CN103067285A - Energy-saving and reliable multicast method based on relay clique in mobile ad-hoc network and sensor network - Google Patents

Energy-saving and reliable multicast method based on relay clique in mobile ad-hoc network and sensor network Download PDF

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CN103067285A
CN103067285A CN 201210570119 CN201210570119A CN103067285A CN 103067285 A CN103067285 A CN 103067285A CN 201210570119 CN201210570119 CN 201210570119 CN 201210570119 A CN201210570119 A CN 201210570119A CN 103067285 A CN103067285 A CN 103067285A
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network
nodes
rechargeable
multicast
clique
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CN 201210570119
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赵壮
贺静
梅武钢
尹崇禄
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北京银易通网络科技有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D70/00Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks
    • Y02D70/20Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks independent of Radio Access Technologies

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of protocols of a mobile ad-hoc network and a sensor network, and particularly relates to a multicast method based on a relay clique in the mobile ad-hoc network and the sensor network. In the mobile ad-hoc network and the sensor network which are composed of rechargeable nodes and non-rechargeable nodes, a communicating subnet can be composed of a plurality of rechargeable nodes, and the communicating subnet is also called as the relay clique. The method structures a multicast structure and reduces multicast cost by choosing a proper relay clique as a central area. In the process of construction of the multicast structure, when the non-rechargeable nodes are required to be served as internal nodes inside the multicast structure, nodes which are few in number and high in residual energy are chosen, and meanwhile, a link loss rate of an associated link of the non-rechargeable nodes is considered, service lives of the non-rechargeable nodes are prolonged, and accordingly the purpose of prolonging network lifetime is achieved.

Description

无线自组织与传感网中的基于中继团的节能可靠组播方法 Saving reliable multicast relay group based Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于无线自组织与传感器网络协议技术领域,具体涉及一种无线自组织与传感器网络中的基于中继团的组播方法。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the technical field of wireless ad hoc sensor network protocols, particularly relates to a method for relaying multicast group is based on a wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 近些年来,无线多跳网络(无线传感器网络、移动Ad hoc网络、无线mesh网络等)领域的相关技术得到了学术界和工业界的广泛关注,并取得了迅猛的发展。 [0002] In recent years, multi-hop wireless networks (wireless sensor networks, mobile Ad hoc networks, wireless mesh networks, etc.) in the relevant art has been widespread concern academia and industry, and achieved rapid development.

[0003] 在这一领域的诸多研究方向中,尽可能的延长无线传感器网络的工作寿命成为无线传感器网络设计中的关键问题之一。 [0003] in a lot of research in this area, as far as possible to extend the working life of wireless sensor networks has become one of the key issues in wireless sensor network design. 由于受到成本和体积等因素的限制,大多数普通无线传感器网络节点的电池容量都十分有限且无法得到补充。 Due to cost and size and other factors, the most common battery capacity of the wireless sensor network nodes is very limited and can not be replenished. 为提高无线传感器网络的寿命,通过在网络中布设一部分可充电节点(如具备太阳能电池的网络节点),并设计能量高效型网络协议以利用这些节点分担较多的通信任务,在许多应用环境中收到了良好的效果,成为一种被人们普遍接受的提高网络寿命的解决方案。 To improve the life of the wireless sensor network, routed through a portion of the storage node (e.g., a solar cell includes a network node) in the network, and energy-efficient design of network protocol to take advantage of these nodes share more communication tasks, in many application environments received good effect, it becomes a solution that is widely accepted to improve the network lifetime.

