CN103011961B - Active organic bacterial manure and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Active organic bacterial manure and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN103011961B
CN103011961B CN201210542542.2A CN201210542542A CN103011961B CN 103011961 B CN103011961 B CN 103011961B CN 201210542542 A CN201210542542 A CN 201210542542A CN 103011961 B CN103011961 B CN 103011961B
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bacterial classification
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bacterial
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颜桂荣
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SHANDONG SUPER AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SHANDONG SUPER AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses an active organic bacterial manure and a preparation method thereof. The active organic bacterial manure is prepared by the following steps of: performing one-time continuous fermentation, granulation, drying and screening on plant ash, industrial and agricultural wastes enriched with organic matters, and an inorganic fertilizer which are used as raw materials and inoculating bacteria subjected to breeding from the raw materials above. According to the active organic bacterial manure, the industrial and agricultural wastes enriched with the organic matters can be greatly consumed, and the environmental pollution is reduced; in the process of crop cultivation and urban greening, the problems of soil hardening, gradual fertilizer efficiency reduction and environmental pollution which are caused by that fertilizers are used year by year are solved; and a new fertilizer source is supplied to the agricultural production.

Description

A kind of Active organic bacterial fertilizer and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fertilizer and preparation method thereof, particularly a kind of organic fungi-manure and preparation method thereof, belong to microbial fertilizer field.
Background technology
Resistates after plant (draft and xylophyta) burning, claims plant ash.Because plant ash be for burning plants after ashes, so be the mineral element contained by all plants, nearly all contain in plant ash.What wherein content was maximum is potassium element, and general containing potassium 6-12%, wherein more than 90% is water-soluble, exists with carbonate form; Next is phosphorus, generally containing 1.5-3%; Also containing the micronutrient element such as calcium, magnesium, silicon, sulphur and iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum.Therefore, it is a kind of wide material sources, with low cost, nutrient is complete, the obvious Natural fertilizers of fertilizer efficiency.But because plant ash is in alkalescence, can not with some organic fertilizer raw material, to make compost as human excrement, barnyard manure, heap or the mixing such as ammonium fertilizer is used, otherwise nitrogen volatilization loss can be caused; Plant ash can not mix with phosphate fertilizer to be used, otherwise can cause P adsorption, reduces the fertilizer efficiency of phosphate fertilizer.As by plant ash directly and nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer raw material used in combination, not only cause fertilizer efficiency to reduce, also can cause environmental pollution because of phenomenons such as the volatilization of nitrogen and P adsorption.In addition, due to plant ash light weight, easily go with the wind time dry, easily walk with water time wet.When plant ash is directly as Fertilizer application, quite a few nutrient is also had not to be absorbed and used by plants.Particularly plant ash alkalescence is strong, and utilization ratio is lower in alkaline soils.Have large quantity research to show, the medium trace element such as Ca, Fe, Zn are under the alkaline condition of ash content, and plant availability is extremely low.Because the plant ash nutrient form difference of different sorts plant and differing temps burning is large, and the invalid state of many one-tenth, directly using if do not added process, its fertilizer efficiency can not be given full play to first, second may cause crop detrimentally affect.These characteristics make plant ash be subject to great restriction for fertiliser production.China's plant ash quantity that plant produces of burning every year is very large, for biological power plant, with the cigarette ash in the ash produced after farming tangerine bar generating burning and flue gas, annual output is very large, if do not processed, then can cause atmospheric dust pollution, entering the water bodys such as lake, river and also can cause water pollutions.
China Patent Publication No. CN1189481A discloses a kind of method utilizing plant ash, excrement ash etc. to produce high potassium clacium fertilizer.It is by plant ash, excrement ash, lime excrement, industrial salt, potassium sulfate, Repone K, urine, obtains after stirring, grind, sieving.Its shortcoming is that obtained fertilizer becomes that salinity is high, alkalescence is strong, and the most elements (as: P, Si, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo etc.) in lime-ash is in stationary state not easily utilization absorbed by crops, especially inapplicablely uses in alkaline soils.
Chinese patent CN200510095748.5 discloses a kind of manufacture method of plant straw ash multi-element fertilizer, the lime-ash that the method is formed afterwards with straw burning, cracking, gasification is for main raw material, add the reaction of mineral waste acid solution, agricultural organic and/or composting can produce organic acid organic solid castoff and make raw material pH value drop to 6.0-7.5, fermentation reactor system reaction 1-10 days, add the cakingagent of 3-10% after being dried and crushed into product or pulverizing, be a granulated into finished product fertilizer.Although the method makes lime-ash pH drop to neutrality, microbial bacteria content useful in fertilizer is less, short, the easy loss of original ash fertilizer fertilizer efficiency, easily causes many disadvantages such as water pollutions still not solve.
