CN103048036A - Method for carrying out online monitoring on operating state of transformer OLTC (on-load tap-changer) - Google Patents

Method for carrying out online monitoring on operating state of transformer OLTC (on-load tap-changer) Download PDF

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CN103048036A
CN103048036A CN2012105255188A CN201210525518A CN103048036A CN 103048036 A CN103048036 A CN 103048036A CN 2012105255188 A CN2012105255188 A CN 2012105255188A CN 201210525518 A CN201210525518 A CN 201210525518A CN 103048036 A CN103048036 A CN 103048036A
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sigma
transformers
load tap
space
overbar
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CN2012105255188A
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CN103048036B (en
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傅坚
林嘉杨
王丰华
金之俭
周翔
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上海市电力公司
国家电网公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for carrying out online monitoring on an operating state of a transformer OLTC (on-load tap-changer) and belongs to the field of signal monitoring. The method comprises the following steps of: acquiring a mechanical vibrating signal of a box wall of a transformer in real time; carrying out phase space reconstruction on the vibrating signal x(t) by using a delay coordinate method; determining a designated area V of a reconstructed phase space; calculating density distribution of space phase points; calculating a correlation coefficient rho of a space density curve before and after the OLTC actuates; if the correlation coefficient rho is more than 0.8, judging that the operating state of the OLTC is normal; and if the correlation coefficient rho is less than 0.8, judging that the operating state of the OLTC is abnormal. By carrying out real-time monitoring on the vibrating signal in the actuating process of the OLTC, efficient and accurate judgment on the working state of the transformer OLTC can be implemented. The method can be widely used for the field of online monitoring and fault diagnosis of various transformer OLTCs.

Description

A kind of on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of signal monitoring field, relate in particular to a kind of on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers duty.
Background technology
ULTC be extremely important in the electric system various device and one of key equipment, it mainly passes through the step by step action of on-load tap changer (OLTC:On-load Tap Changer), realize the on-load voltage regulation of power transformer, therefore, load ratio bridging switch is one of key core parts of power transformer.
Rely on load ratio bridging switch change action accurately and timely, not only can reduce and avoid fluctuating widely of voltage, and can force the distribution load trend, excavating equipment is idle and meritorious exerting oneself, and increases the dirigibility of dispatching of power netwoks.
Along with the raising that the quality of power supply is required, the average daily times of pressure regulation of power transformer significantly increases, and times of pressure regulation increases thereupon, correspondingly, causes the failure rate of load ratio bridging switch to present rising tendency, affects the safe and stable operation of electric system.
The foreign statistic data shows that the OLTC fault is occupied 41% of voltage adjustment of on-load transformer fault, and in rising trend.Domestic average statistics data show that the fault of OLTC accounts for more than 20% of transformer fault.Therefore, running status to the load ratio bridging switch of operating power transformer is carried out on-line monitoring and fault diagonosing, in time find incipient fault hidden danger and the extent of damage of load ratio bridging switch, the Condition Monitoring Technology of research load ratio bridging switch is to realize rationalization, the standardization and scientific of maintenance of equipment, meet intelligent grid about electrical equipment being implemented the requirement of State Maintenance and state estimation, have larger Research Significance and good application prospect.
On-load tap changers of transformers mainly is comprised of selector switch, change-over switch and motor drive mechanism, and its performance comprises electric property and two aspects of mechanical property.
The electric property of on-load tap changers of transformers mainly refers to contact resistance, when contact resistance increases, can cause that contact is overheated, even scaling loss.
The mechanical property of on-load tap changers of transformers refers to sequence of movement and the time coordination of the parts such as selector switch and change-over switch in the OLTC operating process, and whether exist jam and contact to switch in the handoff procedure not in place etc.Mechanical fault is the major failure type of power transformer load tap changer, and it may damage load ratio bridging switch and power transformer, affects the normal safe operation of power equipment and system and causes serious consequence.
At present, the mostly employing off-line periodic maintenance mode of domestic load ratio bridging switch, it is the wear law according to equipment, pre-determine repair type, repair workshop every and maintenance load equipment carried out periodicity keep in repair, prevent the generation of fault.