[0004] 构造基于中心的组播树(core-based tree)是实现高效无线自组织与传感网组播、延长网络寿命的一种重要方法。 [0004] Based on the multicast tree structure center (core-based tree) is an efficient and self-organizing wireless sensor network multicast, an important method to extend the life of the network. 传统基于中心的组播树构造方案中,中心通常指某一个节点。 Multicast tree based on the center of a conventional configuration program, the central node generally refers to one. 这样,这个节点很可能成为网络的瓶颈。 In this way, the node is likely to become the bottleneck of the network. 本发明中选择由可充电节点组成的连通的网络子图(称中继团)来担任中心支撑结构,当多个潜在的中继团存在时,选择其中最优的,在此基础上,构造性能优化的组播结构,从而优化组播性能、延长网络寿命。 In the present invention the communication network selected by a rechargeable subgraph nodes (called relay group) to serve as the central support structure, when a plurality of potential relay group, where the optimal choice, on this basis, structure performance optimization multicast structure to optimize the multicast performance, prolong the life of the network.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明涉及一种以中继团为中心的组播结构构造方法。 [0005] The present invention relates to a method of multicast structure is configured to relay group as a center. 该方法主要用于由可二次充电节点和不可二次充电节点组成的无线自组织与传感网,多个可二次充电节点可以组成连通子网,也称中继团。 This method is mainly used in wireless ad-hoc network of sensor nodes by a rechargeable and non-rechargeable nodes, a plurality of rechargeable node comprises communication subnet, also known as a relay group. 该方法通过选择恰当的中继团作为中心区,构建组播结构,并降低组播代价。 The method by selecting the appropriate group as the relay center, to build multicast structure and reduce the cost of multicast. 构造组播结构的过程中,尽量选择可二次充电节点,当必须选择不可二次充电节点时,尽量选择数量少、剩余能量尽量高的不可二次充电节点加入该结构中,同时考虑不可二次充电节点关联链路的丢失特性,以延长不可二次充电节点寿命,从而达到延长网络生命期的目的。 Process of constructing a multicast structure, may try to select the secondary storage node, when the node to be selected is not rechargeable, try to select a small number of remaining energy is not as high as the secondary storage node is added to the structure, not taking into account the two loss characteristics associated with the secondary charging node links, to extend the life of non-rechargeable node, so as to achieve the purpose of extending the network lifetime.

[0006] 一种无线自组织与传感网中的基于中继团的组播方法,其特征在于:在无线传感网中,针对可二次充电节点和不可二次充电节点不同的能量情况,首先构造由可二次充电节点组成的连通子图作为备选中继团,然后构造基于各个备选中继团的最短路径树,并从中选择代价最优的组播结构,如果不存在这样的结构,则选择由不可二次充电节点组成的组播结构。 [0006] A wireless ad-hoc sensor networks and method for relaying multicast group based, characterized in that: in the wireless sensor network, for the secondary storage node and may be non-rechargeable nodes where different energy , first constructed by a rechargeable communication sub-nodes of FIG Alternatively the relay group, and configured based on a shortest path tree various alternative relay group, and select the multicast cost of the optimal configuration, if there is no structure, the structure is selected from a non-rechargeable multicast nodes.

[0007] 令G(V,E)代表网络图,其中V(G)代表节点的集合、E(G)代表网络中边的集合;图中两个节点χ e V(G)和ye V(G)-{x}之间的距离记做dxy,如果满足dxy ( R,则称边(χ, y) e E(G)代表集合的减法运算,每个节点配备一套全向天线,R代表节点的最大传输半径;对一个节点χ, N (χ)代表节点χ的一跳邻居节点集合,其中χ e V(G),对于y eN(x),有(x,y) e E(G);网络中的节点包含可二次充电节点和不可二次充电节点,可二次充电节点可以通过太阳能、机械方式等手段从自然界获取能量并转化为电量,可二次充电节点集合记做A,不可二次充电节点由电池供电,该节点集合记做B,A+B=V(G),ΑηΒ=0,其中“+”代表集合的加法运算或称合并运算;对于一个节点ue B, Eu代表其剩余能量,对于V e N(U),I (U,V)代表链路(U,V)的分组丢失率,则链路代价c (U,V) =1/EUX (I/(1-1 (u,v)));对于ue A,则其 [0007] Order G (V, E) represent the network diagram, wherein the set V (G) representative node, the representative set E (G) in the network side; FIG two nodes χ e V (G) and ye V ( G) - the distance between the DXY denoted {x}, if satisfied dxy (R, called side (χ, y) subtraction e E (G) that represents a collection of nodes each equipped with a set omnidirectional antenna, R the maximum transmission radius primary node; to a node χ, N (χ) [chi]-hop neighbor node represents a set of nodes, where χ e V (G), for y eN (x), there are (x, y) e E ( G); network node comprising a node of rechargeable and non-rechargeable nodes, the nodes may be rechargeable by means of natural energy from solar energy, into mechanical power and the like, can be set denoted rechargeable node a, non-rechargeable battery-powered nodes, the set of nodes denoted B, a + B = V (G), ΑηΒ = 0, where the addition operation "+" represents a set of known or merge operation; for a node ue B , Eu behalf of its residual energy for the V e N (U), I (U, V) representative of a link (U, V) of the packet loss rate, then the link cost c (U, V) = 1 / EUX (I / (1-1 (u, v))); for ue A, it 每一条出行链路的代价都设为O,这样设置的目的是使得后续步骤中路径选择时尽量优化不可二次充电节点组成路段的代价。 The cost of each link are set to travel O, purpose of this arrangement is that the subsequent steps can not try to optimize routing node rechargeable consisting link cost.

