CN103061767A - Downward horizontal-slice dry-type filling mining method - Google Patents

Downward horizontal-slice dry-type filling mining method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103061767A
CN103061767A CN2013100167626A CN201310016762A CN103061767A CN 103061767 A CN103061767 A CN 103061767A CN 2013100167626 A CN2013100167626 A CN 2013100167626A CN 201310016762 A CN201310016762 A CN 201310016762A CN 103061767 A CN103061767 A CN 103061767A
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Prior art keywords
filling
mining
filler
layer
stoping
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CN2013100167626A
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CN103061767B (en
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刘甫先
萧光文
兰绍禹
包文东
赵礼清
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YUNNAN LINCANG XINYUAN GERMANIUM CO Ltd
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YUNNAN LINCANG XINYUAN GERMANIUM CO Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a mining method. The stoping sequence of the mining method is that layers are turned from top to bottom; each stoping layer is 2-2.2m; the bottoms of the stoping layers are filled with materials; mining and filling are performed simultaneously in the stoping process; the filling layer is taken as the roof of the next stoping layer; a working face is advanced from the roof to the floor; in the process of production, the maximal roof control distance of the stoping working face is 3.2m and the minimal roof control distance is 2.2m; one or two reinforced concrete water-resisting layers are arranged on each stoping layer; the water-resisting layers tilt to one side and drain water to a water sump at the next layer and water is drained out of a mine by a drainage system of the mine. By adopting the method, the traditional mining technology is changed. The downward horizontal-slice dry-type filling mining method has the advantages of improvement of stoping efficiency, simultaneousness in mining and filling, full utilization of wastes which are generated in the process of mining and smelting, lessened pollution of discharged pollutants to the environment, reduction of land occupation and basic eradication of roof fall accidents.

