CN103026192B - For measuring the method and apparatus of the internal body temperature of patient - Google Patents

For measuring the method and apparatus of the internal body temperature of patient Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103026192B
CN103026192B CN201180033910.4A CN201180033910A CN103026192B CN 103026192 B CN103026192 B CN 103026192B CN 201180033910 A CN201180033910 A CN 201180033910A CN 103026192 B CN103026192 B CN 103026192B
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China
Prior art keywords
described
target area
temperature
object
thermometer
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CN201180033910.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103026192A (en
Inventor
弗朗切斯科·贝利费米内
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泰克尼梅德有限责任公司
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Priority to ITMI2010A001007 priority Critical
Priority to ITMI2010A001007A priority patent/IT1400273B1/en
Priority to ITMI20101531 priority patent/ITMI20101531A1/en
Priority to ITMI2010A001531 priority
Application filed by 泰克尼梅德有限责任公司 filed Critical 泰克尼梅德有限责任公司
Priority to PCT/IB2011/052443 priority patent/WO2011151806A1/en
Publication of CN103026192A publication Critical patent/CN103026192A/en
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Publication of CN103026192B publication Critical patent/CN103026192B/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/01Measuring temperature of body parts; Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant or inflamed tissue
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/0022Radiation pyrometry for sensing the radiation of moving bodies
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/0022Radiation pyrometry for sensing the radiation of moving bodies
    • G01J5/0025Living bodies
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/026Control of working procedures of a pyrometer, other than calibration ; Detecting failures in the functioning of a pyrometer; Bandwidth calculation; Gain control; Security control
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/0275Control or determination of height or distance or angle information for sensors or receivers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/04Constructional details of apparatus
    • A61B2560/0431Portable apparatus, e.g. comprising a handle or case
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J2005/0048Calibrating; Correcting
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J2005/0077Imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/06Arrangements for eliminating effects of disturbing radiation
    • G01J2005/067Compensating for environment parameters
    • G01J2005/068Ambient temperature sensor; Housing temperature sensor

Abstract

Disclose a kind of method of the body temperature for determining patient or object, wherein, non-contact infrared thermometer artificially is positioned to point to target area, and by activationary temperature meter, it is made to measure the internal temperature of patient, and by thermometer and for the intensity of predetermined time interval reading from the infrared radiation of target area arrival.Target area is selected from the mankind of body hyte or the body surface of animal patient that comprise sieve hole, canthus, the eyelid opened or closed eyelid.

Description

For measuring the method and apparatus of the internal body temperature of patient

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of method and apparatus of the body temperature for measuring at least one object.

Background technology

Especially, this method and equipment be particularly useful for measuring be in or through the region determined as in airport by the room in region or hospital, or the body temperature of multiple objects of other public domain.On the other hand, this method can to being in cold environment or detecting reliably from the temperature of many objects of the environment of temperature the unknown.

Known, in recent years to can measure to rapid and non-wound the body temperature of multiple object need be considered to considerably important.

Growth and the general worry of pop disease (such as, SARS, bird flu or swine flu) make to be necessary more effectively to control through object, particularly those enter determine company, region or place object.

For airport, very crowded with region for the people from many country variants, these people easily can make the rapid diffusion that contracts a contagious disease.

In this case, in the past few years, carried out on airport controlling more widely, especially for from the object of country with risk.

But, it is obvious that the process for a large amount of people and by region in be very unpractical to the body temperature measurement of object simultaneously and handling capacity steady and smooth in airport can be hindered.

For this reason, although use non-wound and sufficiently rapid temperature detection temperature meter to be clearly detecting the achievement in the object with high temperature, even if but employ said temperature meter, prevent the time delay of control area, queuing and crowded in show or not ideal enough.

In view of confirmed problem above, be studied and proposed the scheme comprising the thermal imaging camera using INFRARED SPECTRUM, above-mentioned thermal imaging camera can detect the radiation in the region from controlled determination, by means of the intensity of this radiation, above-mentioned thermal imaging camera can also set up the hygrogram of controlled area.

Can also carry out continuously or dynamically this detection behavior with make it possible in real time to object data stream by checking.

In other words, one or more thermal imaging camera controls the inlet region had to pass through through object; These cameras use the INFRARED SPECTRUM of the radiation received to assess the thermograde in controlled area.

Above-mentioned thermal imaging camera can control multiple through object continuously and very rapidly, but can be subject to the impact of some shortcomings and/or performance constraint.

First, known thermal imaging camera must have operator to identify the object of fever.

Automatically can't carry out described judging process at present, when namely not needing one or more operator to help, the object with high temperature be separated with the target area with normal temperature.Usual use makes Temperature Distribution from dark (lower temperature) to the color of green lake or white (higher temperature).

In some applications, the point of the image that determined object can be selected particularly detected, then uses switching software automatically to obtain the maximum temperature of temperature or the surveyed area inside recorded at this place.

But, a cup of Java may due to object anode, or use mobile phone, or just hold a cigarette lighted, so the maximum temperature of surveyed area may be exactly the effective temperature of object.

On the other hand, confirm considered region inside maximum temperature system in, following situation can be there is: but several objects present high temperature system only to be detected that object with maximum temperature and in fact ignores other objects.

It should be noted that and use traditional contactless thermometer can not detect reliably the temperature of the object from temperature the unknown or the uncontrollable humidity province of temperature at present.

In these cases, will apply which correction parameter to detected body temperature to obtain internal temperature is unknown (or not implementing in the framework and storer of device).

In addition, because more unreliable to the correction of detected temperature, the difference of the temperature of target surface and the temperature of interior surface is larger (significantly, external environment condition is colder, difference is larger), so the temperature of the object being positioned at or coming from the region with low environment temperature also can throw into question in correctly context of detection.

Summary of the invention

In this case, the technical purpose as basis of the present invention overcomes confirmed shortcoming above.