[0008] 本方法执行过程要求具有全网拓扑信息、各个节点的类别信息、网络中各条边的链路代价、各个节点的能量剩余状态信息。 [0008] The present method performs the process requires a whole network topology information, class information of each node, the link cost of the respective sides of the network, the node remaining energy of each state information.

[0009] 本方法的目标是:对于给定组播成员组D,D彡2,建立低代价高能效组播结构,覆盖D中所有成员,|d|代表集合D中元素的数量。 [0009] The objective of this method is that: for a given multicast group members D, D San ​​2, establish a low cost of energy-efficient multicast structure, covering all members D, | D | D represents the number of elements in a set.

[0010] 所述的备选中继团构造方法具体如下: [0010] Alternatively, the relay group constructor as follows:

[0011] I)令Gi,i=l,2,3,…代表第i个备选中继团;令C=A; [0011] I) Order Gi, i = l, 2,3, ... representative of the i-th relay group Alternative; Order C = A;

[0012] 2)设i=l,任选节点χ e C,基于广度优先算法求解从χ到网络图G中其他各节点的距离,然后将所有从X的距离为O的节点,包括X自己,加入到集合Gi中,然后执行C=C-Gi ;如果C仍不为空,则i=i+l,重复执行步骤2),直到C为空;当C为空的时候i的值就是备选中继团的数量M。 [0012] 2) Let i = l, optionally node χ e C, breadth-first algorithm based on the distance from the graph G [chi] to other network nodes, and then all of the distance X is O nodes, including its own X , Gi is added to the collection, and then performs C = C-Gi; if C is still empty, then i = i + l, repeat steps 2) until C is empty; C when the value i is empty is Alternatively, the number of relay groups M.

[0013] 所述的组播方法,其中基于中继团的组播结构构造方法具体如下: [0013] The multicast method, wherein the method is configured multicast groups based on relay configuration as follows:

[0014] I)对于每一个备选中继团Gi,i=l,2,3,···,M,执行下述操作:从Gi中任意选择一个节点X作为信源,求解网络图G中以节点X为根的最短路径树,并从树上剪去所有没有到达D中任何成员的树枝,从而求得一棵覆盖组播组D的最短路径树SPTi ;如果不存在上述能够覆盖组播组D的所有成员的最短路径树SPTi,则Gi作为中继团的代价为无穷,即无法覆盖所有组播成员,否则,所得到的最短路径树SPTi的链路代价就是备选中继团Gi的代价; [0014] I) for each of the alternative relay group Gi, i = l, 2,3, ···, M, performs the following operations: selecting a node from any Gi X as the source, the network graph G solved X is a node to the root of the shortest path tree, and all the cut does not reach any member D from the tree branches, so that the shortest path tree obtained SPTi a multicast group D of the cover; and the covering can be set if there is no SPT SPTi all members of the multicast group D, the relay group Gi as the price is infinite, it can not cover all the multicast members, otherwise, the resulting shortest path tree is the alternative link cost SPTi relay group Gi price;

