CN103027290B - Application of boletus edulis in reducing nitrite content in fermented food or pickled food - Google Patents

Application of boletus edulis in reducing nitrite content in fermented food or pickled food Download PDF

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CN103027290B
CN103027290B CN201210560015.4A CN201210560015A CN103027290B CN 103027290 B CN103027290 B CN 103027290B CN 201210560015 A CN201210560015 A CN 201210560015A CN 103027290 B CN103027290 B CN 103027290B
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pickles
nitrite
content
raw
food
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CN201210560015.4A
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CN103027290A (en
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王贺祥
陈晓
朱孟娟
杜芳
张瑞
刘庆洪
刘芹
张薇薇
冯杉杉
袁翔鹤
耿雪冉
马增强
王丽
特日根
曹明慧
杨冬雪
胡玉静
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中国农业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an application of boletus edulis in reducing the nitrite content in fermented food or pickled food. Experiments testify that if boletus edulis is fermented together with common pickle ingredients, the nitrite content in the pickle ingredients can be reduced remarkably, wherein the boletus edulis and the common pickle ingredients are fermented for 4 days with the mass ratio of 1.4 to 1, and compared with the common pickle ingredients which are fermented individually, the nitrite content can be reduced by 97 percent. According to the invention, fermenting food or pickling food with the boletus edulis is low in cost, simple in process, and the quality and safety of fermented products are excellent. If putting the boletus edulis into the pickle processing and other food processing industries is carried out, the boletus edulis can play a positive role both in the continuous development of the industry and the improvement of market competitiveness of the product.

Description

Cepe is reducing the application of fermented food or cure foods nitrite
Technical field
The present invention relates to the new purposes of cepe, particularly cepe is reducing the application of fermented food or cure foods nitrite.
Background technology
Nitrite is that a class contains nitrite ion (NO 2 -) inorganic compound, white or faint yellow crystallization salts substances, bitter, the profile utmost point is like salt.Nitrite be extensively present in pickle and fermented food in, as homemade salted vegetables, sauerkraut, pickles, salted fish, butcher's meat, bacon, bacon etc.From food hygiene angle, nitrite can be combined by the myoglobin in meat as food additives, makes its color and luster azarin, to maintain good outward appearance, also have effect antibacterial and enhancing local flavor, but its scope of application and use amount will strictly be controlled simultaneously.Because can cause nitrite poisoning when human body is taken in too much nitrite.
Nitrites food poisoning claims again enterogenous cyanosis disease, cyanosis disease, black mouth sick, is due to edible nitre hydrochlorate or the higher cured meat goods of content of nitrite, pickles and rotten vegetables etc., cause taking in nitrous acid too much and cause poisoning.Nitrite is a kind of strong oxidizer, and it can be oxidized to ferrihemoglobin by the low Ferri-hemoglobin of normally taking oxygen in blood, makes it lose oxygen carrying capacity and causes histanoxia.Nitrite or extremely toxic substance, its lethal dose is 22 milligrams of pers kilogram of body weight.Research also finds that nitrite is also a kind of carcinogen, and its mechanism of carcinogenesis is: under the environment such as hydrochloric acid in gastric juice, nitrite reacts generation strong carcinogen N-nitrosamine with secondary amine, tertiary amine and acid amides etc. in food, and then cause cancer.Nitrosamine can also see through placenta and enter in fetus body, causes fetal anomaly.The long-term edible food containing nitrite also can cause cancer of the esophagus and cancer of the stomach.