The first object of the present invention makes it possible to obtain a kind of method and apparatus, and it more exactly on identifying by the object affected of having a fever relative to health objects, and can finally make this process automation.

Another object of the present invention measures more accurately by eliminating the systematic error caused by main environmental impact.

Another object of the present invention discloses a kind of smart machine, and it has completely can compared with the cost of thermal imaging camera that at present can be commercial and cost that may be even lower, and ensure the performance that improves significantly simultaneously.

Another object of the present invention is the reliability that raising internal temperature is determined, even if in potential probabilistic situation that the environment temperature that there is the body temperature stablizing she or himself to wherein object is relevant, or under object is in environment cold especially, such as, before entering the common location such as school, hospital, factory.These and other object is by according to claims, realize fully for the method and relevant device determining the body temperature of at least one object.

First aspect, the present invention relates to a kind of acquisition and the method expecting to know the image that the presumptive area of the object (or multiple object) of its body temperature is relevant; Then by means of the identification module of at least one region of interest for identifying object (or multiple object) to analyze this image.

Then detect the infrared radiation coming from described region of interest, and according to this infrared radiation, the function of the body temperature of object as the detected infrared radiation from region of interest is determined.

On the other hand, according to the either side in aforementioned aspect, in the step of analysis chart picture, identify following one or more region of interest, particularly be selected from the forehead of object, eyes, temple, neck, auricle, sieve hole (ethmoidsinus), canthus (canthus) and open or the region of interest of closed eyelid (eyelid), and the infrared radiation from one or more region of interest that can be arranged by artificially or automatically be managed by device is detected.

According to the another aspect of the either side in aforementioned aspect, detecting step comprises following sub-step: the intensity determining the most intense radiation from region of interest, and is determined by the function of the body temperature of object as the detected most intense radiation from region of interest.

According to the another aspect of any preceding aspect, determine that body temperature also comprises following step: detected temperature to be calculated and according to depending on that the correction parameter of region of interest corrects the temperature determined as the function of the intensity of received infrared radiation.

According to the another aspect of the either side in aforementioned aspect, aligning step comprises and correcting according to region of interest and according to the source of infrared radiation that the correction parameter depending on region of interest performs.

According to the another aspect of the either side in aforementioned aspect, environmentally temperature corrects, the environment that particularly object is positioned at when detecting or the environment be positioned at about predetermined time interval object, the temperature of the abundant impact of meeting and sense of stability region of interest before being about to detect of the described time interval.

According to the another aspect of the either side in aforementioned aspect, aligning step comprises and correcting according to for the detection of the most previously predetermined desired temperature in multiple object.

According to the another aspect of the either side in aforementioned aspect, to determine in the step of the object of temperature in identification, the face of identification module identification object and/or other physical characteristics, read face and/or other related physical characteristic compare to identify described object with the physical characteristics of corresponding face and/or other pre-stored by comparison module.

Another is aspect independently, the present invention relates to a kind of thermal imaging camera and/or photographic camera, it is designated to detect to its body temperature is the image that the presumptive area of at least one object interested is relevant, and for analyzing detected image and identifying the identification module of at least one region of interest of described object.

Described method also comprises the method detecting and come from the infrared radiation of region of interest, to be determined by the function of the body temperature of object as the detected infrared radiation from region of interest.

Another is aspect independently, and disclose a kind of method of classifying to object to the detection of infrared radiation for basis, it comprises the following steps: detect the intensity coming from the infrared radiation of multiple region of interest of the object that will classify; The intensity of infrared radiation of the intensity coming from the infrared radiation of at least one region of interest of object from the different region of interest coming from same target is compared; According to the difference of the intensity of the infrared radiation from two region of interest or according to come from two region of interest infrared radiation intensity distributions difference by described object classification in the group of predetermined number one of at least.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Other feature and advantage will more fully manifest from the preferred but non-exclusive embodiment of method and apparatus hereafter described in detail.Be described referring to the accompanying drawing provided by non-limiting example, wherein:

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the embodiment according to equipment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 uses the figure according to the example of the image of thermal imaging camera calibration of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is non-contact infrared thermometer;

Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of the waveguide that can use in the thermometer of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is the block diagram relevant with the measuring method of the thermometer utilized in Fig. 3; And

Fig. 6 be equipment in Fig. 1 can alternative embodiment;

Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9 show the thermometer in the Fig. 3 under each measuring condition of patient.

Embodiment

With reference to accompanying drawing, 1 equipment representing the body temperature for determining at least one object S on the whole.

Especially, described equipment is commonly called thermal imaging camera or thermal imaging camera, and is to sensitive for infrared radiation and can obtains the special television camera of thermal map image or film.

In other words, described device can obtain the image at least infra-red range and can carry out two-dimensional visualization to radiation measurement.

Usually, when detecting the radiation in the infra-red range of electromagnetic spectrum, use thermal imaging camera to carry out non-destructive and the control of non-wound, and the measurement carried out is relevant to the transmitting of radiation.

Especially, thermal imaging camera can detect the temperature of analyzed human body by means of the measurement of the infrared intensity launched the health checked.

Temperature all can launch the radiation in infra-red range higher than all objects of absolute zero, and by means of Planck law, this relation is digitally quantifiable.

Usually, thermal map can carry out visual to the temperature variation of people or object and absolute value independent of the illumination in visible range of people or object.

As clearly set up by this special fence-Boltzmann's law, the biquadratic of the radiant quantity of transmitting and the absolute temperature of object proportionally increases, and this special fence-Boltzmann's law defines the relation between radiation and temperature according to following formula:

q=εσT 4

Wherein σ is this special fence-Boltzmann's constant, and ε is the emissivity (variable between theoretical limit 0 to 1) of emitting surface, and T is absolute temperature.

From detected radiation, thus obtain the hygrogram of exposed surface.