[0015] 2)如果每个备选中继团Gi的代价均为无穷,则网络中不存在基于中继团的组播结构;否则在I ( i SM之内,中继团代价最小的一个,就是所求中继团,该团所对应的组播结构T就是所求组播结构;构造T有两种方法:(I)T=SPTi ; (2) V(T) =V(SPTi)+V(Gi),E(T) =E (SPTi)+E (Gi); [0015] 2) If each of the candidate relay group Gi are infinite cost, the structure does not relay the multicast group based on the presence of the network; otherwise within the I (i SM, the minimum cost of a relay group , is the desired relay group, the group corresponding to the multicast configuration is the T structure multicast request; T is configured in two ways: (I) T = SPTi; (2) V (T) = V (SPTi) + V (Gi), E (T) = E (SPTi) + E (Gi);

[0016] 3)如果网络中不存在基于任何中继团的组播结构,则对于所有节点χ e B,求解以节点X为根的最短路径树,如果存在能够覆盖D中所有成员的最短路径树,则从中选择代价最小的一个,作为组播结构。 [0016] 3) If there is not based on any network structure of a relay multicast group, then all nodes χ e B, X solved to the root node of the shortest path tree, if there is a shortest path to cover all the members of the D tree, select the smallest cost as a multicast structure.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0017] 中继团构造方法: [0017] The relay group constructor:

[0018]目标:构造集合A中节点的连通子图,如果集合A中节点是不连通的,则构造多个离散的连通子图;每个这样的连通子图称作一个备选中继团。 [0018] Goal: constructing a set of communication nodes A subgraph of nodes if the set A is not connected, the configuration of a plurality of discrete communication subgraph; FIG each such communication sub-group is referred to an alternative relay .

[0019] 实施方法: [0019] The procedure:

[0020] I)令Gi, i=l, 2,3,…代表第i个备选中继团;令C=A; [0020] I) Order Gi, i = l, 2,3, ... representative of the i-th relay group Alternative; Order C = A;

[0021] 2)设i=l,任选χ e C,基于广度优先算法求解从χ到G中其他各点的距离,然后将所有从X的距离为O的那些节点,包括X自己,加入到集合Gi中,然后执行C=C-Gi;如果C仍不为空,则i=i+l,重复执行步骤2),直到C为空;当C为空的时候i的值就是备选中继团的数量,记做M。 [0021] 2) Let i = l, optionally χ e C, breadth-first algorithm based on a distance from each other [chi] to point G, then all of those nodes from the distance X is O, X including himself, was added Gi to the collection, and then performs C = C-Gi; if C is still empty, then i = i + l, repeat steps 2) until C is empty; C when the value i is empty alternative is the number of relay groups, denoted M.

[0022] 基于中继团的组播结构构造方法: [0022] The method for relaying multicast group structure is configured based on:

[0023] I)对于每一个备选中继团Gi,i=l, 2,3,…,M,执行下述操作:从Gi中任意选择一个节点X作为信源,求解图G中以χ为根的最短路径树(Minimal cost path based tree),并从树上剪去所有没有到达D中任何成员的树枝,从而求得一棵覆盖组播组D的最短路径树,记做SPTi ;如果存在任何属于D中的成员,该成员不属于SPTi,则Gi作为中继团的代价为无穷,即:无法覆盖所有组播成员,否则,所得到的最短路径树SPTi的代价就是备选中继团Gi的代价;其中最短路径上可能包含由其它备选中继团上的可二次充电节点组成的子路段(subpath); [0023] I) for each of the alternative relay group Gi, i = l, 2,3, ..., M, performs the following operations: selecting a node from any source as Gi X, G solved to FIG χ the shortest path tree root (Minimal cost path based tree), cut from the tree and does not reach all the branches of any member D, so that the shortest path tree to obtain a cover of a multicast group D, denoted SPTI; if in the presence of any member belonging to D, which are not members of SPTI, as the cost of the relay group Gi is infinite, namely: not cover all multicast members, otherwise, the resulting cost of the shortest path tree is an alternative relay SPTI group Gi cost; which may include sub-sections (SubPath) by a rechargeable other alternative relay node on the shortest path group consisting;