The periodic maintenance mode can make produces and repairs and all can in a planned way carry out, and can prevent and reduce catastrophic failure, is applicable to the known device life distribution law and the equipment of obvious loss phase is arranged.Shortcoming is that workload is large, and efficient is low and measuring accuracy is not high, can not adapt to the form demand gradually.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention provides a kind of on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status, the method can realize the efficiently and accurately judgement to the on-load tap changers of transformers duty by the vibration signal in the load ratio bridging switch course of action is carried out Real Time Monitoring.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status is characterized in that described on-line monitoring method comprises the following steps:
(1) vibration signal on collection on-load tap changers of transformers surface;
(2) use the delay coordinate method that vibration signal x (t) is carried out phase space reconfiguration, for
X ( 1 ) = [ x ( 1 ) , x ( 1 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 1 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] X ( 2 ) = [ x ( 2 ) , x ( 2 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 2 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] . . . . . . X ( k ) = [ x ( k ) , x ( k + τ ) , . . . , x ( k + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ]
In the formula, N=k+ (m-1) is seasonal effect in time series length, and m is for embedding dimension, and τ is time delay, and this k vector has formed the phase space of a reconstruct;
(3) determine the appointed area V of phase space reconstruction;
(4) Density Distribution of computer memory phase point;
(5) correlation coefficient ρ of space density curve before and after the action of calculating load ratio bridging switch; If correlation coefficient ρ〉0.8, judge that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is normal; If correlation coefficient ρ<0.8 judges that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is unusual.
Wherein, the computation process of its described embedding dimension m and delay time T is
(2-1) standard deviation sigma of calculating Vibration Signal Time Series x (t);
(2-2) Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) is divided into t disjoint subsequence, the length l of each subsequence is l=N/t, and t=6 is arranged herein;
(2-3) to each subsequence, calculate three statistics And S Cor(t), for
S ‾ ( t ) = 1 16 Σ m = 2 5 Σ j = 1 4 S ( m , r j , t )
Δ S ‾ ( t ) = 1 4 Σ m = 2 5 ΔS ( m , t )
S cor ( t ) = Δ S ‾ ( t ) + | S ‾ ( t ) |
S ( m , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , r , t ) ]
S ( m , N , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , N / t , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , N / t , r , t ) ] , N → ∞
C s ( m , N , r , t ) = 2 k ( k - 1 ) Σ 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ k H ( r - d ij ) , r > 0
d ij=||X(i)-X(j)||
In the formula, r is radius, and its span is 1 ~ 4.
(2-4) seek First zero point or First minimum point, first zero point or time corresponding to first minimum point are delay time T;
(2-5) seek S Cor(t) minimum point, the corresponding time is first overall maximum time window τ of Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) w, calculate and embed dimension m, for
m=int(τ w/τ+1)
In the formula, int is bracket function.
Definite process of its described phase space reconstruction appointed area V is
(3-1) selecting a centre of sphere in the m of reconstruct dimension phase space is R cM dimension suprasphere, the coordinate of the centre of sphere is And have
x ‾ = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 x ( n )
In the formula, N is the average of Vibration Signal Time Series.
(3-2) definition phase space attractor radius R aFor
R a = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 ( x ( n ) - x ‾ ) 2
(3-3) select in the phase space with R cBe the centre of sphere, R aFor the spheric region of radius as appointed area V.The computation process of its described space phase point Density Distribution is:
Uniformly-spaced divide computer memory [2R a, 3R a], uniformly-spaced be divided into 5 parts herein;
Calculate each phase point of phase space reconstruction apart from the Euclidean distance of initial point, the statistics phase point drops on counting of each space, obtains the phase point distribution density that each divides the space.
The computing formula of its described correlation coefficient ρ is
ρ = Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) ( Y i - Y ‾ ) Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) 2 Σ i = 1 N ( Y i - Y ‾ ) 2 .
Further, described on-line monitoring method utilizes vibration acceleration sensor, the mechanical property of non-invasi ground Monitoring Power Transformer load ratio bridging switch, Real-time Collection, analyze and process the vibration signal on load ratio bridging switch surface, obtain status information and the mode of operation of gear train, one section vibration signal in the on-load tap changers of transformers course of action is carried out phase space reconfiguration, the Density Distribution of computer memory phase point in the appointed area in higher dimensional space, then calculate the related coefficient of space, load ratio bridging switch action front and back phase point density profile, just can judge the running status of on-load tap changers of transformers according to the variation of related coefficient, accordingly the running status of on-load tap changers of transformers is identified, can in time find the latency fault in the load ratio bridging switch operational process, improve load ratio bridging switch, the reliability of transformer and Operation of Electric Systems and security.
