CN103053725A - Dynamic combination black tea withering process - Google Patents

Dynamic combination black tea withering process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103053725A
CN103053725A CN2013100533340A CN201310053334A CN103053725A CN 103053725 A CN103053725 A CN 103053725A CN 2013100533340 A CN2013100533340 A CN 2013100533340A CN 201310053334 A CN201310053334 A CN 201310053334A CN 103053725 A CN103053725 A CN 103053725A
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China
Prior art keywords
leaves
leaf
green
black tea
time
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CN2013100533340A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
颜泽文
杨朝林
朱海燕
蔡红兵
熊江
杨启超
李力
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四川省叙府茶业有限公司
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Priority to CN2013100533340A priority Critical patent/CN103053725A/en
Publication of CN103053725A publication Critical patent/CN103053725A/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to a dynamic combination black tea withering processing process. The dynamic combination black tea withering processing process comprises the following steps of: picking fresh leaves without damages and heat phenomena; transporting the leaves into a factory to be rapidly cooled by a fan, and deactivating the leaves by sunlight till the second leave droops, the smell of the green grass fades away, and the moisture content is 68%-70%; spreading the deactivated leaves on a leave spreading rack, withering the deactivated leaves by cold wind, making the green leaves, recovering the moisture of the leaves after the leaves are withered to a certain content, and rocking the leaves for three times, wherein the time intervals are respectively 35 minutes and 45 minutes, and the leaf rocking time is respectively 1 minute, 1.5 minute and 2 minutes; and spreading the leaves for 100-120 minutes after leaf rocking, and deactivating the leaves when the smells of the flowers and the fruit are strong. According to the dynamic combination black tea withering processing process, a scientific dynamic combination processing processes of rapidly cooling fresh leaves, drying the leaves in the sun, rocking the leaves for three times, spreading the leaves and deactivating the leaves are utilized, and the optimal processing parameter can be obtained. The bad quality that the traditional back tea of the southwest region is dark in color, turbid in liquid, small in flavor and sour and moldy in taste is changed. The black tea prepared by the process has the advantages that the black tea is orange, and mellow in taste, and the black tea has slight flavor of flowers and fruit.

Description

The black tea dynamic combined technique of withering
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of black tea dynamic combined technique of withering, be specially adapted in the process of the black tea in southwestern tea district.
Background technology
Black tea (border-sale tea) is the peculiar teas of China, quenches the thirst because it has, anti-cancer, anticancer, aid digestion, the effect such as lose weight, delay senility, and liked by the consumer.But black tea produces black liquor color muddiness especially then, mouthfeel is pained, fermentation institute is highly seasoned, even turns sour and musty with acid, and it is joyful to affect sense organ, also becomes the obstacle in the black tea popularization.Therefore, how to improve the local flavor that black tea produces black tea especially then, become the task of top priority.
The mouthfeel of black tea is not good, one of them major reason is exactly not have the independent operation of withering during traditional black tea is made, and the control of the process of withering is conducive to the conversion of tealeaves component content, to improving tea aroma, improving the soup look and flavour can both play good effect.
The geographical position at applicant place is positioned at Sichuan Province, southwest Yibin City, Yibin City is a conventional tea district with more than 1600 year kind history processed, there is 3.33 ten thousand hectares in tea place the whole city, produce 2.2 ten thousand tons of tea per year, 4.3 hundred million yuan of year agriculture output values, be main commodity tea base, Sichuan Province, the tea place is distributed in 10 counties and districts in the whole city, and tealeaves has become the backbone industry of Yibin City rural economy.Yibin be always one to produce green tea, black tea (border-sale tea) and black tea (congou tea) are main area, needs according to market, black tea output increases year by year in recent years, but in black tea production process, its equipment and process technology is very backward, add special weather and soil, the black tea of tradition of the bright leaf processing of tea most " look gloomy; soup is muddy; perfume (or spice) is not high; flavor acid is mould ", and profile " thick; pine; broken ", summer, autumn tea is even more serious, causes the black tea added value in Yibin low, deficiency in economic performance, even the tea district summer that has, autumn tea is not produced, and has restricted the development of Yibin and even whole southwest tea industry.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome in the past black tea product mouthfeel not good shortcoming,, created the first critical process that black tea quality forms-dynamic combined technique of withering, and made it to form continuous productive process, standardized production.Lastingly, flavour is mellow long by the black tea fragrance of this explained hereafter is happy, and the molasses sugar that both has been different from congou tea is fragrant, is different from again the fragrance of a flower of oolong tea, is a kind of elegant elegant natural flowers fruital gas, and is melted in the millet paste, takes the course of its own in black tea market field.
