CN103056179B - Warm extrusion forming method for straight toothed spur gear - Google Patents

Warm extrusion forming method for straight toothed spur gear Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103056179B
CN103056179B CN201310009770.8A CN201310009770A CN103056179B CN 103056179 B CN103056179 B CN 103056179B CN 201310009770 A CN201310009770 A CN 201310009770A CN 103056179 B CN103056179 B CN 103056179B
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China
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blank
die
mould
extruding
target gear
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CN201310009770.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103056179A (en
Inventor
赵军
王伟
马瑞
孙红磊
屈晓阳
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燕山大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a warm extrusion forming method for a straight toothed spur gear. The blank is heated by adopting warm forming and combining differential temperature forming, and reasonable die design and lubricating selection are realized. According to the technical scheme, the first method comprises the following steps of extruding, upsetting and performing reverse secondary extrusion (in the same set of extrusion set); and the second method comprises the following steps of extruding and performing reverse secondary extrusion (concave dies of different sizes). According to the forming process, the forming force can be effectively reduced, and the tooth filling form is good. The warm extrusion forming method has the advantages that the defects that the cutting machining method is low in material utilization rate, low in production efficiency and high in product cost and the gear strength and service life are reduced because the metal fiber is cut are overcome; and meanwhile, the problems that the other plastic forming methods are high in forming force, difficult in corner filling and short in service life of the die and the like are solved, and the warm extrusion forming method is expected to realize industrial production of straight toothed spur gears in the field of plastic forming.