In human body, the main source of nitrite is cured meat goods, pickles and the rotten vegetables that edible nitre hydrochlorate or content of nitrite are higher, also may come from and drink bitter well water or the steamer water that contains nitrate or nitrite.Along with a large amount of uses that nitrogenous fertilizer is produced crops, vegetables, nitrate and nitrite in soil progressively accumulate, and nitrate and content of nitrite in crops and vegetables also improve constantly.And take Chinese conventional food-pickles that vegetables are raw material, and not only there is unique local flavor, and contain the inorganic matters such as abundant vitamin and calcium, phosphorus, become the important composition composition in national diet.Its preparation method is vegetables to be immersed in to fermentation in certain density salt solution and spice form, but in this course, some microbes becomes nitrite by the nitrate reduction in vegetable raw-material, so the existence of Nitrite in Pickles makes people produce doubt to the edible safety of pickles.The security-related department of state food limits the content of nitric acid and nitrous acid in vegetables and goods thereof.According to the pertinent regulations in food security national standard-pollutants in food limit standard (GB2762-2005): in catsup and pickled vegetables, the content of nitrous acid should be no more than 20mg/Kg sample.
Relevant research finds that the factors such as salinity have a certain impact to the nitrous acid content tool in pickles, and high salt has reduced the content of its nitrite to a certain extent, but has also affected the local flavor of pickles simultaneously.When curing food ferments, by adding compound sugar, make lactic acid bacteria Rapid Fermentation produce acid, thereby reduce other miscellaneous bacteria quantity, also can reduce the generation of nitrite, reduced rate is about 23%.Also studies have found that a kind of bacillus megaterium that can degrading nitrite, it can reduce the content of nitrite in the environment such as water, soil, reduces the harm of nitrite to the mankind and environment, and according to the difference of bacterial strain, degradation rate is also different, is about 60%.But because the acquisition technique of raw material compound sugar and bacillus megaterium has affected its application compared with complicated, cost compared with high.
The material with cleaning nitrite effect of having reported at present has plant extracts, as green-tea extract, anise and cloves extract, V c, sodium isoascorbate and V edeng, but a shortcoming of these nitrite scavenger maximums is that elimination efficiency is low.
Cepe (Boletus edulis), claims again big foot mushroom, Suillus albidipes (Peck) Sing, and fructification is medium to large-scale.Summer and autumn is single raw or scattered on the ground in woods, is distributed in the areas such as China Henan, Taiwan, Heilungkiang, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, the Inner Mongol, Fujian.Be good wild edible fungus, its bacterial context is thick and soft, delicious flavour, and is rich in the mineral matters such as protein, carbohydrate, vitamin and calcium, phosphorus, iron.Pharmaceutically acceptable, treatment lumbocrural pain, numb in every limb, muscles and bones are not relaxed, tic of limbs, and diabetes are also had to good curative effect.The water extract of its fructification has peptide class or protein, and the inhibiting rate of small white mouse sarcoma 180 and ehrlich carcinoma is respectively to 100% and 90%.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to reduce fermented food or cure foods nitrite with cepe.First the present invention provides following technical scheme:
1, the application of cepe (Boletus edulis) in preparing fermented food or cure foods.
2, the application of cepe (Boletus edulis) in reducing fermented food or cure foods nitrite.
Wherein, fermented food or cure foods specifically can be pickles.
Pickles are that to take raw vegetable or the salty base of vegetables be raw material, through in the fermentation of low concentration salt solution (2%-10%) bubble stain, seasoning (or not seasoning), pack the vegetable product that (or not packing), sterilizing (or unsterilised) etc. process.
Described pickles obtain 20-25 ℃ of fermentation for 1-9 days.
The present invention also provides a kind of method of making low nitrite content pickles.
The method of making low nitrite content pickles provided by the present invention, comprise the common pickles raw material of 1.4-23 weight portion and 1 weight portion cepe (Boletus edulis) and bittern are put in to the step that the inherent 20-25 ℃ of fermentation of same container for pickle obtains described low nitrite content pickles for 1-9 days, content of nitrite in described low nitrite content pickles is lower than common pickles, described common pickles are made according to commonsense method, described commonsense method is except the described common pickles raw material in the method for described making low nitrite content pickles and cepe are replaced with described common pickles raw material, other (fermentation time, fermentation temperature, round, volume of pickles raw material etc. in round) all identical with the method for described making low nitrite content pickles.