The present invention for realizing the technical scheme that purpose is taked is: the black tea dynamic combined technique of withering is characterized in that:
A. pluck that quality is fresh, not damaged, without the bright leaf of fever phenomenon;
B. bright leaf enters factory and adopts immediately fan to cool off fast, prevents that the phenomenon of fermenting from appearring in bright leaf in advance;
C. cooled bright leaf shines green grass or young crops (solar wither); Shone blue or green time 12-15 minute, and made bright leaf dehydration, turn 2 times midway, shine blue or green rear bright leaf water content and reduce to 68-70%, be placed on the frame for spreading fresh tea leaf again and wither;
D, the brighter leaf on the frame for spreading fresh tea leaf is added wind with fan and wither and be convenient to dehydration, in the process of withering, do green grass or young crops simultaneously, wither in the process adding wind, did green grass or young crops once every 25 minutes; Total withering time is 4-6 hour.
E. backwater after bright leaf withers to a certain degree, mode is naturally to spread on frame for spreading fresh tea leaf, its objective is that the excessive moisture that makes on the leaf stalk shifts to blade, makes the moisture distribution of whole leaf even, the backwater time is 60-70 minute;
F. the brighter leaf behind the backwater being put into vibration machine carries out three times and shakes green grass or young crops, shaking for the first time the blue or green time is 1 minute, and green grass or young crops is carried out shaking in the interval second time after 35 minutes, and shaking the blue or green time for the second time is 1.5 minutes, green grass or young crops is shaken at the interval for the third time after 45 minutes again, and shaking for the third time the blue or green time is 2 minutes;
E. bright leaf spreads 100-120 minute after shaking blue or green the end, treats to complete in green-keeping machine when flowers and fruits perfume (or spice) is the strongest; Temperature completes: 220 ℃ (charging aperture inboard cylinder body wall temperature), fixation time 70 seconds; Tealeaves water content after completing is 63.8%.
Positive effect of the present invention is: creatively utilize the dynamic combined processing mode of science, namely bright leaf cool off fast-shine blue or green-wither, do green grass or young crops-three time to shake green grass or young crops-spread-complete and the optimum processing parameter that obtains.Changed the bad quality of the black tea of southwest tradition " color depth is dark, soup is muddy, perfume (or spice) is not high, flavor acid mould ", the black tea " the soup look orange red, slightly flowers and fruits are fragrant, flavour is mellow " of producing by this technique.Significantly improved traditional black tea quality, the added value of Effective Raise summer, Qiu Heicha strengthens black tea market field competitiveness, and is scientific outstanding.