[0024] 2)如果对于所有I ( i SM来说,都有Gi作为备选中继团的代价为无穷,则网络中不存在基于中继团的组播结构;否则在I ( i < M之内,中继团代价最小的一个,就是所求中继团,该团所对应的组播结构,记做T,就是所求组播结构;构造T有两种方法:(I)T=SPTi ; (2) V(T) =V(SPTi) +V(Gi),E (T) =E (SPTi) +E (Gi); [0024] 2) if for all I (i SM, it has an alternative relay group Gi as the cost is infinite, the multicast group based on the configuration of the relay network is not present; otherwise I (i <M within, the minimum cost of a relay group, the relay is the desired group, the corresponding multicast regiment structure, denoted T, is the structure of the multicast request; T is configured in two ways: (I) T = SPTi; (2) V (T) = V (SPTi) + V (Gi), E (T) = E (SPTi) + E (Gi);

[0025] 3)如果网络中不存在基于任何中继团的组播结构的话,那么对于所有χ e B,求解以X为根的最短路径树,如果存在能够覆盖D中所有成员的最短路径树,则从中选择代价最小的一个作为组播结构;否则任务失败返回。 [0025] 3) If there is no network-based multicast groups relay any structure, then for all χ e B, X solved to the root of the shortest path tree, if D is present to cover the shortest path tree to all members of the , then choose the least costly as a multicast structure; otherwise the mission failed to return.

Claims (3)

