN2013100345727A CN201310034572A CN103074093A CN 103074093 A CN103074093 A CN 103074093A CN 2013100345727 A CN2013100345727 A CN 2013100345727A CN 201310034572 A CN201310034572 A CN 201310034572A CN 103074093 A CN103074093 A CN 103074093A
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gas
temperature
brown coal
pyrolysis
pyrolysis oven
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CN103074093B (en
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朱跃钊
高豪杰
陈海军
廖传华
付烽
杜杨
杨丽
杨谋存
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Nanjing University
Nanjing University of Science and Technology
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Nanjing University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention relates to an integral process and a system for directly drying and pyrolyzing lignite. The process comprises the steps of feeding fuel to a high-temperature catalytic cracking furnace for combustion, taking generated heat as a heat source for raw gas cracking reaction in the high-temperature catalytic cracking furnace, allowing moderate-temperature flue gas exhausted from a flue gas outlet at the upper part of the high-temperature catalytic cracking furnace to enter a heating jacket outside a pyrolyzing furnace, indirectly heating, drying and pyrolyzing a lignite raw material to generate semi-coke, raw gas and water vapor, exhausting tail flue gas, exhausting the raw gas and the unreacted water vapor from the pyrolyzing furnace, allowing the raw gas and the unreacted water vapor to enter the high-temperature catalytic cracking furnace for catalytic cracking and water vapor reforming reaction in the high-temperature catalytic cracking furnace to generate high-temperature pyrolysis gas, allowing part of high-temperature pyrolysis gas to flow back to an internal furnace pipe of the pyrolyzing furnace, and dedusting, washing, filtering and purifying the rest of high-temperature pyrolysis gas. According to the integral process and the system, drying and steam preparation links in the traditional lignite steam gasification application are removed, and the utilization efficiency of the spontaneous steam is improved.

Description

A kind of brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes and system
Technical field
Patent of the present invention relates to brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes and system, be particularly related to technique and system that the low pressure water vapor will produced in the brown coal drying process is applied to follow-up catalytic reforming reaction, belong to low-quality coal clean and effective and utilize technical field.
Technical background
Total reserves of coal in China reach 6,000 hundred million tons, occupy third place in the world, and wherein the brown coal proportion is about 12.7%.Brown coal are the coal of a kind of state between hard coal and peat, because the coal-forming time is short, moisture content higher (generally can reach 30% 60%), volatile matter is high and point of ignition is low, make its poor heat stability, chemically reactive high, thermal value is generally below 4000kcal/kg.High-moisture percentage has reduced the energy density of brown coal, has brought very large difficulty to the conveying of brown coal and efficient the utilization, has greatly limited the exploitation scale of brown coal.
Utilize the characteristics that the brown coal chemically reactive is high, by steam gasification, react and prepare synthetic gas, being used further to afterwards synthetic a series of chemical is important channels of brown coal clean utilization.Traditional brown coal utilize in scheme, and the brown coal of high-moisture percentage must, through the super-dry pre-treatment, as warm air drying, make its humidity be reduced to certain scope before entering vapourizing furnace.This first dry rear scheme of utilizing, not only increased facility investment, and drying process need to consume more energy.In addition, the required steam of steam gasification is that a large amount of low pressure water vapors that dry evaporation produces also are not used by auxiliary steam-generating installation preparation mostly, and brown coal drying gasification reaction process energy repeat consumption phenomenon is serious, capacity usage ratio is low, and processing cost is high.