Below by embodiment, the invention will be further described by reference to the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is the black tea organoleptic quality comparison sheets of different bright leaf processed finished products;
Fig. 2 is the different black tea organoleptic quality comparison sheets of blue or green time processed finished products that shine;
Fig. 3 is that difference is done the black tea organoleptic quality comparison sheet of blue or green time processed finished products;
Fig. 4 is that difference is shaken the black tea organoleptic quality comparison sheet of blue or green number of times processed finished products;
Fig. 5 is that bright leaf dynamic combined is withered to the black tea quality organoleptic effects of finished product;
Fig. 6 is that bright leaf dynamic combined is withered on the index table of the black tea quality impact of finished product;
Fig. 7 is that bright leaf dynamic combined is withered on the index table of the impact of the black tea biochemical component of finished product;
The specific embodiment
Embodiment
One, bright leaf standard and purchase rules
1, harvesting one bud three, the bright leaf of four leaves (containing equal tender degree to the folder leaf) are raw material, require complete, uniform, the fresh and cleaning of bud-leaf.Do not adopt defective bright leaf and the foreign material such as disease worm leaf, frost leaf, bright leaf is without phenomenons such as waste gas and wastes pollution and mechanical damage and heating red stains.The black tea organoleptic quality of different bright leaf processed finished products is seen Fig. 1.
Different cultivars and grade classification by raw material when 2, receiving aquatic foods spread, so that classification processing.
Two, the bright leaf dynamic combined technology of withering
1, utensil: with 6 * 1m 2Square stand leaf groove.
2, bright leaf enters factory and spreads in the leaf groove of stand immediately, spreads standard: leaf-spreading thickness 3.5~4cm, require bud-leaf to tremble to break up flat, and keep thickness, looseness consistent, divide kind, minute size, spread respectively by receiving bright time sequencing; After bright leaf spreads, draw in and spread the fragmentary bright leaf that the utensil edge is scattered.
When 3, spreading, adopt fan to cool off fast, prevent that the phenomenon of fermenting from appearring in bright leaf in advance.
4, carry out " shining blue or green (solar wither) " after the bright leaf cooling.Shone blue or green time 12-15 minute, the centre turns 2 times, and it is sagging to treat under the bud that the second leaf presents, and green grass gas goes down, and delicate fragrance appears, and water content is reduced to 68-70%.Spread at frame for spreading fresh tea leaf behind the solarization green grass or young crops and wither.
Shining the blue or green time is key point of the present invention place, and we obtain optimal parameter through test of many times to reset, and specifically relatively see Fig. 2.
5, add cold wind and wither and do green grass or young crops and combine, wither in the process adding wind, did green grass or young crops once every 25 minutes.
Doing the blue or green time also is key point of the present invention place, and we obtain optimal parameter through test of many times to reset, and specifically relatively see Fig. 3.
6, backwater after bright leaf withers to a certain degree carries out respectively shaking green grass or young crops three times again, and every minor tick 35 minutes and 45 minutes shakes 1 minute, 1.5 minutes and 2 minutes respectively blue or green time at every turn.
Shake the blue or green time and relatively see Fig. 4.
7, bright leaf spreads 100-120 minute after shaking blue or green the end, treats to complete when flowers and fruits perfume (or spice) is the strongest.
Three, de-enzyming process technology
1, the principle that completes: high temperature completes fast.
2, machinery: adopt 60 type drum-type continuous de-enzyming machines.
3, the temperature that completes: 220 ℃ (charging aperture inboard cylinder body wall temperature), hand have put in the feel of obviously burning.
4, throw the leaf amount: weighing scale when receiving aquatic foods, throw in bright leaf 200~250 kg/ platforms hour.
5, fixation time: 70 seconds
6, the degree that completes: thoroughly kill perfume (or spice) as principle to kill even killing, burnt point, quick-fried point, Yellowing do not occur, water content is down to about 60%; Food value of leaf deliquescing tarnishes, and fragrance appears, and hand cannot not pinched stickingly.
Of the present invention all is through the summary of lot of experimental data and the preferred plan that obtains after analyzing in steps, comprise that parameters all is most preferred scheme, parameter selects just to have consumed the ample resources of this enterprise, this explanation parameter itself is just creative, and production practices have also proved, and do not have within the parameter area of appointment of the present invention if take identical processing step, can not get satisfactory tealeaves, the below will test comparing result and index analysis provides as follows:
Content of the test
The comparative test of withering of bright leaf: establish do not wither (water content 74.7%), naturally wither (water content 67.3%), dynamic combined are withered (water content 63.8%) three processing, all the other each operations adopt identical processing technology.