The vibration signal on its described on-load tap changers of transformers surface is obtained by the vibration acceleration sensor that sticks on the surface, with not directly electrical connection of whole electric system, for the normal operation of whole electrical system without any impact.
Compared with the prior art, advantage of the present invention is:
The on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status of the present invention is owing to adopted technique scheme, so that it can be by the Real Time Monitoring to on-load tap changers of transformers surface vibration signal, directly judge the duty of on-load tap changers of transformers, this determination methods is efficient, accurate, and easy to implement, the convenient operation personnel in time find the unusual of on-load tap changers of transformers, thereby according to abnormal conditions on-load tap changers of transformers is overhauled in time, greatly reduce the fault spoilage of on-load tap changers of transformers.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the on-line monitoring method of the on-load tap changers of transformers duty of the present invention vibration signal in load ratio bridging switch when action of collecting in one embodiment.
The density profile of phase point space density between designation area that Fig. 2 obtains in the present embodiment for the on-line monitoring method that adopts on-load tap changers of transformers duty of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the block diagram of the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers duty of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
M type load ratio bridging switch take the 35kV transformer of certain transformer station of certain Utilities Electric Co. carries out on-line monitoring as subjects, judges the duty of this on-load tap changers of transformers according to the following step:
(1) vibration transducer is arranged on the surface of this on-load tap changers of transformers, the vibration signal of Real-time Collection transformer box wall, the vibration signal when measured load ratio bridging switch moves is as shown in Figure 1;
(2) vibration signal that collects is resisted mixed repeatedly digital filtering and high-speed cache, then transfer to data analysis module by high-speed bus;
(3) use the delay coordinate method that vibration signal x (t) is carried out phase space reconfiguration, for
X ( 1 ) = [ x ( 1 ) , x ( 1 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 1 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] X ( 2 ) = [ x ( 2 ) , x ( 2 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 2 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] . . . . . . X ( k ) = [ x ( k ) , x ( k + τ ) , . . . , x ( k + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ]
In the formula, N=k+ (m-1) is seasonal effect in time series length, and m is for embedding dimension, and τ is time delay, and this k vector has formed the phase space of a reconstruct.
The computation process of described embedding dimension m and delay time T is
(I) standard deviation sigma of calculating Vibration Signal Time Series x (t);
(II) Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) is divided into t disjoint subsequence, the length l of each subsequence is l=N/t, and t=6 is arranged herein;
(III) to each subsequence, calculate three statistics And S Cor(t), for
S ‾ ( t ) = 1 16 Σ m = 2 5 Σ j = 1 4 S ( m , r j , t )
Δ S ‾ ( t ) = 1 4 Σ m = 2 5 ΔS ( m , t )
S cor ( t ) = Δ S ‾ ( t ) + | S ‾ ( t ) |
S ( m , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , r , t ) ]
S ( m , N , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , N / t , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , N / t , r , t ) ] , N → ∞
C s ( m , N , r , t ) = 2 k ( k - 1 ) Σ 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ k H ( r - d ij ) , r > 0
d ij=||X(i)-X(j)||
In the formula, r is radius, and its span is 1 ~ 4.
(IV) seek First zero point or First minimum point, first zero point or time corresponding to first minimum point are delay time T, and τ=11 are arranged herein;
(V) seek S Cor(t) minimum point, the corresponding time is first overall maximum time window τ of Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) w, calculate and embed dimension m, for
m=int(τ w/τ+1)
In the formula, int is bracket function.M=6 is arranged herein.
(4) determine the appointed area V of phase space reconstruction.
Definite process of described phase space reconstruction appointed area V is:
(I) selecting a centre of sphere in the m of reconstruct dimension phase space is R cM dimension suprasphere, the coordinate of the centre of sphere is And have
x ‾ = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 x ( n )
In the formula, N is the average of Vibration Signal Time Series.
(II) definition phase space attractor radius R aFor
R a = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 ( x ( n ) - x ‾ ) 2
(III) select in the phase space with R cBe the centre of sphere, R aFor the spheric region of radius as appointed area V.