Hu Guoxin etc. are at Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production from Pyrolysis of Biomass in an Auto-generated Steam Atmosphere(ENERGY; FUELS, 2009, the technique that high concentration hydrogen is produced in humidogene material directed gasification has been proposed, the dry and pyrolysis by the humidogene material of this technique, steam gasification, high-temp in-situ CO in 23:1748-1753) 2separation concentrates in a reactor to be carried out, and what make wet part of dry generation carries out steam gasification from bleed steam, when obtaining the gasification gas that the product hydrogen concentration is higher, simplifies the operation, and reduces energy consumption.Guo Liejin etc. (patent CN 102126704A) carry out the catalytic gasification of biomass in supercritical water, and the vaporization rate of biomass can reach 100%, H in gaseous product 2volumn concentration even can surpass 50%, in reaction, do not have the byproducts such as tar, charcoal to produce, can not cause secondary pollution.But the high humidogene material direct gasification for water content, do not need the drying process of high energy consumption.But these transform modes, mainly for the biomass hydrogen preparation process, can not be produced combustion gas, or prepare synthetic gas and carry out the synthetic of industrial chemicals.Therefore from improving the steam supply pattern, start with, adopt the brown coal high-efficiency cleaning to utilize technique to produce combustion gas or synthetic gas, the low pressure water vapor that the brown coal drying process is produced is applied to follow-up gasification reforming reaction process, with energy efficient, reduce equipment consumption and investment, be of great practical significance and economy preferably.Before this, have no the report of brown coal convection drying thermal decomposition integrated utilization.
 
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes and system, make brown coal carry out pyrolytic gasification in spontaneous steam atmosphere, the drying and the steam that have saved in traditional brown coal steam gasification application prepare link, have improved the utilising efficiency from bleed steam.
To achieve these goals, a technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated system, this system is comprised of pyrolysis oven, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, surge tank, fuel hopper, gas blower, tornado dust collector, water washing tank and activated carbon filtration tank, described pyrolysis oven is comprised of inner furnace and external heat chuck, the inner furnace of pyrolysis oven is provided with top material inlet mouth, air outlet, top, bottom carbon outleting port and bottom inlet mouth, and the heating jacket of pyrolysis oven is provided with bottom gas approach and top exhanst gas outlet, the high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer is provided with top inlet mouth, top exhanst gas outlet, air outlet, bottom and bottom fuel inlet, in the high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, catalyzer is housed, surge tank is provided with top fuel gas inlet, left side gas outlet and right side gas outlet, the air outlet, top of pyrolysis oven inner furnace connects high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer top inlet mouth, the bottom air inlet of pyrolysis oven inner furnace connects air outlet, surge tank left side, the bottom gas approach of pyrolysis oven external heat chuck connects the top exhanst gas outlet of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, the air outlet, bottom of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer connects the top fuel gas inlet of surge tank, the bottom fuel inlet of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer and the discharge port of fuel hopper connect, the right side gas outlet of surge tank connects the top inlet mouth of gas cyclone fly-ash separator, tornado dust collector outlet and water washing tank import connect, with the activated carbon filtration tank, import is connected in the water washing tank outlet.
As a further improvement on the present invention, described pyrolysis oven and high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer are made by high temperature resistant stainless steel, and surface is through heat-resisting processing or liner flame retardant coating.
As a further improvement on the present invention, described high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer is tubular structure, and raw gas enters from its top, and heavily reacted by thermogenesis catalytic pyrolysis and water vapour; High-temperature flue gas is outer and raw gas counter-current flow at pipe, for scission reaction provides heat.
To achieve these goals, another technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, comprise the following steps:
S1. fuel is sent into to high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer internal combustion, the heat of generation is as the thermal source of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer;
S2. the temperature that the top exhanst gas outlet of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer is discharged is 500 ?the middle temperature flue gas of 900 ℃, enter pyrolysis oven external heat chuck by gas approach, to brown coal heating raw materials drying and pyrolysis, produces semicoke, contains raw gas and water vapor, and flue tail gas is emptying after purifying;
S3. raw gas and unreacted water vapor are discharged from pyrolysis oven top gas outlet, through fuel gas inlet, enter the high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, at inner catalytic pyrolysis and the steam reforming reaction of occurring of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, the Pintsch process gas that reaction produces;
S4. the part in Pintsch process gas passes back into the pyrolysis oven inner furnace, and as thermal source, to the brown coal direct heating, remainder is after dedusting, washing and filtration, purification are processed, as outer combustion gas or the synthesis material of supplying.
As a further improvement on the present invention, described fuel employing particle diameter is 0.025mm ?0.25mm biomass, in high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer internal combustion, can produce the high temperature of 1000-1200 ℃ after this fuel and air mixed, for catalytic pyrolysis furnace provides heat.