Description

A kind of warm-extrusion forming method of straight spur gear
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of machining process, particularly a kind of warm-extrusion forming method of straight spur gear.
Background technology
Gear, as one of most basic part transmitting motion and power, particularly has a very wide range of applications in manufacturing industry at engineering field.Wherein, straight spur gear is not only complex-shaped, and dimensional accuracy, surface quality and comprehensive mechanical property require very high, and has the large feature of production lot.At present, spur gear is produced and is mostly adopted traditional cutting working method, and stock utilization is low, and production efficiency is low, and product cost is high, causes the strength of gear teeth and service life to be reduced because metallic fiber is cut-off simultaneously.In a word, the processing technology of current straight spur gear has the following disadvantages: 1, stock utilization is low; 2, production efficiency is low; 3, product cost is high; 4, product strength and service life low etc.
Summary of the invention
Instant invention overcomes deficiency of the prior art, provide the processing technology that a kind of straight spur gear refines base.
In order to solve the technical problem of above-mentioned existence, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
Scheme one:
A warm-extrusion forming method for straight spur gear, its concrete steps are as follows:
First step blanking: according to the size of target gear determination blank, carries out blanking, and blank bottom is cylindrical, and top is conical, bottom body diameter larger than target gear reference diameter 6% ~ 10%, and top chamfer is 12 ° ~ 15 °;
Second step mould and die preheating: use acetylene flame by mould and die preheating to 200 DEG C ~ 250 DEG C, to reduce thermal loss when blank and contacting dies;
3rd step blank heating: after blank surface smears lubricant, implements differential heating by medium-high frequency eddy-current heating to blank, makes blank external temperature reach the temperature range of Warm Extrusion, and the inner lower temperature that keeps;
4th step first time extruding: first time extruding is carried out to blank, smears lubricant at die surface before extruding, make coefficient of friction reach 0.4 ~ 0.6;
At this moment there is the angle of collapsing of certain size in the workpiece head of gained, if directly carry out following process can cause more waste of material.
5th step jumping-up: the jumping-up carrying out certain upset ratio after blank is heated again;
6th step oppositely second time extruding: angle section of being collapsed by the blank after jumping-up, after the blank laying state being about to extrude for the first time turns 180 °, carries out second time extruding upward.
Base refined by the gear that so just can obtain meeting dimensional requirement, and has very high stock utilization.
Mould described in method 1 the 4th step comprises punch and die, and described punch adopts the type gear design with incomplete profile of tooth, and the target gear being equivalent to produce is cut the shape after tip portion;
The punch of such design avoids the metal reverse flow of cylinder class punch owing to causing without constraint parts of tooth in extrusion process, produces larger burr.Do not adopt complete tooth Shape Design to be because the reverse flow allowing metal appropriate, thus reduce plastic force, die is played a protective role.
Described die comprises die and enters mould section and die shaped segment;
The Internal periphery of described die shaped segment is consistent with target gear plane projected shape, and size is bigger than normal, is by the outwards biased certain numerical value gained of target gear flank profil;
The object of such design die shaped segment is, even if gear tooth portions corner fills difficulty in extrusion process, fail to be full of completely, the tooth profile after also ensureing extrusion molding reaches or is a bit larger tham target gear, meets the requirement that base refined by gear.
Described enter mould part be have corresponding enter the tilting section of modular angle degree, entering mould section height and entering modular angle degree is determine according to the parameter of target gear.If module is 2, enter modular angle degree and generally elect 35 ° ~ 55 ° as, enter the excessive or too small workpiece end that all can cause of modular angle and form the angle or fill shape deficiency of collapsing more greatly.Entering mould section profile is a bit to three fillet surfaces of shaped segment transition from tooth root circular portion in the middle part of the die gear teeth.Such design is to make sufficient metal flow to shaped segment, meeting the demand of filling shape.
Scheme two:
A warm-extrusion forming method for straight spur gear, its concrete steps are as follows:
First step blanking: according to the billet size blanking of design, blank bottom is cylindrical, top is conical, bottom body diameter larger than target gear reference diameter 6% ~ 10%, and top chamfer is 12 ° ~ 15 °;
Second step mould and die preheating: use acetylene flame by mould and die preheating to 200 DEG C ~ 250 DEG C, to reduce thermal loss when blank and contacting dies;
3rd step blank heating: after blank surface smears lubricant, implements differential heating by medium-high frequency eddy-current heating to blank, makes blank external temperature reach the temperature range of Warm Extrusion, and the inner lower temperature that keeps;
4th step first time extruding: first time extruding is carried out to blank, smears lubricant at die surface before extruding, make coefficient of friction reach 0.4 ~ 0.6;
5th step oppositely second time extruding: after the blank laying state of first time extruding is turned 180 °, carry out second time extruding.
The difference of method two flow process and said method one flow process is the use of two cover dies, and wherein first time extrudes die used and extrudes die tooth profile used comparatively for the second time more greatly, can think the first time extrusion and compression operation merging in said method one flow process.
It should be noted that, in order to avoid run-off the straight when blank is placed causes equipment unbalance loading to cause mould impaired, when blank is placed, should eject to correct position by knock-pin, blank is steadily placed on knock-pin upper surface, and knock-pin together pushes back with blank.
The warm-extrusion forming method of a kind of straight spur gear provided by the invention, remains that the stock utilization that plastic molding method has is high, the feature such as production efficiency is high, product good mechanical property.Meanwhile, overcome the plastic force that other plastic molding method runs into large, corner fills difficulty, the problems such as die life is low.Be equipped with follow-up fine finishining again, be expected to the suitability for industrialized production realizing straight spur gear in Plastic Forming field.The present invention is mainly: the design of straight spur gear warm extrusion technology shaping dies; The design of blank shape size; The technological process of Gear Processing; The realization of lubricating condition in forming process; The method etc. of mould and die preheating.
Owing to adopting technique scheme, the present invention, compared with traditional straight spur gear processing technology, has such beneficial effect:
1, process of the present invention is adopted to substantially increase stock utilization and production efficiency;
2, the present invention adopts extrusion forming process, and blank, by three-dimensional compressive stress state, makes material grains refinement, improve density, and Plastic Forming remains the integrality of metallic fiber, and properties of product are significantly improved;
3, the present invention adopts warm working and in conjunction with differential temperature method, reduces the impact of oxide skin on machining accuracy, ensure that the precision of refining base;
4, the Design of Dies needed for process of the present invention is unique, can effectively improve the mold use life-span, reduces production cost.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that the embodiment of the present invention 1 straight spur gear refines base simplified schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 blank shape simplified schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 mould general assembly drawing;
Fig. 4 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 punch profile simplified schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 die profile simplified schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 is that the embodiment of the present invention 1 extrudes simplified schematic diagram;
Fig. 7 is the embodiment of the present invention 2 twice Extruding die silhouette contrast figure;
In figure: 1. gasket ring on base, 2. sleeve, 3. nut, 4. blank, 5. guide pillar, 6. guide pin bushing, 7. upper bolster, 8. punch fixed cover, 9. screw, 10. punch, 11. pressure rings, 12. screws, 13., 14. dies, 15. collars, 16, lower gasket ring, 17. screws, 18. push rods
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and detailed description of the invention, the present invention is described in further detail:
With modulus for 2, the number of teeth is 31, and pressure angle is the warm-extrusion forming that the standard straight spur geer of 20 ° refines base is example.Material is 20Cr2Ni4, refines base geomery as shown in Figure 1, facewidth B=17.5mm; Reference diameter D=62mm; Tip diameter D 1=66.9mm; Profile variation △=the 0.3mm of refining base and master gear.
Method one:
First step blanking
The bar of Ф 70 is carried out cut, turning, obtain design blank shape size, as shown in Figure 2.Bottom body diameter is D=67.5mm; Top diameter d=57.5mm; H=35mm; H=15mm.The wheel blank of two transverse tooth thickness once can be produced with this blank.
Second step mould and die preheating
Use acetylene flame to carry out preheating to mould, make mould and push rod end region temperature reach about 200 DEG C.Design of Dies as shown in Figure 3.Punch is D=62mm as shown in Figure 4.Die is D=65mm as shown in Figure 5; D a=100mm; D b=67mm; D c=55mm; H=45mm; H=11.5mm; Enter modular angle α=36 °.
3rd step blank heating
First by the lubricant application that configures in advance in blank surface, then use medium-high frequency eddy-current heating to heat blank, make external temperature reach warm working temperature range, and innerly keep lower temperature.
4th step first time extruding
By lubricant uniform application in die surface, then blank is steadily placed on knock-pin end, uses Y315 press to carry out first time extruding, as shown in Figure 6.
5th step jumping-up
The jumping-up of certain upset ratio is carried out after being reheated by blank after first time extruding.
6th step second time extruding
Angle section of being collapsed by blank after jumping-up, after the blank laying state being about to extrude for the first time turns 180 °, carries out second time extruding upward.
Method two:
The first step---three-procedure is identical with method one;
4th step first time extruding
By lubricant uniform application in die surface, then blank is steadily placed on knock-pin end, uses Y315 press to carry out first time extruding.
5th step second time extruding
Blank after first time extruding is reheated, then collapses angle section upward, after the blank laying state being about to extrude for the first time turns 180 °, carry out second time extruding.Twice extruding die contrast used, as shown in Figure 7.