Described weight is in fresh weight.
In above-mentioned application and method, described cepe (Boletus edulis) can be fresh fructification and also can be dry fructification.
Described dry fructification is that fresh cepe fructification is dried and is obtained at normal temperatures.
In the method for described making low nitrite content pickles, the consumption of described bittern is not have described common pickles raw material and described cepe to be advisable, and in described commonsense method, the consumption of described bittern was not to have described common pickles raw material to be advisable.
Described common pickles raw material can be: radish, carrot, celery, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cowpea, leaf mustard, at least one in the conventional pickles raw materials such as ginger, capsicum and garlic.
In an embodiment of the invention, described common pickles raw material is ternip, ginger and garlic.Wherein, the weight ratio of ternip, ginger and garlic is 5:1:1.Described weight is in fresh weight.
Described bittern basic composition is Cold Boiling water and salt, the quality of salt can be the 3%-5% of water, as 5%.Can add again at least one condiment such as wine, sugar, Chinese prickly ash, capsicum, cassia bark, garlic, aniseed and ginger to make the bittern of different taste.
In an embodiment of the invention, described bittern consists of 60 mass parts salt, 30 mass parts white sugar, 2 mass parts capsicums, 2 mass parts Chinese prickly ashes, 1 mass parts cassia bark, 1 mass parts aniseed and 1200 mass parts water.
Described water can be Cold Boiling water.
In the method for described making low nitrite content pickles, the mass ratio of described common pickles raw material and described cepe (Boletus edulis) can be (1.4-2): 1, (1.4-3): 1, (1.4-7): 1, (1.4-23): 1, (2-3): 1, (2-7): 1, (2-23): 1, (3-7): 1, (3-23): 1, (3-23): 1,1.4:1,2:1,3:1,7:1 or 23:1.
In above-mentioned application and method, described fermentation can be 2-9 days for 1-9 days, 2-8 days, 2-7 days, 2-6 days, 2-5 days, fermentation 2-4 days, 2-3 days, 1-2 days, 1-3 days, 3-4 days, 1-4 days, 1-5 days, 1-6 days, 1-7 days, 1-8 days, 1-9 days, 3-5 days, 3-6 days, 3-7 days, 3-8 days, 3-9 days, 4-5 days, 4-6 days, 4-7 days, 4-8 days, 4-9 days, 5-6 days, 5-7 days, 5-8 days, 5-9 days, 2 days or 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days or 9 days.
Described 20-25 ℃ specifically can be 21-25 ℃, 22-25 ℃, 23-25 ℃, 24-25 ℃, 21-22 ℃, 21-23 ℃, 21-24 ℃, 22-24 ℃, 23-24 ℃, 21 ℃, 22 ℃, 23 ℃, 24 ℃ or 25 ℃.
The pickles that the method for above-mentioned making low nitrite content pickles is made also belong to protection scope of the present invention.
Experimental results show that cepe and common pickles raw material are carried out to common fermentation, can significantly reduce the content of nitrite in pickles, wherein, cepe and common pickles raw material carry out common fermentation 4 days with the mass ratio of 1.4:1, ferment and compare separately with common pickles raw material, content of nitrite can reduce by 97%.With cepe, prepare fermented food or cure foods, cost is low, and technique is simple, and fermented product quality and security are good, if drop into and implement, its sustainable development and the raising competitiveness of product in market are had to positive effect in pickles and even other food processing industries.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the variation of fermentation time control group and experimental group Nitrite in Pickles content while being 1-10 days.
Fig. 2 be fermentation time while being 1-10 days experimental group with respect to control group Nitrite in Pickles content, reduce percentage.
Fig. 3 impact on pickles Central Asia nitric acid content that is common pickles raw material and cepe with different proportioning mixed culture fermentation 4 days.