As a further improvement on the present invention, the drying in described step 2 and pyrolysis comprise first the brown coal thermal dehydration, produce low pressure water vapor, then continue to heat up, and pyrolysis produces coal semicoke and raw gas.
Temperature when as a further improvement on the present invention, the raw gas in described step 2 goes out pyrolysis oven is 300 ?600 ℃.
As a further improvement on the present invention, the temperature of Pintsch process gas when entering pyrolysis oven in described step 4 is 700 ?1000 ℃;
As a further improvement on the present invention, the raw gas in described step 4 is after catalytic pyrolysis and steam reforming reaction, and the Pintsch process gas E temperature of generation is 800-1000 ℃.
This technique is suitable for the multiple type of furnace, comprises three sections stoves, vertical heater etc., not high to the granularity requirements that enters the stove brown coal.
This technique is applicable to water ratio 20% ?60% brown coal or other coal, also be applicable to the raw material of the high-moisture percentages such as domestic refuse, mud.
Beneficial effect:
(1) in this technique, pyrolysis coal gas is not diluted by extraneous gas, and the combustion gas of generation is finally all for outer confession; The low pressure water vapor (50 that pyrolysis produces ?500 Pa) be used to the water vapor catalytic reforming reaction of brown coal and pyrolysis gas, the utilization ratio of steam is higher; System does not have extra water vapor to pass into, Energy Intensity Reduction.
(2) this technique is integrated into a process system by the drying of brown coal and pyrolytic gasification, has saved independent drying process and equipment, and flow process is simple, easy and simple to handle, has reduced facility investment and operation cost.
(3) in this technique in the pyrolytic gasification process of brown coal required energy by biomass, supplied with, because biomass are renewable energy source, therefore the present invention has very large environmental benefit.
The accompanying drawing explanation
The brown coal convection drying that Fig. 1 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes and system flow schematic diagram.
1 pyrolysis oven in figure, 2 high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer, 3 surge tanks, 4 micron fuel hoppers, 5 gas blowers, 6 tornado dust collector, 7 water washing tanks, 8 activated carbon filtration tanks, 11 pyrolysis oven bottom gas approachs, 12 pyrolysis oven top gas outlets, 13 high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer top fuel gas inlet, 14 air outlet, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer bottoms, 15 surge tank top fuel gas inlet, 16 pyrolysis oven bottom fuel gas inlet, 17 cyclonic separator imports, 18 cyclonic separator outlets, 19 water washing tank imports, 20 water washing tank outlets, 21 activated carbon filtration tank imports, A brown coal raw material, B lignite semi-coke, C raw gas, D water vapor, E Pintsch process gas, coal gas after F purifies, G biomass micron fuel, warm flue gas in H, J tail gas.
Embodiment
embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated system, be comprised of pyrolysis oven 1, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2, surge tank 3, micron fuel hopper 4, gas blower 5, tornado dust collector 6, water washing tank 7, activated carbon filtration tank 8 etc.Described pyrolysis oven 1 is comprised of inner furnace and external heat chuck, the inner furnace of pyrolysis oven 1 is provided with top material inlet mouth 13, air outlet, top 12, bottom carbon outleting port and bottom inlet mouth 16, and the heating jacket of pyrolysis oven 1 is provided with bottom gas approach 11 and top exhanst gas outlet, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2 is provided with top inlet mouth 13, top exhanst gas outlet 10, and air outlet, bottom 14He bottom fuel inlet 9, be equipped with catalyzer in high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2, surge tank 3 is provided with top fuel gas inlet 15, left side gas outlet and right side gas outlet, micron fuel hopper 4 is provided with top fed mouth and bottom discharge mouth, the air outlet, top 12 of pyrolysis oven 1 inner furnace connects high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 1 top inlet mouth 13, the bottom air inlet 16 of pyrolysis oven 11 inner furnaces connects surge tank 13 air outlets, left side 15, the bottom gas approach 11 of pyrolysis oven 1 external heat chuck connects the top exhanst gas outlet 10 of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2, the air outlet, bottom of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 12 connects the top fuel gas inlet 15 of surge tank 3, the right side gas outlet of surge tank 13 connects the top inlet mouth 17 of gas cyclone fly-ash separator 16, the lower inlet 19 of tornado dust collector outlet 18 and water washing tank 7 connects, water washing tank outlet 20 and activated carbon filtration tank import 21 connect.