Claims (2)

1. a warm-extrusion forming method for straight spur gear, is characterized in that: the concrete steps of the method are as follows:
First step blanking: according to the size of target gear determination blank, carries out blanking, and blank bottom is cylindrical, and top is conical, bottom body diameter larger than target gear reference diameter 6% ~ 10%, and top chamfer is 12 ° ~ 15 °;
Second step mould and die preheating: use acetylene flame by mould and die preheating to 200 DEG C ~ 250 DEG C, to reduce thermal loss when blank and contacting dies;
3rd step blank heating: after blank surface smears lubricant, implements differential heating by medium-high frequency eddy-current heating to blank, makes blank external temperature reach the temperature range of Warm Extrusion, and the inner lower temperature that keeps;
4th step first time extruding: first time extruding is carried out to blank, smears lubricant at die surface before extruding, make coefficient of friction reach 0.4 ~ 0.6;
5th step jumping-up: the jumping-up carrying out certain upset ratio after blank is heated again;
6th step oppositely second time extruding: angle section of being collapsed by the blank after jumping-up, after the blank laying state being about to extrude for the first time turns 180 °, carries out second time extruding upward;
The mould adopted in the implementation step of said method comprises punch and die, and described punch adopts the type gear design with incomplete profile of tooth, and the target gear being equivalent to produce is cut the shape after tip portion; Described die includes mould section and shaped segment, and the Internal periphery of described die shaped segment is consistent with target gear plane projected shape, and size is bigger than normal, is by the outwards biased certain numerical value gained of target gear flank profil; Described die enter mould section be have corresponding enter the tilting section of modular angle degree, entering mould section height and entering modular angle degree is determine according to the parameter of target gear.
2. a warm-extrusion forming method for straight spur gear, is characterized in that: the concrete steps of the method are as follows:
First step blanking: according to the billet size blanking of design, blank bottom is cylindrical, top is conical, bottom body diameter larger than target gear reference diameter 6% ~ 10%, and top chamfer is 12 ° ~ 15 °;
Second step mould and die preheating: use acetylene flame by mould and die preheating to 200 DEG C ~ 250 DEG C, to reduce thermal loss when blank and contacting dies;
3rd step blank heating: after blank surface smears lubricant, implements differential heating by medium-high frequency eddy-current heating to blank, makes blank external temperature reach the temperature range of Warm Extrusion, and the inner lower temperature that keeps;
4th step first time extruding: first time extruding is carried out to blank, smears lubricant at die surface before extruding, make coefficient of friction reach 0.4 ~ 0.6;
5th step oppositely second time extruding: after the blank laying state of first time extruding is turned 180 °, carry out second time extruding;
The mould that the implementation step of said method adopts comprises punch and die, and described punch adopts the type gear design with incomplete profile of tooth, and the target gear being equivalent to produce is cut the shape after tip portion; Described die includes mould section and shaped segment, and the Internal periphery of described die shaped segment is consistent with target gear plane projected shape, and size is bigger than normal, is by the outwards biased certain numerical value gained of target gear flank profil; Described die enter mould section be have corresponding enter the tilting section of modular angle degree, entering mould section height and entering modular angle degree is determine according to the parameter of target gear; The second time extruded in the 5th comparatively described step of die used extruded die tooth profile used and wanted large first time in the 4th described step.
CN201310009770.8A 2013-01-11 2013-01-11 Warm extrusion forming method for straight toothed spur gear CN103056179B (en)