The specific embodiment
Following embodiment is convenient to understand better the present invention, but does not limit the present invention.Experimental technique in following embodiment, if no special instructions, is conventional method.
In following embodiment, the content of Nitrite in Pickles is all according to the mensuration of GB/T5009.33-2003(nitrite in food and nitrate) described in hydrochloric acid-naphthalene-ethylenediamine method measure.
In following embodiment, data are paired with two tail T-test() analyze the significance of difference, P≤0.05 is considered to significant difference, 0.01<P≤0.05(*), 0.001<P≤0.01(**), P≤0.001(***).
Following embodiment adopts the pickles standards of grading of table 1.
Table 1 pickles standards of grading table
In following embodiment, material used, reagent etc., if no special instructions, all can obtain from commercial channels.
Cepe in following embodiment (Boletus edulis) (Gao Yue, the impact of the little celery .6 of Wu kind ectotrophic mycorrhiza on 3 kinds of loose seedling chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. the 06th phase of Nanjing Forestry University's journal (natural science edition) .2010) pick up from Chinese yunnan Chuxiong, the public can be from field acquisition, or buy from the wild edible fungus market of locality, Yunnan, Ye Kecong China Agricultural University obtains, to repeat the application's experiment.
Cepe in following embodiment (Boletus edulis) all refers to cepe (Boletus edulis) fructification.
The impact of different time on pickles Central Asia nitric acid content of fermenting altogether of embodiment 1, common pickles raw material and cepe (Boletus edulis)
1, the preparation of bittern:
It is thoroughly cooling standby after 60 mass parts salt, 30 mass parts white sugar, 2 mass parts capsicums, 2 mass parts Chinese prickly ashes, 1 mass parts cassia bark, 1 mass parts aniseed are boiled to 5 minutes in 1200 mass parts water.Wherein, capsicum, Chinese prickly ash, cassia bark and aniseed are drying regime.
2, the preparation of raw material:
By fresh cepe and the stripping and slicing of ternip raw material, clean, drain standby.Ginger section, garlic peeling is standby.
Consisting of of low nitrite content pickles raw material: 500g ternip, 500g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Consisting of of common pickles raw material: 500g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
3, the fermentation of pickles:
Two processing are established in experiment, are respectively experimental group and control group.Pickles raw material in experimental group is low nitrite content pickles raw materials, and the pickles raw material of control group is common pickles raw material.Specific experiment method is as follows:
Above-mentioned low nitrite content pickles raw material and common pickles raw material are respectively charged into pickle jar (altar volume is 3L), and loading amount is 3/5 of altar volume, then adds the thorough chilled bittern of preprepared, and consumption was not for having raw material.Last cover lid, adds water seal mouth at the groove of altar mouth, guarantees the oxygen-free environment in altar.Fermentation temperature is 20-21 ℃, and respectively at fermentation sampling in 0-10 days, sampling method is for getting pickles with the dry clean chopsticks of a pair of in the same area of each jar, for measuring the content of nitrite of pickles.10 repetitions are established in experiment, repeat each at every turn and process three altars.
Experimental result shows: content of nitrite during fermentation first day (24h) in experimental group is slightly lower than control group, and it is 15.2% that corresponding content of nitrite reduces percentage.While fermenting to second day (48h), both difference obviously increases, and the content of nitrite in experimental group reduces percentage and rises to 71.3%.During fermentation to the four days (96h), both difference reaches maximum, and with respect to control group, the content of nitrite in experimental group has reduced by 97.1%.Along with the prolongation of fermentation time, the amount of Nitrite in Pickles can gradually reduce, and the ratio that cepe reduces content of nitrite also progressively reduces.While fermenting the 5th day (120h), the difference of control group and experimental group starts to reduce gradually, and during to the tenth day (240h), both content of nitrite reach unanimity, the effect that cepe reduces content of nitrite become not obvious (Fig. 1 and 2).Experimental group and control group quality when fermenting to 3-5 days is best, and color and luster is normal, fresh, glossy, has the intrinsic fragrance of this product (as fragrant in dish), without bad smell and other an unusually sweet smell; Flavour is delicious, and quality is tender and crisp, and sour-sweet saline taste is suitable, without the over-salty sweet taste of crossing of peracid, without bitter taste and astringent taste, be charred taste.Experimental group and control group fermentation quality when more than 6 days declines, and the tender and crisp degree of dish matter is poor, peracid, color and luster decline.