Description

Lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of mining methods, especially a kind of back production efficient is high, can effectively prevent Study on Protection of Spontaneous Combustion, avoids simultaneously the lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method of surface subsidence situation generation.
Background technology
Mining with stowing artificial supporting mining codes owned by France.In mineral building or nugget, along with the propelling of stope, send into filler to the goaf, carrying out underground pressure management, control country rock avalanche and surface movement, and carrying out back production on the obturation that forms or under its protection.This law is applicable to exploit the ore body of weak-walled high-grade, rare, precious ore, and the earth's surface does not allow to subside, mining conditions is complicated, such as the ore body below water body, trunk railway, the key construction and ore body etc. that freely burning fire danger is arranged; The effective measures that press on control ground when also being deep mining.The advantage of filling method is strong adaptability, and ore recovery rate is high, and the rate of dilution is low, and operation is safer, can utilize industrial waste, protection earth's surface etc.; Shortcoming is complex process, and cost is high, and labor productivity and nugget production capacity are all lower.
Different with mode of movement according to used filler, the method for mining by the way of filling can be divided into three kinds: 1, dry filling method: filler is that rubble, the opencut of special-purpose strip pit extraction peeled off or the barren rock of sub-terrain mines digging etc.Through fragmentation, be delivered to stope with mechanical, artificial or wind-force.2, hydraulic fill method: filler is sand, rubble, selects factory's tailings or slag etc., borrows waterpower to be delivered to stope with pipeline.3, cemented-method: filler is the cementing material of pulpous state of the preparations such as the cementitious material such as cement and sandstone, slag or tailings, and some strength is arranged after solidifying, and borrows waterpower or machinery to be delivered to stope with pipeline.
Dry filling method is used the earliest, and its production efficiency is low, and labour intensity is large, and mining cost is high, to the 1950's, is replaced by other high efficiency mining methods gradually.Because mining depth increases, environmental protection requirement is strict, is badly in need of reducing again loss and the dilution of rare high price ore, and each state has all strengthened the research to the filling new technology.Hydraulic fill 50~sixties and cementing fill technology put into production, have overcome a series of shortcomings of dry stowing, and the application percentage of the method for mining by the way of filling is increased year by year.20 century 70s extensively adopt voluntarily trackless equipment and ramp development layout, with bench work face length stope or comprise the Panel stoping of several nuggets.Using aspect the process for stoping to the high stratification ore caving, anchor pole and metal mesh supporting top board, the new technologies such as low price high strength cemented filling material are further improved the method for mining by the way of filling.Waterpower and cemented-method remain in complex process, diafiltration waste water and thin sludge-polluted subsurface environment, the problem such as filling cost is higher, the further Improvement of still needing.
At present, the method for mining by the way of filling is mainly used overhand cut and fill stoping, and overhand cut and fill stoping is that mineral building or nugget flatly or are obliquely divided layering, from bottom to top successively back production on vertical height.Whenever adopt a layering, carried out immediately filling.And ore chute and pedestrain raise are constructed in direct route in obturation.In nugget, arrange fill pass, be used for transferring casting resin; Sometimes doubling as the fortune equipment of carrying, material, ventilation and pedestrian uses.Exploitation process is rock drilling, ore caving, ore removal, sets up pedestrain raise and mine chute, builds partition wall, filling and the cementing base plate of bedding etc.The larger cementing base plate of the equal bedding intensity in each slicing and filling material top during hydraulic fill, the dilution of ore and loss and raising ore removal efficient during with the minimizing ore removal.Build partition wall near ore pillar, loose fill and ore pillar are separated, for next step stooping pillaring is created good condition.This method is used for the firm and weak-walled ore body of exploitated ore.Ore and country rock be all built on the sand the time, available low dip drift stoping, and the inclination angle is about 7-10 ° can be flow automatically hydraulic fill or cemented filling material to connect the top.During the ore moderately stable, also available bolt anchorage top board ore.
Overhand cut and fill stoping exists and connects that the top is bad, the stope top board easily is caving after the filling, and the pit coal after being caving is fallen in the filling space, cause the pit coal loss simultaneously easily the oxidation heating cause spontaneous combustion; Simultaneously because to connect the top not tight, above goaf has the surface subsidence of small size to occur also the time.
Summary of the invention
What the present invention will solve is exactly existing overhand cut and fill stoping, stope top board melt is caving, the problem that above goaf has also the time surface subsidence of small size to occur provides a kind of and can effectively prevent the pit wood spontaneous combustion, and that avoids simultaneously that the surface subsidence situation occurs is lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method.
Of the present invention lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that the stopping sequence of these mining codes is for turning over from the top down layer, each back production layer is 2-2.2m, filling is carried out with material in back production layer bottom, in the exploitation process with adopting with filling, this filling bed is as the top board of next back production layer, and advance of the face direction is advanced to base plate by top board; Stope keeps 3.2 meters of maximums distance of face control in the manufacturing process, 2.2 meters of the minimum distance of face roof under controls arrange one to two-layer steel concrete water barrier at each back production layer, and water barrier is to lopsidedness, in next layering water is discharged to sump, outside Mine Drainage System is discharged well.
Described filling bed comprises filler, gauze wire cloth and support wooden frame, supports wooden frame and is preset on the back production layer base plate, and gauze wire cloth is laid on and supports on the wooden frame, and filler is placed on the gauze wire cloth after packing with Polywoven Bag.
The filler that uses in the described filling bed is the spoil that produces in the work progress and melting waste slag, and behind adding yellow mud or cement and the spontaneous fire retardant, stirring obtains.
Also add grout material in the described filling bed, this slurry mixes with filler and water and forms, after per 100 weight portion slurries select 60 weight portion fillers and 40 weight parts waters to mix, stir and make, just the annotate slurry of 30mm of the filler that every filling 300mm is high, slurry flows in the gap of packed filler naturally, improves steadiness and the sealing of the filler after packing.