Test method
In order to reduce as far as possible error, parametric measurement, record, equipment operating are responsible for carrying out by the special messenger, product adopts six factors to evaluate method, at the bottom of profile, color and luster, fragrance, soup look, flavour, the leaf, account for respectively 10%, 20%, 25%, 10%, 25%, 10%, processing temperature is measured with the temperature indicator that disposes voluntarily on the equipment.
Biochemical analysis method, Tea Polyphenols: ferrous tartrate explicit representation; Total amino acid content: ninhydrin analytic approach; Caffeine: ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Water extraction: full dose method; Amino acid composition: the 835-50 of Hitachi type automatic amino acid analyzer is analyzed; Fragrance component adopts gas-chromatography (GC), gas spectrum (GC)/mass spectrum (MS) analytic approach.
In order to reduce as far as possible error, the processing of each content of the test repeats 5 times.
Results and analysis
Fig. 5 shows, adopts the technology of withering larger on the impact of black tea finished product organoleptic quality, especially adopts the wither organoleptic quality of processes of dynamic combined best.
Fig. 6 shows, when adopting dynamic combined to wither (water content is down to 63.8%), quality best (score is the highest) is naturally withered into the tea quality and taken second place, and it is the poorest not wither into the tea quality.This shows that bright leaf withers, more be conducive to the raising of tea leaf quality, especially adopt dynamic combined withered tea leaves quality best.
Fig. 7 shows that withering also has larger impact to the biochemical component of deceiving the tea finished product.Within the specific limits, the biochemistry ingredient contents such as Tea Polyphenols, amino acid, soluble sugar, water extraction, theanine, asparatate, glutamic acid, threonine have the gesture of increase with the minimizing of withering leaf water content, when the withering leaf water content reached 63.8% left and right sides, most biochemistry ingredient contents all reached optimum value.As seen, bright leaf can improve into main biochemistry ingredient content in the tea through withering, and this becomes the tea quality very favourable to improving black tea.
Dynamic combined is withered and has been developed the content of various fragrance components in the tealeaves, further strengthened the conversion of each component content, significantly improve black tea and become tea fragrance concentration and persistence, flavour is mellow long, the molasses sugar that both had been different from congou tea is fragrant, the fragrance of a flower that is different from again oolong tea is a kind of elegant elegant natural flowers fruital gas.
Innovation point:
(1) in black tea processing, controls bright leaf freshness first, have no mechanical damage.
Guarantee the fresh of bright leaf, prevent that bright leaf from fermenting in advance, guarantee that black tea forms the characteristics that fragrance is joyful, the soup look bright, flavour is mellow.
(2) in black tea processing, adopt first " shining blue or green " technique.
" shining blue or green " namely is with fresh leaves of tea plant dehydration through certain hour under sunshine.By shining green grass or young crops, improve the multiple hydrolase of bright leaf and oxidase active, promote water-soluble sugar, amino acid whose formation and the conversion of aromatic oil, the degraded of fat-soluble pigment in the tea making process.
(3) in black tea processing, adopt " doing green grass or young crops " technique first.
Principle according to atom-molecule, by turning, vibrating, make each position of withering leaf realize at the volley the activation of moisture content, improve the motion frequency of leaf cell Free water, produce the physics chemical action similar with the local mechanical damage, unrighted acid is degraded, produce the material of carrotene and the similar fragrance of a flower such as α, β ionone, thereby it is fragrant to guarantee that black tea product presents natural flowers and fruits, and what the present invention did blue or green employing is manually to do blue or green mode.
(4) in the processing of black tea, adopt first and shake blue or green and spread technique.