Wherein, fermentation is as shown in table 2 to pickles content of nitrite and the quality scoring of the 2nd day to the 6th day.
The pickles content of nitrite of table 2. fermentation different time and quality scoring
Embodiment 2, common pickles raw material and cepe (Boletus edulis) be the impact on pickles Central Asia nitric acid content with different proportioning mixed culture fermentation 4 days
1, the preparation of bittern:
It is thoroughly cooling standby after 60 mass parts salt, 30 mass parts white sugar, 2 mass parts capsicums, 2 mass parts Chinese prickly ashes, 1 mass parts cassia bark, 1 mass parts aniseed are boiled to 5 minutes in 1200 mass parts water.Wherein, capsicum, Chinese prickly ash, cassia bark and aniseed are drying regime.
2, the preparation of raw material:
By freezing cepe and the stripping and slicing of ternip raw material, clean, drain standby.Ginger section, garlic peeling is standby.Prepare following five kinds of low nitrite content pickles raw materials and five kinds of common pickles raw materials.
Consisting of of low nitrite content pickles raw material A: 950g ternip, 50g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Common pickles raw material A ' consist of: 950g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Low nitrite content pickles raw material B consists of: 850g ternip, 150g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Common pickles raw material B ' consists of: 850g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Low nitrite content pickles raw material C consists of: 700g ternip, 300g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Common pickles raw material C ' consists of: 700g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Low nitrite content pickles raw material D consists of: 600g ternip, 400g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Common pickles raw material D ' consists of: 600g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Low nitrite content pickles raw material E consists of: 500g ternip, 500g cepe, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Common pickles raw material E ' consists of: 500g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
3, the fermentation of pickles:
Ten processing are established in experiment, are respectively experimental group A to E and control group A '-E '.The pickles raw material of experimental group A is that the pickles raw material of low nitrite content pickles raw material A, experimental group B is that the pickles raw material of low nitrite content pickles raw material B, experimental group C is that the pickles raw material of low nitrite content pickles raw material C, experimental group D is that the pickles raw material of low nitrite content pickles raw material D, experimental group E is low nitrite content pickles raw material E.Control group A ' pickles raw material be common pickles raw material A ', the pickles raw material of control group B ' is that the pickles raw material of common pickles raw material B ', control group C ' is that the pickles raw material of common pickles raw material C ', control group D ' is that the pickles raw material of common pickles raw material D ', control group E ' is common pickles raw material E '.Specific experiment method is as follows:
Above-mentioned pickles raw material is respectively charged into pickle jar (altar volume is 3L), and loading amount is 3/5 of altar volume, then adds the thorough chilled bittern of preprepared, and consumption was not for having raw material.Last cover lid, adds water seal mouth at the groove of altar mouth, guarantees the oxygen-free environment in altar.Fermentation temperature is 22-23 ℃, ferment the 4th day (96 hours) sampling, sampling method is for getting pickles with the dry clean chopsticks of a pair of in the same area of each jar, for measuring the content of nitrite of pickles, according to following formula experiment with computing group Nitrite in Pickles content, reduce percentage: experimental group Nitrite in Pickles content reduces percentage (%)=(control group Nitrite in Pickles content-experimental group Nitrite in Pickles content)/control group Nitrite in Pickles content.Wherein, the experimental group of control group A ' correspondence is experimental group A, and the experimental group of control group B ' correspondence is experimental group B, and the experimental group of control group C ' correspondence is experimental group C, the experimental group of control group D ' correspondence is experimental group D, and the experimental group of control group E ' correspondence is experimental group E.10 repetitions are established in experiment, repeat each at every turn and process three altars.