As shown in Figure 1, brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, comprise the following steps:
S1. start gas blower 4, biomass micron fuel G is sprayed into to high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2 internal combustion, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2 is heated to 1100 ℃.
S2. start feed mechanism, brown coal A is sent into to brown coal pyrolysis oven 1 continuously from the top fed mouth, warm flue gas H in high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2 is introduced to pyrolysis oven 1 external heat chuck simultaneously, the brown coal raw material A is heated to pyrolysis.Brown coal are heated to 150 ?300 ℃, the moisture content in brown coal is evaporated gradually and becomes water vapor D, then continues to be warming up to 500 ?600 ℃, and pyrolysis produces semicoke B and raw gas C.
S3. raw gas C and unreacted water vapor enter high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2 ,catalytic pyrolysis and steam reforming reaction occur in section within it, and generate 900 ℃ of Pintsch process gas E.
S4. Pintsch process gas E discharges from the outlet of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2, Pintsch process gas E is introduced to pyrolysis oven 1, the Pintsch process gas E that is equivalent to former tolerance is back to pyrolysis oven, with the heat exchange of brown coal A counter current contact, brown coal are heated to 800 ℃, coal semicoke B discharges from pyrolysis oven 1 bottom, and output acts as a fuel after cooling.The residue splitting gas after tornado dust collector 6, water washing tank 7, activated carbon filtration tank 8 purifying treatment as outer for combustion gas.
embodiment 2
Take Inner Mongol brown coal as example, and its thermal value is 3500kcal/kg, and full moisture content is 34.5%, and volatile content is 35%, and ash content is 11%.Brown coal particle size range after screening is 3mm 20mm, with the speed of 50kg/h, enters continuously pyrolysis oven, in pyrolysis oven 1, is heated and removes moisture content, produces low pressure water vapor D; After dehydration, brown coal A is heated to 800 ℃ gradually, and pyrolysis produces coal semicoke B, and raw gas C(is containing tar) and water vapour D.The middle temperature flue gas H(800 ℃ discharged after micron fuel G burning) pass into to pyrolysis oven 1, to brown coal, A is heated;
Raw gas C and water vapor D enter high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer 2, at 1100 ℃, catalytic pyrolysis and steam reforming reaction occur.900 ℃ of the high anneal crack gas E(temperature produced) part passes back into 1 pair of brown coal A heating pyrolysis of pyrolysis oven, the residue combustion gas through cyclone dust removal 6, wash 7, activated carbon filtration 8 is delivered to user after processing.
Through sampling analysis, after condensation, the composition of coal gas E is: hydrogen 45.6%, methane 9.2%, carbon monoxide 25.6%, carbonic acid gas 19.6%.
All the other processing sequencees of this example are with real.

Claims (9)

1. a brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated system, it is characterized in that, this system is comprised of pyrolysis oven (1), high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2), surge tank (3), fuel hopper (4), gas blower (5), tornado dust collector (6), water washing tank (7) and activated carbon filtration tank (8), described pyrolysis oven (1) is comprised of inner furnace and external heat chuck, the inner furnace of pyrolysis oven (1) is provided with top material inlet mouth, air outlet, top (12), bottom carbon outleting port and bottom inlet mouth (16), and the heating jacket of pyrolysis oven (1) is provided with bottom gas approach (11) and top exhanst gas outlet, high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) is provided with top inlet mouth (13), top exhanst gas outlet (10), air outlet, bottom (14) and bottom fuel inlet (9), and the high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer is equipped with catalyzer in (2), surge tank (3) is provided with top fuel gas inlet (15), left side gas outlet and right side gas outlet, the air outlet, top (12) of pyrolysis oven (1) inner furnace connects high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (1) top inlet mouth (13), the bottom air inlet (16) of pyrolysis oven (11) inner furnace connects air outlet (15), surge tank (13) left side, the bottom gas approach (11) of pyrolysis oven (1) external heat chuck connects the top exhanst gas outlet (10) of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2), the air outlet, bottom of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (12) connects the top fuel gas inlet (15) of surge tank (3), the right side gas outlet of surge tank (13) connects the top inlet mouth (17) of gas cyclone fly-ash separator (16), the lower inlet (19) of tornado dust collector outlets (18) and water washing tank (7) is connected, water washing tank outlet (20) is connected with activated carbon filtration tank import (21).