The equidistant individual prop that arranges in the described back production layer, the distance between adjacent each individual prop is 800mm.
Of the present invention lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method, change traditional mining technology, adopt the lower method of mining by the way of filling to layering, back production efficient improves, and the rate of extraction reaches more than 93% from 85%, and maximum has reached 94.7%.The rate of dilution also drops to below 8%; Accomplish with adopting with filling, the refuse that produces in mining and the smelting process is fully used, reduced the pollution on the environment that discharges pollutants, special hillock need be set stack spoil, reduced the land occupation resource; Simultaneously the goaf spatial volume is reduced to minimum, completely cut off the contact path of float coal with air, effectively delayed the coal oxidation time, the goaf unsupported back span is from dwindling, and exposed area is little, and open-assembly time is short, filling is timely in addition, deflection is little, has substantially stopped the roof fall accident generation.
Adopt mining codes of the present invention, can improve greatly economic and social benefit, specific as follows:
1, economic benefit:
Mining, smelting cost: according to the data that mine and smeltery provide, refine to the cost of production of the molten germanium product in district be 3200 yuan/kilogram; The various expenses of taxation: 1150 yuan/kilogram; Integrated cost: 4350 yuan/kilogram;
The molten germanium production marketing price in district is about 9,500 ten thousand yuan at present, and the overall recovery from the germanium ore deposit to the molten germanium product in district is 80~83%, calculates by 80% here, and the molten germanium product quantity in the district that the germanium resource of saving can be produced is: 243 * 80%=194.4 ton;
Product yield (the molten germanium in district) * (selling price-Cai smelting integrated cost)
=194400 kilograms * (9500 yuan/kilogram-4350 yuan/kilogram) * 10 -4
=100,116 ten thousand yuan
By 638.68 tons reserves, the length of service of the expensive 30 tons of calculating in source of average year is 21 years, and with calculating in 21 years, economic benefit every year on average was:
4,767 ten thousand yuan/year of 100116 ÷, 21 ≈
2, social benefit:
Newly increase work position 80 people, solve local unemployed's employment;
Turn over the expenses of taxation: ten thousand yuan of 1150 yuan/kilogram * 194400 kilograms * 10-4=22356, calculated by 21 years, turn over every year on average the expenses of taxation: 1,065 ten thousand yuan/year;
Filler consumes tailings and this ore deposit driving mine tailing of company and peripheral smeltery, adopt the mine tailing filling not need to build again new Tailings Dam, significantly reduce tailings to the pollution of environment, be conducive to save the soil, also can remove the former discarded tailings stacking place that takies multiplexing, expectation can recover to plough about 500 mu.
Of the present invention also have the following advantages to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method down:
1, improved working section recovery to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method down, working section recovery reaches more than 95%, has effectively utilized precious mineral resources, has improved greatly the rate of extraction in the extremely unstable ore bed back production of high-dipping, roof and floor;
2, effectively protected local ecological environment, after the back production basic controlling subsiding of goaf, sink, protected the local environment landforms not destroy because of Collapse by Mining;
3, produce a large amount of spoils in the mine capital construction process, do casting resin behind the package, reduced the spoil discharge value, reduced environment pollution, can save a large sum of environmental improvement expense;
4, the spoil of existing filling remainder as the reserve of filler, all will be backfilling into the goaf and go after capital construction finishes, and can play positive protective effect to protecting local ecological environment;
5, a spoil discharging land occupation reduces;
6, when adopting goaf dry type package filling method, improve support material, use reusable hydraulic prop to replace mine timber, saved a large amount of mine timbers, reduced cost of production;
7, owing to having improved the rate of extraction, it is few that coal is lost in the goaf, and filling has effectively reduced again the space, goaf, has so just reduced the ignition probability in goaf.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1: a kind of lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method, its stopping sequence is for turning over from the top down layer, each back production layer is 2-2.2m, filling is carried out with material in back production layer bottom, in the exploitation process with adopting with filling, this filling bed is as the top board of next back production layer, and advance of the face direction is advanced to base plate by top board; Stope keeps 3.2 meters of maximums distance of face control in the manufacturing process, 2.2 meters of the minimum distance of face roof under controls arrange one to two-layer steel concrete water barrier at each back production layer, and water barrier is to lopsidedness, in next layering water is discharged to sump, outside Mine Drainage System is discharged well.Filling bed comprises filler, gauze wire cloth and support wooden frame, supports wooden frame and is preset on the back production layer base plate, and gauze wire cloth is laid on and supports on the wooden frame, and filler is placed on the gauze wire cloth after packing with Polywoven Bag.This filler is spoil and the melting waste slag that produces in the work progress, and behind adding yellow mud or cement and the spontaneous fire retardant, stirring obtains.In the gap of packed filler, also add grout material, this slurry mixes with filler and water and forms, after per 100 weight portion slurries select 60 weight portion fillers and 40 weight parts waters to mix, stir and make, just the annotate slurry of 30mm of the filler that every filling 300mm is high, slurry flows in the gap of packed filler naturally, improves steadiness and the sealing of the filler after the pack.The equidistant individual prop that arranges in the back production layer, the distance between adjacent each individual prop is 800mm.
Lower to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method, back production efficient improves, and the rate of extraction reaches more than 93% from 85%, and maximum has reached 94.7%.The rate of dilution also drops to below 8%; Accomplish with adopting with filling, the refuse that produces in mining and the smelting process is fully used, reduced the pollution on the environment that discharges pollutants, special hillock need be set stack spoil, reduced the land occupation resource; Simultaneously the goaf spatial volume is reduced to minimum, completely cut off the contact path of float coal with air, effectively delayed the coal oxidation time, the goaf unsupported back span is from dwindling, and exposed area is little, and open-assembly time is short, filling is timely in addition, deflection is little, has substantially stopped the roof fall accident generation.