Result shows the cepe of different content in low nitrite content pickles raw material, ferment (96h) four days time on the impact of Nitrite in Pickles content, be: compare with control group pickles, experimental group A Nitrite in Pickles content on average reduces by 20.8%, the amount of experimental group B-E Nitrite in Pickles reduces respectively 51.6%, 93.9%, 96.1% and 97.1%.Wherein, control group A ' Nitrite in Pickles content is 122.3mg/kg, control group B ' Nitrite in Pickles content is 120.5mg/kg, control group C ' Nitrite in Pickles content is 126.2mg/kg, control group D ' Nitrite in Pickles content is 128.1mg/kg, and control group E ' Nitrite in Pickles content is 131.9mg/kg.
Embodiment 3, by the dry fructification of cepe, prepare pickles
1, the preparation of bittern:
It is thoroughly cooling standby after 60 mass parts salt, 30 mass parts white sugar, 2 mass parts capsicums, 2 mass parts Chinese prickly ashes, 1 mass parts cassia bark, 1 mass parts aniseed are boiled to 5 minutes in 1200 mass parts water.Wherein, capsicum, Chinese prickly ash, cassia bark and aniseed are drying regime.
2, the preparation of raw material:
Dry cepe is sent out with cold water bubble, clean, stripping and slicing, drains standby.By ternip stripping and slicing, clean, drain standby.Ginger section, garlic peeling is standby.
Consisting of of low nitrite content pickles raw material: 500g ternip, the dry cepe of 50g (the dry cepe of 50g is by drying and get under the fresh cepe natural temperature of 500g), 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
Consisting of of common pickles raw material: 500g ternip, 100g ginger, 100g garlic.
3, the fermentation of pickles:
Two processing are established in experiment, are respectively experimental group and control group.Pickles raw material in experimental group is low nitrite content pickles raw materials, and the pickles raw material of control group is common pickles raw material.Specific experiment method is as follows:
Above-mentioned low nitrite content pickles raw material and common pickles raw material are respectively charged into pickle jar (altar volume is 3L), and loading amount is 3/5 of altar volume, then adds the thorough chilled bittern of preprepared, and consumption was not for having raw material.Last cover lid, adds water seal mouth at the groove of altar mouth, guarantees the oxygen-free environment in altar.Fermentation temperature is 24-25 ℃, and in fermentation (72 hours) sampling in the 3rd day, sampling method is for getting pickles with the dry clean chopsticks of a pair of in the same area of each jar, for measuring the content of nitrite of pickles.10 repetitions are established in experiment, repeat each at every turn and process three altars.
Experimental result shows: ferment the 3rd day (72 hours), to compare with control group pickles, the content of experimental group Nitrite in Pickles has reduced by 90.09%.Wherein, the content of control group Nitrite in Pickles is 66.7mg/kg.

Claims (2)

1. a method of making low nitrite content pickles, comprise common pickles raw material and cepe (Boletus edulis) and bittern are put in to the step that the inherent 20-25 ℃ of fermentation of same container for pickle obtains described low nitrite content pickles for 4 days, content of nitrite in described low nitrite content pickles is lower than common pickles, described common pickles are made according to commonsense method, described commonsense method is except the described common pickles raw material in the method for described making low nitrite content pickles and cepe are replaced with described common pickles raw material, other is all identical with the method for described making low nitrite content pickles, the mass ratio of described common pickles raw material and described cepe (Boletus edulis) is (1.4-3): 1.
2. the pickles that the method for making low nitrite content pickles claimed in claim 1 is made.
CN201210560015.4A 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 Application of boletus edulis in reducing nitrite content in fermented food or pickled food CN103027290B (en)

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