  1. 1. 一种无线自组织与传感网中的基于中继团的组播方法,其特征在于:在无线传感网中,针对可二次充电节点和不可二次充电节点不同的能量情况,首先构造由可二次充电节点组成的连通子图作为备选中继团,然后构造基于各个备选中继团的最短路径树,并从中选择代价最优的组播结构,如果不存在这样的结构,则依据不可二次充电节点关联链路的丢失特性选择由不可二次充电节点组成的组播结构。 A wireless ad-hoc sensor networks and method for relaying multicast group based, characterized in that: in the wireless sensor network, for the secondary storage node and may be non-rechargeable energy nodes in different circumstances, first constructed by a connected subgraph of nodes rechargeable Alternatively the relay group, and configured based on a shortest path tree various alternative relay group, and select the multicast cost of the optimal configuration, if there is no such structure, the structure is selected from a non-multicast nodes according to rechargeable non-rechargeable loss characteristics associated with the link node.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的组播方法,其特征在于,备选中继团构造方法具体如下: 1)令Gi,i=l, 2,3,…代表第i个备选中继团;令C=A; 2)设i=l,任选节点X e C,基于广度优先算法求解从X到网络图G中其他各节点的距离,然后将包括X自身在内的所有与X的距离为O的节点加入到集合Gi中,然后执行C=C-Gi ;如果C仍不为空,则i=i+l,重复执行步骤2),直到C为空;当(:为空的时候i的值就是备选中继团的数量M ; 其中,令G(V,E)代表网络图,V(G)代表节点的集合、E(G)代表网络中边的集合;网络图中两个节点X e V(G)和ye V(G)-{x}之间的距离dxy小于等于节点的最大传输半径,则称边(x,y) e E(G);对于网络中的一个节点χ,Ν(χ)代表节点χ的一跳邻居节点集合,其中X e V(G),对于ye N(x),有(x,y) e E(G);网络中可二次充电节点集合记做A,不可二次充电节点集合记做B,A+B=V(G),ΑηΒ=0 ;对 2. The multicast method according to claim 1, wherein the relay group configured alternative methods as follows: 1) Let Gi, i = l, 2,3, ... representative of the i-th relay group alternative ; so that C = a; 2) set i = l, optionally node X e C, all breadth-first algorithm distance X from X to each of other network nodes in G, and X including itself based, including O distance is added to the set of nodes Gi, and then performs C = C-Gi; if C is still empty, then i = i + l, repeat steps 2) until C is empty; if (: empty when the value M i is the number of alternative relay group; wherein G set so that (V, E) represent the network of FIG, V (G) representative node, the network side of the set E (G) representative; network map two nodes X e V (G) and ye V (G) - the distance between {x} dxy less than the radius equal to the maximum transmission nodes, called edges (x, y) e E (G); for the network a node χ, Ν (χ) [chi]-hop neighbor node represents a set of nodes, wherein X e V (G), for ye N (x), there are (x, y) e E (G); the secondary network can charging node set denoted A, non-rechargeable set node denoted B, A + B = V (G), ΑηΒ = 0; for 于一个节点ue B,Eu代表其剩余能量,对于V e N(u), I (U,V)代表链路(U,V)的分组丢失率,则链路代价c (u, v)=l/EuX (1/(1-l(u, v)));对于ue A,则其每一条出行链路的代价都设为O。 In a Node ue B, Eu behalf of its residual energy for the V e N (u), I (U, V) representative of a link (U, V) of the packet loss rate, then the link cost c (u, v) = l / EuX (1 / (1-l (u, v))); for ue a, the travel expense of each link are set to O.
  3. 3.根据权利要求2所述的组播方法,其特征在于,其中基于中继团的组播结构构造方法具体如下: 1)对于每一个备选中继团Gi,ί=1,2,3,···,Μ,执行下述操作:从Gi中任意选择一个节点χ作为信源,求解网络图G中以节点χ为根的最短路径树,并从树上剪去所有没有到达组播成员组D中任何成员的树枝,从而求得一棵覆盖组播成员组D的最短路径树SPTi ;如果不存在上述能够覆盖D的所有成员的最短路径树SPTi,则Gi作为中继团的代价为无穷,即无法覆盖所有组播成员,否则,所得到的最短路径树SPTi的链路代价就是备选中继团Gi的代价; 2)如果每个备选中继团Gi的代价均为无穷,则网络中不存在基于中继团的组播结构;否则在I ( i SM之内,代价最小的中继团就是所求中继团,该团所对应的组播结构T就是所求组播结构;构造T有两种方法:(I) T=SPTi ; (2) V(T) =V( The multicast method according to claim 2, wherein the multicast group is configured based on the configuration of the relay method as follows: 1) For each alternative relay group Gi, ί = 1,2,3 , ···, Μ, perform the following operations: selecting a node χ Gi as from any source, the network graph G solved shortest path tree rooted at the node χ, and cut from the multicast tree does not reach all any member of the group members D branches to obtain a shortest path tree cover SPTi multicast member of group D; D if the above can cover all of the members of the shortest path tree SPTi does not exist, as the cost of the relay group Gi is infinite, it can not cover all the multicast members, otherwise, the resulting shortest path tree SPTi link cost is the cost of an alternative relay group Gi; 2) if each candidate relay group Gi price are infinite , the network structure does not exist in a relay-based multicast group; otherwise within the I (i SM, the least costly of the relay group is relayed group request, the group corresponding to the multicast group structure T is the desired sowing structure; T is configured in two ways: (I) T = SPTi; (2) V (T) = V ( SPTi) +V(Gi),E(T) =E (SPTi)+E (Gi); 3)如果网络中不存在基于任何中继团的组播结构,则对于所有节点χ e B,求解以节点χ为根的最短路径树,如果存在能够覆盖D中所有成员的最短路径树,则从中选择代价最小的一个,作为组播结构。 SPTi) + V (Gi), E (T) = E (SPTi) + E (Gi); 3) if the network does not exist in the structure of the relay based on any multicast group, then all nodes χ e B, to solve χ is the root node of the shortest path tree, if the shortest path tree to cover all members D exists, select a minimum of expense, as a multicast structure.
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