Generally by image configuration on the matrix of the pixel of some and the row of some, and electronic device promptly can read the energy value that stored by each single pixel and can generate black or the white of observed objects, or the respective image of false colour.

As mentioned, the spectral range that thermal imaging camera works is infra-red range, generally the most often use and to be most suitable for the frequency band of value measured near interested environment temperature be far infrared frequency band (LW).

Generally, thermal map system or IR are made up of the television camera (thermal imaging camera) 1 of the process and register system that are connected to (or comprising airborne) image.

Infrared detector has following task: the consistance of radiation of clashing into infrared detector is identified and point-to-point analysis radiating surface to define thermal map.

From the viewpoint of structure, equipment 1 for the body temperature calculating at least one object S comprises the acquisition system 2 for obtaining the image relevant with at least one presumptive area 3, has one and preferably to have its body temperature multiple to be that interested object S is positioned at (or through) at least one presumptive area 3 above-mentioned inner at least.

Equipment comprises for can focusing on and obtaining the suitable optical devices 5 of image significantly; To explain more all sidedly as following, these devices 5 are formed by the telephoto objective of lens or type and are selected according to the application-specific specifying thermal imaging camera.

Described equipment also comprise only as non-limiting example, the infrared sensor 6 that can be flat matrix micro-side bolometer sensor, single matrix sensor or dot matrix sensor.

Sensor 6 can be (generally the having Peltier unit or Stirling pump) of non-cooled or cooled.

Alternatively and remain without limitation, the sensor comprising the thermoelectric pile matrix with the configuration being suitable for following concrete condition can be used: single file when carrying out mechanical scanning to image (such as, 8 elements), or matrix (such as, often row 4 × 4,16 × 16 or 32 × 32 row).Under latter event (matrix), the number of element represents pixel resolution (every 16 row=256 pixels of 16 row).

Form the detectable minimum temperature difference of heat sensitivity instant heating image camera of the Effect of Materials thermal imaging camera of sensor.

Obviously, high-caliber heat sensitivity represents the trickleest temperature difference, and therefore thermo-responsive angle value is less, and Measurement Resolution and the picture quality of thermal imaging camera are higher.

Only exemplarily, the thermal imaging camera of the heat sensitivity with at least 80mK can be used.

Significantly, in the normal temperature range that the temperature measurement range of the equipment for determining body temperature of the present invention must concentrate on human body namely between 30 degrees Celsius to 45 degrees Celsius, and at 37 degrees centigrade, there is optimum performance.

Generally be designated as the image of the object obtained in motion due to equipment of the present invention or under any circumstance also must can carry out the scanning of the type, so the frequency obtained is the basic parameter about using thermal imaging camera.

Must perform with high frequency and to avoid generation, thermometric streaking phenomenon is accurately hindered to the temperature survey of the object in motion.

In a word, the acquisition frequency of 60Hz is preferably greater than.Therefore, the processing unit 7 of electric signal that can be launched by infrared sensor 6 with suitable frequency acquisition after being also included in and obtaining image or thermal map of this instrument.

Identical processing unit 7 can process received signal and on the suitable display 8 being present in (or external system is as computing machine) in described equipment display the heat picture that detects.

Especially, suitably can select (puppet) color that the degree of accuracy expected and different temperatures connect to be used for showing.

In other words, different colors can be used to carry out visual to the temperature variation from 30 degree to 43 degree, such as, use for minimum temperature compared with cool colour until for the comparatively warm colour of higher temperature.

Use this device can the temperature of each single point of measurement image; This instrument (or the process software under any circumstance during aftertreatment) comprises can by this special fence-Boltzmann's law to associate the module 9 of radiation and temperature.

It should be noted that this device also comprises real image sensor 10, it can obtain the real image relevant with the presumptive area 3 comprising the object that body temperature will be detected.

In other words, thermal imaging camera of the present invention also comprises the ordinary sensors 10 of the type that the photographic camera of image that occur in the market at present, that can obtain visible spectrum (visible ray) or video camera use.

The signal detected is obtained by processing unit 7, and can alternative mode can show on the display 8 or therewith showing on the display 8 in an overlapping manner with thermal map image.

Especially, for detected each infrared image, also real digital picture is automatically recorded.

By this way, system usually provides corresponding and is two images of contemporaneity.

Alternatively, described equipment can comprise the suitable integrated LED of the exceptional visibility ensured in image-acquisition area 3 or other illuminator 11.

Processing unit 7 advantageously can analyze obtained image by means of suitable identification module 12, to identify at least one region of interest 13 of object S.

Particularly, this instrument can obtain the image that comes from presumptive area 3 and carry out identifying the calculating of the predetermined quantity of the region of interest 13 of object S to obtained image.

Especially, advantageously can come from such as forehead, eyes, temple, neck, auricle, sieve hole, canthus etc., identify one or more selected district for each object of interest in advance.

It should be noted that, alternatively, identifying operation can be carried out to the infrared image specifically obtained by sensor 6 (sensor 10 of the real image in this case in the spectrum of visible ray is optional completely), or can also directly identify the real image obtained by the second sensor 10.

Because photographic camera and video camera or even the photographic camera be used in amateurish level and video camera comprise the existing method using the face recognition of object, so the second is selected nowadays commercially advantageously to identify.

Usually, such as, can use US Patent No. 6940545, US7218759, or the teaching of one or more patents in US2009/0190803; These teachings can identify region of interest to image analysis.

Under any circumstance, directly use thermal imaging camera (that is, be not used in the real image of visible range IT, and use heat picture) to perform identifying operation can utilize the hardware that existed in device and not need more hardware.

Recognition methods can be depended on needs and can depend on the embody rule place of thermal imaging camera and different.

Only exemplarily, first can by ellipse---face (usually warmer) distinguishes relative to background (temperature is usually less than the environment of 37 degree).In addition, the position of oval inner eyes can be identified, even can identify the position of eyelid and/or nose.