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Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103658213B (en) * 2013-11-26 2017-01-04 山东建筑大学 A kind of extruding new method of highly-efficient processing straight spur gear
CN103567247A (en) * 2013-11-26 2014-02-12 山东建筑大学 Novel warm extrusion method for efficiently processing internal-tooth cylindrical gears
CN103831312B (en) * 2014-03-24 2015-08-05 山东建筑大学 A kind of warm-extrusion forming method of highly-efficient processing 20CrNiMo spur rack
CN105069207B (en) * 2015-07-28 2019-03-22 燕山大学 Consider the forging process method for numerical simulation of initial uneven grain degree
CN106140856B (en) * 2016-09-05 2018-01-12 山东省科学院新材料研究所 A kind of large scale fine grain or ultrafine grain metal bar hot-extrusion mold and pressing method
CN106914507B (en) * 2017-04-21 2018-12-07 燕山大学 A kind of large gear local induction heating extrusion forming method
CN107282670A (en) * 2017-05-16 2017-10-24 中国航发北京航空材料研究院 A kind of extrusion blooming method of turbine disk high temperature alloy ingot casting

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US3605475A (en) * 1969-06-19 1971-09-20 Nat Machinery Co The Method and apparatus for extruding gear blanks
CN1367051A (en) * 2001-02-15 2002-09-04 华北工学院 Gear precision plastic forming process and its forming mould
DE102009045254A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-07-08 Ford Motor Company, Dearborn A servo motor for actuating a mandrel when extruding a helical toothing
CN102107228A (en) * 2010-12-10 2011-06-29 玉环普天单向器有限公司 Manufacturing method and manufacturing mould for starting gear in reduction starter
CN102151711A (en) * 2010-12-15 2011-08-17 江苏太平洋精锻科技股份有限公司 Upper die anti-cracking structure of closed type cold extrusion planetary gear die

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JP4385719B2 (en) * 2003-10-14 2009-12-16 日本精工株式会社 Boss-shaped gear-shaped member forming method and boss-shaped gear-shaped member

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3605475A (en) * 1969-06-19 1971-09-20 Nat Machinery Co The Method and apparatus for extruding gear blanks
CN1367051A (en) * 2001-02-15 2002-09-04 华北工学院 Gear precision plastic forming process and its forming mould
DE102009045254A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-07-08 Ford Motor Company, Dearborn A servo motor for actuating a mandrel when extruding a helical toothing
CN102107228A (en) * 2010-12-10 2011-06-29 玉环普天单向器有限公司 Manufacturing method and manufacturing mould for starting gear in reduction starter
CN102151711A (en) * 2010-12-15 2011-08-17 江苏太平洋精锻科技股份有限公司 Upper die anti-cracking structure of closed type cold extrusion planetary gear die

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