Claims (5)

  1. Under one kind to horizontal slice dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that the stopping sequence of these mining codes is for turning over from the top down layer, each back production layer is 2-2.2m, filling is carried out with material in back production layer bottom, in the exploitation process with adopting with filling, this filling bed is as the top board of next back production layer, and advance of the face direction is advanced to base plate by top board; Stope keeps 3.2 meters of maximums distance of face control in the manufacturing process, 2.2 meters of the minimum distance of face roof under controls arrange one to two-layer steel concrete water barrier at each back production layer, and water barrier is to lopsidedness, in next layering water is discharged to sump, outside Mine Drainage System is discharged well.
  2. 2. as claimed in claim 1 lower to layering dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that described filling bed comprises filler, gauze wire cloth and support wooden frame, supporting wooden frame is preset on the back production layer base plate, gauze wire cloth is laid on and supports on the wooden frame, and filler is placed on the gauze wire cloth after packing with Polywoven Bag.
  3. 3. as claimed in claim 2 lower to layering dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that the filler that uses in the described filling bed is the spoil that produces in the work progress and melting waste slag, after adding yellow mud or cement and spontaneous fire retardant, stirring obtains.
  4. 4. as claimed in claim 3 lower to layering dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that also adding in the described filling bed grout material, this slurry mixes with filler and water and forms, after per 100 weight portion slurries select 60 weight portion fillers and 40 weight parts waters to mix, stir and make, just the annotate slurry of 30mm of the filler that every filling 300mm is high, slurry flows in the gap of packed filler naturally, improves steadiness and the sealing of the filler after the pack.
  5. 5. as claimed in claim 1 lower to layering dry back-filling mining method method, it is characterized in that the equidistant individual prop that arranges in the described back production layer, the distance between adjacent each individual prop is 800mm.
CN201310016762.6A 2013-01-17 2013-01-17 Lower to horizontal slice Dry-placed fill mining Active CN103061767B (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103628878A (en) * 2013-12-16 2014-03-12 山东科技大学 Crushed surrounding rock ore downward drift layered sublevel-free tunnel filling mining method
CN104453996A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 Upward layered wall type bag filling mining method
CN104806248A (en) * 2015-04-23 2015-07-29 安徽马钢工程技术集团有限公司 Slice mining method for small-scale opencast quarry
CN104929639A (en) * 2015-05-23 2015-09-23 西安科技大学 Flexible strip-filled water-protection mining method
CN105927224A (en) * 2016-05-27 2016-09-07 武汉理工大学 Gob-free ore discharging and filling synchronized milling method for thick ore body

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2229747A (en) * 1989-02-24 1990-10-03 Colin John Macleod A mining method
CN101105129A (en) * 2007-07-16 2008-01-16 中南大学 Mining environment reconstructed continuous mining afterwards filling mining method
CN102226396A (en) * 2011-05-19 2011-10-26 中南大学 Non-explosive mining method by excavation, artificial group-column reconstruction, long-hole caving and subsequent filling
CN102587916A (en) * 2012-02-01 2012-07-18 金建工程设计有限公司 Method for filling and mining after ore caving
CN102606159A (en) * 2012-03-26 2012-07-25 中南大学 Medium thick heavy-pitch crushed ore body frame type artificial top downward segmenting cemented filling method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2229747A (en) * 1989-02-24 1990-10-03 Colin John Macleod A mining method
CN101105129A (en) * 2007-07-16 2008-01-16 中南大学 Mining environment reconstructed continuous mining afterwards filling mining method
CN102226396A (en) * 2011-05-19 2011-10-26 中南大学 Non-explosive mining method by excavation, artificial group-column reconstruction, long-hole caving and subsequent filling
CN102587916A (en) * 2012-02-01 2012-07-18 金建工程设计有限公司 Method for filling and mining after ore caving
CN102606159A (en) * 2012-03-26 2012-07-25 中南大学 Medium thick heavy-pitch crushed ore body frame type artificial top downward segmenting cemented filling method

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103628878A (en) * 2013-12-16 2014-03-12 山东科技大学 Crushed surrounding rock ore downward drift layered sublevel-free tunnel filling mining method
CN104453996A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 Upward layered wall type bag filling mining method
CN104453996B (en) * 2014-12-24 2016-06-29 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 A kind of packed method of mining by the way of filling of Upward slicing wall type
CN104806248A (en) * 2015-04-23 2015-07-29 安徽马钢工程技术集团有限公司 Slice mining method for small-scale opencast quarry
CN104806248B (en) * 2015-04-23 2017-02-01 安徽马钢工程技术集团有限公司 Slice mining method for small-scale opencast quarry
CN104929639A (en) * 2015-05-23 2015-09-23 西安科技大学 Flexible strip-filled water-protection mining method
CN105927224A (en) * 2016-05-27 2016-09-07 武汉理工大学 Gob-free ore discharging and filling synchronized milling method for thick ore body

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