Under any circumstance, once thermal imaging method have identified some piths of face, then can use rational degree of accuracy and (and automatically) determines to obtain from it position in the region of the infrared radiation of the reliable measurements for temperature rapidly.

When having a fever, flu or influenza, the some parts of face is warmmer, and change be not only temperature but also have the Relative distribution of each temperature on the face.

Therefore, the clinical manifestation of object can also detect the temperature of part interested by not (or not only), but also the temperature increment (temperature difference that be greater than standard value such as, bridge of the nose and forehead between) upper and lower compared with the predetermined threshold between the expansion of thermal region and/or the different piece of face detecting face is determined.

Significantly, interest of the present invention is not identify too much the face of object but identifies above-mentioned concrete region of interest in this specific case, and this is best to follow-up thermal analyses.

Once identify concrete region of interest 13, infrared radiation analysis can be carried out to this region of interest.

The function of object body temperature as the infrared radiation coming from region of interest is calculated.

Usually, concrete calculate by the radiation of the maximum intensity coming from region of interest with reference to region of interest (such as forehead), then the function of body temperature as detected most intense radiation is calculated.

To the importance of the determination of the effective region of interest of object with improve the accuracy of measuring possibility and with automatically the possibility that the temperature of object carries out zero defect calculating is associated.

Identification is wanted the identification in the district of detected temperatures that software can be avoided to depart from into calculating and signaled temperature outside preset range, that be associated with uninterested thermal source (district 4 see in Fig. 2).

Such as, consider the hot drink entrained by object, or the electronic equipment of heating, or be cigarette even simply, this will cause the detection to being detected as uninterested high temperature about expection.

Therefore, by means of identification software, initially above-named problem can be eliminated to the identification in the accurate district 13 measured at Qi Chu.

In addition, method of the present invention also comprises temperature detected by correction to determine the step of effective body temperature.

First, aligning step will be the function that (can be maybe) sends the region of interest of infrared radiation.

In fact it is clear that different correction parameters can be required from forehead instead of from neck (arteria carotis) or temporal infrared origin.

In fact should be noted that, generally, the external temperature of body parts is not only different from internal temperature but also also greatly different according to the point detected, this is because different blood supply or expose the difference of air and all contribute to heat radiation (temperature of forehead is usually less than temporal temperature, etc.).

Shall also be noted that alternatively, this correction can utilize correction function or even utilize the parameter list with the fixed correction data also obtained by experiment to carry out.

Advantageously or be necessary ground, second correct that to replace be the function that the object will measuring its temperature is positioned at environment temperature wherein.

The shell temperature being in the object in low temperature environment with identical inner temperature can be less than the shell temperature being in warm environment with identical inner temperature.

Therefore, first correction parameter can be residing when detecting with object the environment temperature of environment be associated, or the environment temperature (being different from the temperature of surveyed area) of the environment of even locating with predetermined time interval with object is associated, with immediately impact and sense of stability interest temperature substantially before testing.

Such as, consider to be positioned at temperature controlled area porch detected temperatures and from the object in region with different temperatures.

When the object being positioned at cold temperature environmental externality enters cold temperature environment when his or her temperature is measured by entrance, this object is with reference to external temperature but not the temperature that the place measured occurs makes his or her temperature stabilization.

In this case, the environment temperature as calibration reference can be external temperature.

In addition, the expection detected temperatures previously predetermined for the most of objects in the plurality of object can also be taken into account by aligning step.

In other words, when the correction that nonintervention is associated with environmental parameter or detection zone 13, to expecting that the multiple objects being in good health state (body temperature is about 37 °) carry out heat and detect on the whole.

In this case, to for above-mentioned multiple object detection to temperature correct as follows: suppose that the value of 37 ° is present the internal temperature launching identical thermal-radiating most of object from corresponding region of interest, then by relative to presenting assessing the difference of picture of higher temperature.

In other words, most of objects of the detected temperature of supposition have normal value again, therefore, if the temperature arrived for these object detection is such as 35 °, is then corrected as 37 °, and automatically corrects every other temperature.Naturally, the mean value of the actual temperature of expection object can will in the middle of one day repeatedly and change continuously due to the temperature variation of outside area, therefore, corrected value can such as pass through to calculate upper one minute every one minute, or the mean value of the actual temperature of the object of every five minutes processes or every " x " individual object upgrades.

In this sense, can also highlighted following object simply: in interested body region, present the temperature higher than definite threshold relative to the temperature averages of the object that have detected whole temperature during the time interval of specifying.

In other words, replace the existence determining accurate body temperature to confirm the object of having a fever, consider that the most of objects being read temperature do not present fever phenomenon, therefore only signal those objects that relative temperature is higher.

Significantly, above-mentioned process has come with reference to the detection be associated with the region of interest of mark, is reliably with automatable to make above-mentioned process.

It should be noted that above-mentioned method is specially adapted to have the temperature detection in the region that many people pass through, such as airport, railway station, port area, factory, school, museum and hospital (in the end in a kind of situation with particular reference to visitor).

Be positioned at and must reliably can measure the internal temperature of multiple object through one or more thermal imaging cameras of porch (such as, passenger enters the entrance of country) and signal those passengers that may be infected by fever symptom in real time.

Described device can also be associated with the automatic inlet control system be such as made up of the door automatically blocking to prevent suspect object from passing through or turnstile.In this case, this object is sent to specific regions, has special operator that the more traditional system of use is carefully assessed his or her temperature and may be carried out medical inspection to this object in this specific regions.

Operation described above, described equipment can eliminate the false positive contacted with the high-temperature-phase of object of loseing interest in, and even can come accurately to measure by means of aligning step as above.

Clearly, thermal imaging camera may be applied in hospital or any common location in addition with test access person and/or the temperature of people passed through.

Such as, thermal imaging camera can be positioned at the porch of the section office of the patient with critical condition, optionally can forbid that the visitor had a fever enters.