(5) Density Distribution of computer memory phase point.
The computation process of described space phase point Density Distribution is: uniformly-spaced divide computer memory [2R a, 3R a], uniformly-spaced be divided into 5 parts herein.Calculate each phase point of phase space reconstruction apart from the Euclidean distance of initial point, the statistics phase point drops on counting of each space, obtains the phase point distribution density that each divides the space.
Because Euclidean distance is the accepted value mathematical method of trying to achieve 2 distances, it is that the one of ordinary skilled in the art is all known, so no longer advance determinant expression and narration at this;
(6) if correlation coefficient ρ of space density curve before and after the action of calculating load ratio bridging switch is correlation coefficient ρ〉0.8, judge that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is normal; If correlation coefficient ρ<0.8 judges that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is unusual.
The computing formula of described correlation coefficient ρ is
ρ = Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) ( Y i - Y ‾ ) Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) 2 Σ i = 1 N ( Y i - Y ‾ ) 2
Fig. 2 has shown that phase point Density Distribution in the load ratio bridging switch handoff procedure that obtains according to said method in the present embodiment is in the density profile of designated space, the Calculation of correlation factor result of these two curves is ρ=0.7046, illustrate that the load ratio bridging switch running status is unusual, the mechanical faults such as spring becomes flexible might appear, need in time keep in repair, avoid occuring significant trouble.
Load ratio bridging switch is in operating process, and the collision between mechanism's parts or friction can cause mechanical vibration, and mechanical vibration are abundant information carriers, and the vibration on load ratio bridging switch switch support, the shell is the response of inner multiple phenomenon excitation.If claim that primary collision or the friction of mechanism's parts are a vibration event, then the mechanical oscillation signal of different time of vibration generations can form in time domain the time series of a vibration signal.Therefore, proposition is incorporated into the analysis of vibration signal method on-line monitoring and the fault diagnosis of load ratio bridging switch, the basic thought of this method is to utilize vibration acceleration sensor, the mechanical property of non-invasi ground Monitoring Power Transformer load ratio bridging switch, Real-time Collection, analyze and process the vibration signal on load ratio bridging switch surface, obtain status information and the mode of operation of gear train, accordingly the running status of on-load tap changers of transformers is identified, can in time find the latency fault in the load ratio bridging switch operational process, improve load ratio bridging switch, the reliability of transformer and Operation of Electric Systems and security.In addition, the vibration signal of load ratio bridging switch is obtained by the vibration acceleration sensor that sticks on the surface, with not directly electrical connection of whole electric system, without any impact, can develop into a kind of more accurate, convenient, safe on-line monitoring method for the normal operation of whole electrical system.
To sum up, the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers duty of the present invention is as shown in Figure 3:
(1) vibration transducer is arranged on the outside surface of on-load tap changers of transformers the mechanical oscillation signal of Real-time Collection transformer box wall;
(2) mechanical oscillation signal that collects is resisted mixed repeatedly digital filtering and high-speed cache, then transfer to data analysis module by high-speed bus;
(3) data analysis module uses the delay coordinate method that vibration signal x (t) is carried out phase space reconfiguration;
(4) determine the appointed area V of phase space reconstruction;
(5) Density Distribution of computer memory phase point;
(6) if correlation coefficient ρ of space density curve before and after the action of calculating load ratio bridging switch is correlation coefficient ρ〉0.8, judge that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is normal; If correlation coefficient ρ<0.8 judges that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is unusual.
The present invention can be widely used in on-line monitoring and the fault diagnosis field of range transformer load ratio bridging switch.

Claims (7)

1. the on-line monitoring method of an on-load tap changers of transformers running status is characterized in that described on-line monitoring method comprises the following steps:
(1) vibration signal on collection on-load tap changers of transformers surface;
(2) use the delay coordinate method that vibration signal x (t) is carried out phase space reconfiguration, for
X ( 1 ) = [ x ( 1 ) , x ( 1 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 1 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] X ( 2 ) = [ x ( 2 ) , x ( 2 + τ ) , . . . , x ( 2 + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ] . . . . . . X ( k ) = [ x ( k ) , x ( k + τ ) , . . . , x ( k + ( m - 1 ) τ ) ]
In the formula, N=k+ (m-1) is seasonal effect in time series length, and m is for embedding dimension, and τ is time delay, and this k vector has formed the phase space of a reconstruct;
(3) determine the appointed area V of phase space reconstruction;
(4) Density Distribution of computer memory phase point;
(5) correlation coefficient ρ of space density curve before and after the action of calculating load ratio bridging switch; If correlation coefficient ρ〉0.8, judge that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is normal; If correlation coefficient ρ<0.8 judges that then the load ratio bridging switch running status is unusual.
2. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that the computation process of described embedding dimension m and delay time T is
(2-1) standard deviation sigma of calculating Vibration Signal Time Series x (t);
(2-2) Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) is divided into t disjoint subsequence, the length l of each subsequence is l=N/t, and t=6 is arranged herein;
(2-3) to each subsequence, calculate three statistics And S Cor(t), for
S ‾ ( t ) = 1 16 Σ m = 2 5 Σ j = 1 4 S ( m , r j , t )
Δ S ‾ ( t ) = 1 4 Σ m = 2 5 ΔS ( m , t )
S cor ( t ) = Δ S ‾ ( t ) + | S ‾ ( t ) |
S ( m , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , r , t ) ]
S ( m , N , r , t ) = 1 t Σ s = 1 t [ C s ( m , N / t , r , t ) - C s m ( 1 , N / t , r , t ) ] , N → ∞
C s ( m , N , r , t ) = 2 k ( k - 1 ) Σ 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ k H ( r - d ij ) , r > 0
d ij=||X(i)-X(j)||
In the formula, r is radius, and its span is 1 ~ 4.
(2-4) seek First zero point or First minimum point, first zero point or time corresponding to first minimum point are delay time T;
(2-5) seek S Cor(t) minimum point, the corresponding time is first overall maximum time window τ of Vibration Signal Time Series x (t) w, calculate and embed dimension m, for
m=int(τ w/τ+1)
In the formula, int is bracket function.
3. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that definite process of described phase space reconstruction appointed area V is
(3-1) selecting a centre of sphere in the m of reconstruct dimension phase space is R cM dimension suprasphere, the coordinate of the centre of sphere is And have
x ‾ = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 x ( n )
In the formula, N is the average of Vibration Signal Time Series.
(3-2) definition phase space attractor radius R aFor
R a = 1 N Σ n = 0 N - 1 ( x ( n ) - x ‾ ) 2
(3-3) select in the phase space with R cBe the centre of sphere, R aFor the spheric region of radius as appointed area V.
4. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that the computation process of described space phase point Density Distribution is:
Uniformly-spaced divide computer memory [2R a, 3R a], uniformly-spaced be divided into 5 parts herein;
Calculate each phase point of phase space reconstruction apart from the Euclidean distance of initial point, the statistics phase point drops on counting of each space, obtains the phase point distribution density that each divides the space.
5. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that the computing formula of described correlation coefficient ρ is
ρ = Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) ( Y i - Y ‾ ) Σ i = 1 N ( X i - X ‾ ) 2 Σ i = 1 N ( Y i - Y ‾ ) 2 .
6. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that described on-line monitoring method utilizes vibration acceleration sensor, the mechanical property of non-invasi ground Monitoring Power Transformer load ratio bridging switch, Real-time Collection, analyze and process the vibration signal on load ratio bridging switch surface, obtain status information and the mode of operation of gear train, one section vibration signal in the on-load tap changers of transformers course of action is carried out phase space reconfiguration, the Density Distribution of computer memory phase point in the appointed area in higher dimensional space, then calculate the related coefficient of space, load ratio bridging switch action front and back phase point density profile, just can judge the running status of on-load tap changers of transformers according to the variation of related coefficient, accordingly the running status of on-load tap changers of transformers is identified, can in time find the latency fault in the load ratio bridging switch operational process, improve load ratio bridging switch, the reliability of transformer and Operation of Electric Systems and security.
7. according to the on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status claimed in claim 1, the vibration signal that it is characterized in that described on-load tap changers of transformers surface is obtained by the vibration acceleration sensor that sticks on the surface, with not directly electrical connection of whole electric system, for the normal operation of whole electrical system without any impact.
CN201210525518.8A 2012-12-07 2012-12-07 A kind of on-line monitoring method of on-load tap changers of transformers running status CN103048036B (en)

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