2. brown coal convection drying according to claim 1 and thermal decomposition integrated system, is characterized in that, described pyrolysis oven (1) and high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) are made by high temperature resistant stainless steel, and surface is through heat-resisting processing or liner flame retardant coating.
3. brown coal convection drying according to claim 1 and thermal decomposition integrated system, it is characterized in that, described high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) is tubular structure, and raw gas (C) and water vapour (D) enter from its top, and is heated in tube side and catalytic pyrolysis occurs and water vapor heavily reacts; High-temperature flue gas is outer and raw gas counter-current flow at pipe, for whole reaction provides heat.
4. a brown coal convection drying and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, is characterized in that, this technique comprises the following steps:
S1.. fuel is sent into to high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) internal combustion, and the heat of generation is as the thermal source of catalytic pyrolysis in high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) stove;
S2. the temperature that the top exhanst gas outlet (10) of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) is discharged is 500 ?the middle temperature flue gas (H) of 900 ℃, enter pyrolysis oven (1) external heat chuck by gas approach (11), to brown coal raw material (A) heat drying and pyrolysis, produce semicoke (B), contain raw gas (C) and water vapor (D), flue tail gas J is emptying after purifying;
S3. raw gas (C) is discharged from pyrolysis oven top gas outlet (12) with unreacted water vapor (D), enter high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2) through fuel gas inlet (13), at inner catalytic pyrolysis and the steam reforming reaction of occurring of high-temperature catalytic pyrolyzer (2), produce Pintsch process gas (E);
S4. the part in Pintsch process gas (E) passes back into pyrolysis oven (2) inner furnace, and as thermal source, to the brown coal direct heating, remainder is after the purifying treatment such as cyclone dust removal, washing and filtration, as outer combustion gas or the synthesis material of supplying.
5. brown coal convection drying according to claim 4, thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, is characterized in that, it is 0.025mm that described fuel adopts particle diameter ?0.25mm biomass.
6. brown coal convection drying according to claim 4 and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, it is characterized in that, the drying in described step 2 and pyrolysis comprise first the brown coal thermal dehydration, produce low pressure water vapor, then continue to heat up, pyrolysis produces coal semicoke (B), raw gas (C) and water vapour (D).
7. brown coal convection drying according to claim 4 and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, is characterized in that, the raw gas in described step 2 (C) and the temperature of water vapor (D) while going out pyrolysis oven are 300 ?600 ℃.
8. brown coal convection drying according to claim 4 and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, is characterized in that, the temperature of Pintsch process gas E when entering pyrolysis oven in described step 4 is 700 ?1000 ℃.
9. brown coal convection drying according to claim 4 and thermal decomposition integrated metallization processes, is characterized in that, the raw gas in described step 4 (C) is after catalytic pyrolysis and steam reforming reaction, and Pintsch process gas (E) temperature of generation is 800-1000 ℃.
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CN104046371A (en) * 2013-12-26 2014-09-17 聂红军 Technology for retorting brown coal by using fixed bed brown coal drier, and system thereof
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CN111100711A (en) * 2019-12-27 2020-05-05 长沙万利节能科技有限公司 Biomass thermal cracking gasification method
CN111607407A (en) * 2020-06-15 2020-09-01 云南中翼鼎东投资集团生物科技开发有限公司 Lignite mineral source soil conditioner and preparation method thereof

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