In in addition favourable of the present invention, although be secondary, but the step identifying and face feature and/or the other physical trait of the object determined are identified can be comprised, to identify this object by comparing with face feature and/or other physical traits that is corresponding and pre-stored.

By this way, not only can detect the temperature determined, but also the temperature this can determined is associated with the concrete object/patient of mark.

This method possible is applied in hospital or healthcare facility can be very favourable.

In fact, face can be remembered or remember the identification parameter of the patient/object determined in any situation, can identify and/or identify the above-mentioned patient/object determined by means of thermal imaging camera afterwards.Suffer from such as, can identify and normally present the temperature more high or low than normal value Y and the workman not infected by any symptom or student, and under being normal situation about his or her temperature difference, can automatically allow them pass through and do not need all to force them to go to stand medical inspection at every turn.

Being positioned at thermal imaging camera in hospital room can not only the temperature of detected object, but also can identify such as his or her face, thus identifies patient and automatically remember his or her temperature.If this device of patient is positioned in bed place, then can monitor the temperature of patient continuously.

In these cases, when having exceeded when body temperature the control threshold value determined when there is fever, this device can send automatically reports to the police with the patient signaling fever.This threshold value of patient can also be low temperature, such as, when patient is dead.

Traditional control system that this system can also use with Security Personnel is associated as used the equivalent system in the control system of metal detector, X-ray sensor or airport, court etc.

In these cases, the alarm signal that the object publishing presenting " suspicious " temperature is correlated with and be sent to the specific regions that medical personnel can perform necessary medical inspection.

In alternative embodiment, articulated structure 201 can be achieved better simply relative to described embodiment, or even one of them structure is fixed substantially by comprising the single fixed panel 202(that each object of requirement must be close) form.

Panel is directly observed by preset distance (about 50cm) place before panel 202, receives the infrared radiation of the region of interest (such as but without limitation, forehead) from object, and calculates body temperature according to this radiation.

Especially, correct distance can be signaled to use sender unit 203(such as by this device, buzzing microphone or one or more LED205) carry out detected temperatures 200; Such as, light-emitting device and/or ultrasonic unit 206 can be used to confirm whether described object has arrived the optimum position for the measurement that will carry out.

When object is in correct distance, the infrared sensor 207 be arranged on panel 202 detects the radiation from this object, and then control module 208 calculates body temperature according to detected radiation and environment temperature.In other words, can by correcting the temperature that detects from forehead (or other region of interest) based on the environment temperature in storer 209 or detected temperature to obtain actual internal temperature.

When the temperature of certain threshold value (such as, suspicious fever) above, give the alarm (such as, audible alarm, visual alarm; Device 204,205).

In addition, can by detected Temperature displaying on the display 211.

It should be noted that, in this case in order to ensure that namely the correct indication of sensor 207 only identifies and collect the infrared radiation of the region of interest (target area) from patient, such as, the front surface that can realize the face equipment 202 be made up of reflective material (being mirror material alternatively) at least partially, makes user can see his or she face or at least reflected target area when close.

Reference marker 210 can be had on the front surface, such as, be mark or the mark of visible light signal or drafting or report to user, this is visible to described reference marker being overlapped the user of (that is, by being placed on target area with reference to mark near user) on target area.

In this case, this object must move with the center of the forehead or other important goal regions that mark 210 are placed on such as his or she reflected image.

It should be noted that equipment 200 can be completely independent and be different from thermal imaging camera 1.

Alternatively, described equipment can be associated with other equipment existed such as metal detector in airport, court etc., even if do not stop and just slowing down can performing measurement by the position determined at object yet, when described object is in correct distance, described system can calculate the temperature as the district with reference to district automatically, or automatically adjust distance (in this case, not reaching optimal distance, such as, is the situation of child) according to this distance.

If necessary, parabolic waveguide can be used to transmit infrared radiation to sensor, this can reduce the visual field of sensor and measurement can be made more accurate.

In additional aspects of the present invention, disclose for the following thermometer realized can be used to carry out the method for measuring tempeature.

With reference to Fig. 3, illustrate generally infrared thermometer 100 according to a further aspect in the invention.

Traditionally, infrared thermometer comprises the main accommodation body 102 of holding area or the handle 103 defined for user.

Handle 103 can carry traditional command device 104 such as keyboard etc., and for one or more displays 105 of temperature reading and/or other data.

The sensor device 106 of infrared radiation is positioned at the end of main body, and the sensing mechanism that device 106 comprises infrared intensity sensor 107 and the wave guide 108 that is at least operationally associated with this sensing mechanism are to be advantageously sent to this sensing mechanism by the radiation of being launched by the district of health or target area 109 that will measure heat level.

More detailed (Fig. 4), waveguide 108 shows the first end 108a towards the health wanting detected temperatures, and the second end 108b of facing sensing mechanism 107.

As can from accompanying drawing find, waveguide is constructed to the tubular body comprising reflexive inside surface 110, and described inside surface defines the passage that can arrange the first opening 111 respect to one another and the second opening 112 in tubular body along the direction of optical communication.

The inside surface 110 of waveguide has along the direction near the second opening 112 progress presenting convergence towards the direction of the second opening 112, that is, this inside surface show along with its from the first opening of waveguide 108 before residing substantially the second opening of sensing mechanism 107 and then the inside diameter reduced gradually.

More accurately, according to the present invention, it should be noted that the convergence of waveguide 108 is more obvious gradually when when the second opening 112 of tubular body.

In other words, waveguide of the present invention can show two or more pipelines be axially connected to each other, and shows convergence constant accordingly and to be thisly focused at along more obvious gradually to pipeline subsequently from a pipeline towards the direction of the second opening 112 of the tubular body limiting waveguide in each pipeline.

In practice, in these cases, the convergent portion branch of at least waveguide shows as a succession of truncated cone surface with the more obvious tapering gradually along with close second opening 112.