Shaking green grass or young crops is row (xing) water process, is again moisture and control material change procedure, the key foundation that the black camellia of promotion is fragrant and alcohol is distinguished the flavor of.The application of shaking blue or green technology changes the black tea of tradition " look gloomy, soup is muddy, perfume (or spice) is not high, flavor acid mould ".Allow the moisture content at each position of bright leaf redistribute by " backwater (spreading) ", make bright leaf endoenzyme activity reach peak value, various materials are transformed, and remove pained flavour, produce joyful fragrance, for the quality that forms the black aromatic flavor of camellia is laid a good foundation.
(5) dynamic combined (comprise shine blue or green, do green grass or young crops, shake green grass or young crops and the spread) technique of withering is proposed first in the processing of black tea.
Technical performance index
Performance indications about the black tea flavor of finished product
Show that by test it is the key technology of improving black tea fragrance that bright leaf dynamic combined is withered, it is fragrant that development generates the molasses sugar that both had been different from congou tea, is different from again the fragrance of a flower of oolong tea, is a kind of elegant elegant natural flowers fruital gas.Aroma substance in the tealeaves partly bright leaf contains, and the overwhelming majority is to be changed by other materials in manufacture process.In dynamic combined was withered process, under the moderate control condition, aldehyde, butanols, linalool, gaultherolin, geraniol, nerolidol and indoles etc. obviously increased, and the essential oil total amount sharply rises, and were conducive to form the flowers and fruits perfume of black tea.
Performance indications about the black tea flavour of finished product
Result of the test shows that it is the key foundation of improving black tea flavour that bright leaf dynamic combined is withered.In the process of withering, Polyphenols in the bright leaf, especially the ester catechin partial hydrolysis has become all weak non-ester catechin and gallic acids of bitter taste and convergence, partially protein is hydrolyzed to the free amino acid with bright refreshing flavor, and cellulose and pectin also Partial Conversion are water-soluble sugar and water soluble pectin.These variations are conducive to increase the content of Aqua Folium Camelliae sinensis extract, promote bright alcoholic degree and the concentration of millet paste, reduce phenol ammonia ratio, alleviate bitter taste; Bright leaf dynamic combined is withered and is taken a firm foundation for black tea quality, again under the hyther that completes, both passivation enzymatic activity, distributed rapidly again part moisture, played the effect of alcoholization flavour; Promoted the conversion of inclusion, soluble sugar, soluble pectin, amino acid content significantly increase in the tealeaves; Thoroughly destroy residual enzyme activity in the tealeaves, make tealeaves fully dry, further promote the conversion of inclusion, promote the dense alcoholic degree of millet paste flavour.
Technology compares with domestic and international similar technology
There is no at present the ripe black tea process technology of dynamically withering in world other countries and area.We are the earliest to the wither research of process technology of black tea, wither from bright leaf dynamic combined and carry out focus development, studies show that using dynamic combined to wither deceive tea processing, can really realize putting forward the purpose of deceiving the tea added value.It is mellow long to form a kind of flavour, elegant elegant natural flowers fruital channel black tea.
Technical difficulty and maturity
" black tea dynamic combined wither process technology " is the agricultural production process technology that is suitable for, has very strong operability and practicality in Tea Production.Wherein most of technology is more easily learnt and is grasped, and can implement in the tealeaves producing region.But also there is larger difficulty in this technology, and the control of key technology point is wanted seeking time, moisture, that the temperature GPRS gets is just right, just can guarantee black tea formation best in quality.Applying of process technology will be in a phased and sequenced manner so black tea dynamically withers, and needs to strengthen the dynamics of scientific and technical training, does many patient and painstaking trainings, could really apply in the actual production, thereby improve product quality.