Alternatively, replace two or preferably replace multiple continuous convergence pipeline increased gradually, waveguide can be set to: inside surface is bending, and assemble gradually and always towards the second opening from the first opening in more and more significant mode.

Under any circumstance, waveguide of the present invention is realized by following mode: provide hypothesis and advance towards the close same axis of the second opening, the degree that diameter reduces from the first opening to the second opening becomes large gradually.

Such as, in waveguide illustrated in the accompanying drawings, illustrated therein is the longitudinal cross-section of waveguide, the inside surface of waveguide is limited by camber line 113,114, and preferably, by having the axle that overlaps with the symmetry longitudinal axis of waveguide and the taper arc had towards the concavity of the first opening 111 limits.

Can find out, the convergence of parabolic arc becomes large along with advancing towards the second opening 112 gradually.

Inside surface 110 has mirror features can be reflected into the radiation be mapped on it.

In one of possible embodiment; waveguide preferably and advantageously can not show any protective cover as being usually arranged on for those protective covers in the conventional waveguide of these purposes at the first opening part; therefore, the cleaned at regular intervals of user must be stood to ensure required performance.

It should be noted that the possible disappearance of protective cover is very favourable, because this prevent any unwanted losses of the radiation signal entering waveguide.

When parabolical waveguide, sensor roughly can be arranged on paraboloidal focus place, effective collection is particularly come from and the direction of the longitudinal axis of waveguide or the radiation in direction of slightly tilting relative to the described longitudinal axis.

It should be noted that except the structure of given waveguide, waveguide and being usually placed in the auxiliary tubular body 120 that is made up of metal (preferably, being copper or concrete visible reversed brass in the diagram) with the sensing mechanism that waveguide is operationally associated.

Also noteworthy is that, infrared thermometer of the present invention also comprises following processing unit (not shown) except having above-mentioned parts: can process the signal exported from infrared radiation sensing mechanism, and by means of suitable algorithm generate be transferred to display or by means of other observing systems by such as projecting to the hot reading of user's display, such as with the visible system of application number described in the application of PCT/IT98/00379 has identical application title.

Infrared thermometer of the present invention can also be provided with and hold body and be operationally associated and the control device cooperated with processing unit; These control device are suitable for determining the correct location condition of the sensing mechanism 107 apart from surveyed area preset distance D place, and it is optimum that this correct orientation distance is considered to accurately to read for execution and delimit for getting rid of region of interest for reading area.

Clearly, except to except the above-mentioned specially-shaped described in waveguide of the present invention, help obtain split-hair hot reading at sensing mechanism and being correctly positioned with of suitable distance D place detected between surface.

Realizing in level, control device by the various technical scheme that can be used alone or can be formed with the technical scheme that another kind of technical scheme combines.

Especially, can comprise use illuminator or pointolite 121(to see Fig. 1).Especially, can comprise two bundles or more bundle luminous ray, it is preferably not coplanar each other and is assemble.In further detail, comprising: when point in luminous non-co-planar light head for target region is assembled to be positioned in distance surveyed area correct distance D place when sensing mechanism, determine figure (such as, spot or other).

Alternatively, the control device because illuminator is formed can be made, the light beam of illuminator is pre incident on reading surface and reflects thereon, can by the return signal of testing agency's perception to generate, and this testing agency can calculate the inclination angle between incident ray and reflection ray.Especially, the reading mechanism of one or more incidence-reflection ray can be comprised, it is positioned at symmetrical relative position and cooperates with the inclination angle of computational reflect light with processing unit, thus can derive sensing mechanism apart from the actual range detecting surface according to this inclination angle.

When distance and correct orientation distance D are to comprising time corresponding for signaling the optics/acoustic apparatus reaching this condition to user.

Again as above-mentioned two schemes can alternative or scheme simultaneous with it, this control device can comprise the light beam generator operated as follows: when sensing mechanism 107 is in correct orientation distance D, main graphic is focused on.

It should be noted that the optical matrix selector switch that can comprise and use such as liquid crystalline type, it can change the shape that can focus on the main graphic detected on surface.In further detail, the CPU (central processing unit) by preferably can change the shape of main graphic according to detected temperature carrys out management matrix optical selector.

It should be noted that side beam can be combined with main beam, wherein side beam can also use the optical matrix selector switch being preferably liquid crystalline type that can be managed by CPU to change.Side beam can also be controlled make to form assistant figure when sensing mechanism is positioned at apart from when detecting surperficial correct distance D place.

Assistant figure directly can also focus on detection on the surface and can be made up of the first figure and/or can delimit reading area, reasonably supposes that sensing mechanism is reading radiation and therefore collecting thermal information according to this reading area.

As another modification, can also combine with above-mentioned three schemes, control device finally can comprise the incidence fluctuation signal projector determined in the return signal detected after the reflection on surface (sound and/or electromagnetism).CPU (central processing unit) coordinates the transmitting and receiving of fluctuation signal by the mistiming calculated between two signals.Clearly, this mistiming and thermometer (being therefore transmitter) apart to detect heat level health surface between distance proportional.By this way, can know that CPU informs the user this situation by sender unit (such as electro-optical device or acoustic device) with signal when sensing mechanism is apart from when detecting surperficial correct distance D.

Infrared thermometer holds body and preferably shows as slim-lined construction and comprise detecting portion, and the device therefore for transmitting infrared radiation to sensing mechanism is arranged on the first end 102a place holding body.

After structure common on describe, the general function operation according to waveguide of the present invention and infrared thermometer is then described now.

Following shape by means of the inside surface of waveguide: along with close sensing mechanism, little by little and assemble to a greater degree, substantially obtain following effect: be orientated the district contacted independent of the inside surface of itself and waveguide self with the longitudinal axis of waveguide or the radiation of slightly tilting relative to this longitudinal axis and transmitted by waveguide and substantially converge at sensing mechanism always.

Lose interest in district and there is possibility mistake the light at the excessive inclination angle of hot reading after multiple reflections (in fact from patient, for reflecting each time, all can increase to some extent until more than 90 ° relative to the inclination angle of the axial ray of waveguide) can be sent back to towards the entrance of waveguide, by this way, the input port place in waveguide is had be greater than α maxthe infrared radiation of angle be reflected to device outside.

In a word, by means of the structure of the inside surface of waveguide, there is second opening that can not arrive waveguide relative to the light compared with high spud angle of the longitudinal axis of waveguide; The light that can arrive the second opening is only small inclination light (by clashing into the light of sensing mechanism) or the light will the inwall of the accommodation body at sensing mechanism or outer wall decomposed according to inclination angle.

But, being clear that the configuration by means of the waveguide provided and detecting portion, obtaining significantly reducing and the more important thing is the accurate restriction to described effective target region of the effective target region of the radiation for detecting the body surface that will measure; In fact, waveguide is applied with a kind of light filtering to from the radiation relative to the undue vergence direction of the longitudinal axis of waveguide.

Except performing the light of the undue inclination of shielding, waveguide also then focuses on the most of light from reading area interested better substantially, obtains following signal on the whole: it fully can carry out heat and reads and do not have the radiation and the undue signal/noise ratio reduced that come from non-region of interest.

In view of foregoing, thermometer (also having the thermal imaging camera in Fig. 1) method be particularly suitable for according to schematically showing in Figure 5 in Fig. 3 carrys out measuring tempeature.

First described method comprises the steps: the preset distance D place of the target area 109 be positioned at non-contact infrared thermometer 10 artificially apart from the patient/object will measuring its internal temperature.

Especially, thermometer is such as direct hand-held in assurance part 103 by operator.

Alternatively, and still use non-contact technology, thermometer location can be fixed on measurement zone place and require that patient/object is near this district, make still not need contact, thermometer substantially just can detected temperatures according to the chart in Fig. 5.

Such as, the thermal imaging camera in Fig. 1 can be fixed on a support, object S is near described camera (not needing in all cases to contact with thermometer).Such as see Fig. 6.

As mentioned above, thermometer is non-contacting with patient, and namely not only infrared sensor 107 is positioned at the preset distance place in region apart from measuring its temperature, and any part of described instrument during measuring process not with patient/object contact.

Below with reference to the embodiment about the artificial thermometer used, but be not intended to its purposes to be only limited to this situation.

Operator locates thermometer along the direction of the target area 109 will reading its temperature, particularly locates in such a way: make the infrared radiation from target area can enter waveguide 108 and be passed to infrared sensor 107 itself.

Once the correct distance D(determined apart from target area should be noted that, can by using such as the example of the optical means of non-co-planar converging ray determines described distance, and use such as ultrasound wave or other said methods calculate the signal reflected by target area transmission and receive between time), then infrared thermometer is activated the internal temperature measuring patient/object.

In this case, the object of the sensor of fixing thermometer and close thermometer also can be used to obtain correct (relative) distance D.

Alternatively, if the measuring system of distance can determine distance, then thermometer can be considered the distance that object is positioned at and determine correct temperature, and no matter distance may be how many (significantly between the lower limit and the upper limit of tolerable distance).

Can automatically instead of indication target area, artificially, that is, thermometer/thermal imaging camera just can identify concrete target area by only detecting (or consideration) from the infrared radiation of specifying in described region.

It should be noted that the activation of infrared thermometer usually (even if may not) will be artificial, and to trigger by the pressing button 122 be such as present in the assurance part 103 of thermometer.

But, in a special case, or when using the instrument of more evolution, can automatically complete thermometric activation, and when reaching correct distance, described activation occurring alternatively.

Again in other words, once determine the correct orientation distance D of thermometer, then control module starts the reading of infrared signal automatically.

Upon activation of temperature control equipment, then read the infrared radiation from the target area 109 of patient for predetermined time interval; The intensity of detected infrared radiation makes it possible to calculate the temperature of target area or equivalently calculate the internal temperature of patient.

The target area 109 advantageously used is selected from following group, and this group comprises the sieve hole of object, canthus or eyelid.

Especially, when target area is eyelid, select upper eyelid and described method to comprise generally to require before completing reading patient close at least one eyes make it possible to read the temperature in upper eyelid that closes.

Significantly, when eyes are opened, upper eyelid is shielded and also contacts with eyeball, not easily experiences the change of external temperature and the internal temperature of reference patient is easier to stablize based on this reason upper eyelid.

Alternatively, target area can be the skin region at sieve Dou Chu, the part of the health namely between every eyes and bridge of the nose.This body part has been supplied blood more by internal carotid artery, therefore not easily experiences the change of environment temperature; Therefore its have with internal temperature closer to temperature and more stable relative to other parts of human body.

Finally, can also use canthus, namely eyes are closest to the part (little be recessedly also called as inner canthus, it to be formed between eyelid and partly to be occupied by little redness projection " caruncula lachrymal gland (carunculalachrymalis) ") of bridge of the nose; Described canthus shows itself has fully stable temperature, and is close to the temperature of internal body temperature measuring more reliably, particularly under the external environment condition of cold or the unknown or unstable condition of temperature.

Finally, in activationary temperature timing, timer is used to determine the reading of the infrared radiation for mentioned predetermined time interval by means of countdown.

In other words, upon activation of thermometer, receive the infrared sensor stemming from the radiation of target area 109 and transmit the intensity received to control module, the internal body temperature of described control module start-up simulation patient.

Until at the end of predetermined time interval, receive and processed the amount of infrared radiation.

The radiation received further after described interval is considered to not be the object for calculating.

The invention provides important advantage.

Then detected temperature is displayed on and is generally on the display 105 of backlight type.