Claims (1)

1. the black tea dynamic combined technique of withering is characterized in that:
A. pluck that quality is fresh, not damaged, without the bright leaf of fever phenomenon;
B. bright leaf enters factory and adopts immediately fan to cool off fast, prevents that the phenomenon of fermenting from appearring in bright leaf in advance;
C. cooled bright leaf shines green grass or young crops; Shone blue or green time 12-15 minute, and made bright leaf dehydration, turn 2 times midway, shine blue or green rear bright leaf water content and reduce to 68-70%, be placed on the frame for spreading fresh tea leaf again and wither;
D, the brighter leaf on the frame for spreading fresh tea leaf is added wind with fan and wither and be convenient to dehydration, in the process of withering, do green grass or young crops simultaneously, wither in the process adding wind, did green grass or young crops once every 25 minutes; Total withering time is 4-6 hour;
E. backwater after bright leaf withers to a certain degree, mode is naturally to spread on frame for spreading fresh tea leaf, its objective is that the excessive moisture that makes on the leaf stalk shifts to blade, makes the moisture distribution of whole leaf even, the backwater time is 60-70 minute;
F. the brighter leaf behind the backwater being put into vibration machine carries out three times and shakes green grass or young crops, shaking for the first time the blue or green time is 1 minute, and green grass or young crops is carried out shaking in the interval second time after 35 minutes, and shaking the blue or green time for the second time is 1.5 minutes, green grass or young crops is shaken at the interval for the third time after 45 minutes again, and shaking for the third time the blue or green time is 2 minutes;
G. bright leaf spreads 100-120 minute after shaking blue or green the end, treats to complete in green-keeping machine when flowers and fruits perfume (or spice) is the strongest; Temperature completes: 220 ℃, and fixation time 70 seconds; Tealeaves water content after completing is 63.8%.
CN2013100533340A 2013-02-19 2013-02-19 Dynamic combination black tea withering process CN103053725A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104171052A (en) * 2014-07-22 2014-12-03 湖南省铁香茶叶有限公司 Processing method of orchid-flavored black tea
CN105432814A (en) * 2015-11-12 2016-03-30 中国科学院华南植物园 Method for improving nectar fragrance and amino acid content of tea leaf and tea leaf made by using same
CN109832362A (en) * 2019-04-02 2019-06-04 湖北久茶文化有限公司 A kind of manufacturing method of novel old green tea

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101156634A (en) * 2007-10-23 2008-04-09 吴建利 A processing method of Meishan pretty tea
CN101664084A (en) * 2009-09-15 2010-03-10 福建品品香茶业有限公司 Processing technique of fragrant Bailin Kongfu black tea
CN101744061A (en) * 2008-11-29 2010-06-23 庄秋生 Production technology of oolong rich in zinc and selenium
CN102007981A (en) * 2010-11-27 2011-04-13 福建农林大学 Processing method for black tea with flower fragrance
CN102524444A (en) * 2012-02-10 2012-07-04 李宗俭 Processing method of Lijiang River milk snow tea

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101156634A (en) * 2007-10-23 2008-04-09 吴建利 A processing method of Meishan pretty tea
CN101744061A (en) * 2008-11-29 2010-06-23 庄秋生 Production technology of oolong rich in zinc and selenium
CN101664084A (en) * 2009-09-15 2010-03-10 福建品品香茶业有限公司 Processing technique of fragrant Bailin Kongfu black tea
CN102007981A (en) * 2010-11-27 2011-04-13 福建农林大学 Processing method for black tea with flower fragrance
CN102524444A (en) * 2012-02-10 2012-07-04 李宗俭 Processing method of Lijiang River milk snow tea

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104171052A (en) * 2014-07-22 2014-12-03 湖南省铁香茶叶有限公司 Processing method of orchid-flavored black tea
CN105432814A (en) * 2015-11-12 2016-03-30 中国科学院华南植物园 Method for improving nectar fragrance and amino acid content of tea leaf and tea leaf made by using same
CN105432814B (en) * 2015-11-12 2019-06-18 中国科学院华南植物园 A kind of method improving tealeaves nectar perfume (or spice) and amino acid content and the tealeaves using this method production
CN109832362A (en) * 2019-04-02 2019-06-04 湖北久茶文化有限公司 A kind of manufacturing method of novel old green tea

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Application publication date: 20130424