The color of backlight and/or intensity can be the functions of the type of carried out measurement, and such as backlight can have the first color when measuring the temperature of object, has when measuring the temperature of patient/object the second color being different from the first color.

Significantly, described color can be two or more relevant to the measurement under different situations: for a kind of color of object, for the second color of animal (not being people), for the 3rd color of people, for showing another color that error situation or needs repeat to read.

According to the button pressed for measurement (particularly for the first button measuring non-inanimate object, for the second button of patient/object, the 3rd button for other purposes) or different colours can be determined according to detected temperature levels.

Clearly, foregoing equivalently can be applied to the display 8 of the thermal imaging camera of being ordered by processing unit 7, and the visualization of the other types of any possible supplementary display or detected temperature, such as, projection on other regions of forehead or health or object.

Identify that concrete target area makes it possible to use contactless thermometer to carry out the range observation of temperature, even if described contactless thermometer presents the characteristic of the temperature also keeping more stable under the environmental baseline of bad luck, thus improve the reading of internal temperature and increase the working range of known temperature meter significantly.

Claims (8)

1., for a method for measuring tempeature, comprise the following steps:
When expecting to know the internal body temperature of patient, non-contact infrared thermometer is positioned at the preset distance place of the target area apart from object;
Point to described target area, make the infrared radiation sensor of described thermometer can receive infrared radiation from described target area;
Activate described non-contact infrared thermometer to measure the internal temperature of described patient;
Use described non-contact infrared thermometer and for the time interval determined, detect at least from the intensity of the infrared radiation of the described target area of described object;
Described target area is the surface of the health of human patients, and described surface is sieve hole,
Wherein, described method is included in location, point to, activate and detect all these steps during artificially support the step of described thermometer,
Wherein, described infrared thermometer is provided with and is operationally associated with the accommodation body of described infrared thermometer and is suitable for the control device of the correct orientation distance of the described infrared radiation sensor determined apart from preset distance place, described target area,
Wherein, the described step described non-contact infrared thermometer being positioned at preset distance place by make described object close/away from fixed position place non-contact infrared thermometer and/or make described non-contact infrared thermometer close/away from described object until reach described preset distance to carry out, and
Wherein, the described step described non-contact infrared thermometer being positioned at described preset distance place also comprises following sub-step:
Generated on the described target area of described object when main beam is in described correct orientation distance with the described infrared radiation sensor of box lunch by the generator of described control device and form main graphic on described target area,
Generated on the described target area of described object when side beam is in described correct orientation distance with the described infrared radiation sensor of box lunch by the described generator of described control device and form assistant figure on described target area, described assistant figure directly can focus on and to form on described target area and by described main graphic and to delimit the described target area that described infrared radiation sensor therefrom reads radiation.
2. method according to claim 1, the temperature comprising the described target area of the function to the intensity as detected infrared radiation corrects the step determining described internal temperature.
3. method according to claim 1, comprises the step of measures ambient temperature and corrects the temperature of described target area or the step of described internal temperature according to measured environment temperature.
4. method according to claim 3, comprises the step controlled the stability/correctness of the described environment temperature of the temperature for correcting described target area or described internal temperature.
5. method according to claim 1, wherein, the step activating described non-contact infrared thermometer carrys out by pressing at least one button be positioned on described thermometer the step that described thermometer is activated in artificially.
6. method according to claim 1, wherein, after activating described non-contact infrared thermometer, timer starts countdown, for during described countdown and until the schedule time that described countdown terminates implement the detection to radiation.
7. method according to claim 1, wherein, described non-contact infrared thermometer is limited by television camera, the step of the described target area of described sensing comprises following sub-step: obtain the image from presumptive area, described target area being identified, considering only from the infrared radiation of described target area to determine the object of described temperature.
8. a method for the temperature of measuring object, comprises the following steps:
When expecting to know the internal body temperature of object, non-contact infrared thermometer is positioned at the preset distance place of the target area apart from described object;
Point to described target area, make the infrared radiation sensor of described thermometer can receive infrared radiation from described target area;
Come artificially by pressing at least one button be positioned on described infrared thermometer and activate described non-contact infrared thermometer to measure the internal temperature of patient;
Use described non-contact infrared thermometer and for the time interval determined, detect at least from the intensity of the infrared radiation of the described target area of described object;
Correct to determine described internal temperature to the temperature of the described target area of the function of the intensity as detected infrared radiation;
Closed at least one eyes also detect the intensity of the infrared radiation in the upper eyelid of self-closing, and described target area is described upper eyelid;
Wherein, described infrared thermometer is provided with and is operationally associated with the accommodation body of described infrared thermometer and is suitable for the control device of the correct orientation distance of the described infrared radiation sensor determined apart from preset distance place, described target area;
Wherein, during locating, point to, activate and detect all these steps, artificially completes the support of described thermometer; And
Wherein, the described step described non-contact infrared thermometer being positioned at described preset distance place also comprises following sub-step:
Generated on the described target area of described object when main beam is in described correct orientation distance with the described infrared radiation sensor of box lunch by the generator of described control device and form main graphic on described target area,
Generated on the described target area of described object when side beam is in described correct orientation distance with the described infrared radiation sensor of box lunch by the described generator of described control device and form assistant figure on described target area, described assistant figure directly can focus on and to form on described target area and by described main graphic and to delimit the described target area that described infrared radiation sensor therefrom reads radiation.
CN201180033910.4A 2010-06-04 2011-06-03 For measuring the method and apparatus of the internal body temperature of patient CN103026192B (en)

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ITMI2010A001007A IT1400273B1 (en) 2010-06-04 2010-06-04 Method and apparatus for determining the body temperature of at least one subject
ITMI20101531 ITMI20101531A1 (en) 2010-08-09 2010-08-09 Method and apparatus for determining the body temperature of at least one subject
ITMI2010A001531 2010-08-09
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