Furfural dregs is the by product that corn cob decomposes, and discards at present, contaminate environment as industrial waste.Furfural dregs pH value is about 1.90.Because furfural dregs is in acid, directly apply Tanaka as fertilizer, farm crop cannot absorb, and do not reach effect of increasing production.But it is the good raw material manufacturing biological organic fertilizer, and main component is:
Organic Humic acids Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Free acid PH value
76% 11.5% 0.6% 0.3% 1.18% 1.27% 3.0
The advantage of the making fertilizer of furfural dregs is: one is increase farmland organic matter, improves Soil structure.Furfural dregs is rich in organic matter and humic acids, can increase soil aggregate quantity after using, and strengthens soil permeability, improves soil physical and chemical property.Two is regulate soil acidity or alkalinity, improves nutrient availability.Furfural dregs contains higher free acid, can in and alkali radical ion in the alkaline soil such as saline-alkali soil, terra calcis and rice soil, regulate soil acidity or alkalinity, increase the positively charged ion validity such as calcium, magnesium, zinc.Three is activating soils, reduces and poisons.Furfural dregs, through decomposition, containing more much higher contracting pentose, is soil beneficial microorganism high-grade energy, can increases soil microbial activities after using, alleviate the harm of heavy metal ion.Exactly because these good characteristics of furfural dregs, people use furfural dregs and plant ash is used in combination manufactures organic fertilizer.
Chinese patent CN201110372741.9 discloses a kind of method of biological power plant plant ash and furfural dregs production fertilizer, and it is made up of following technique: the plant ash collecting furfural dregs, biological power plant, air-dry, makes its water ratio be 15-20%; By the plant ash of furfural dregs, biological power plant by weight 2.7-3: 2.2-2.5, mixing, stirs, stacking compacting, with plastics film or canvas cap seal, leave standstill 24-36 hour, spread out, airing remove moisture content, make its moisture content be 8-10%, be ground into powder, make its granularity be 1-2mm, obtain compound; Compound is used tablets press spray granulating, obtain finished product.The fertilizer that the method utilizes biological power plant plant ash and furfural dregs to produce can regulate Soil structure, and improvement soil physical and chemical property, promotes plant growth and increase yield.But the fertilizer that the method obtains remains single fertilizer, in fertilizer, the content of probiotics is little.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of Active organic bacterial fertilizer, specifically, is the Active organic bacterial fertilizer that a kind of agriculture and industry waste high with plant ash, furfural dregs or other organic content is prepared for raw material.
Another object of the present invention is to the preparation method that above-mentioned fertilizer is provided.
A kind of Active organic bacterial fertilizer, it is characterized in that: with plant ash, be rich in organic agriculture and industry waste, mineral manure for raw material, disposablely to continuously ferment, granulation, drying, after screening, by inoculation by from the plant ash of above-mentioned raw materials, be rich in seed selection in organic agriculture and industry waste bacterial classification after obtained.
Further, be rich in described in organic agriculture and industry waste be furfural dregs, animal excrement, agricultural crop straw, active sludge one or several.
Further, described bacterial classification is genus bacillus and yeast and filamentous fungus.
Further, described bacterial classification also comprise photosynthetic bacterium, milk-acid bacteria, actinomycetic one or several.
Further, described plant ash is the ashes in bio-power plant after burning plants, and potassium content is 6%-12%.Described animal excrement are the ight soil of people and animals, and machine matter content is generally greater than 14%.Described agricultural crop straw is the agricultural crop straw such as paddy rice, wheat, organic content average out to about 15%.Described active sludge is the mud of municipal sewage plant's process sanitary sewage, and organic content is generally more than 50%.
Further, described furfural dregs is that the biomass class waste of furfural generation is produced in such as the poly-pentose composition hydrolysis in corn cob, cornstalk, rice husk, cotton seed hulls and agricultural byproducts processing tankage of biomass class material; The furfural dregs that preferred organic content is greater than more than 70%.
Further, wherein organic content is 10%-50%(weight part), useful viable count be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram; Further preferably organic content is 35%-45%(weight part), useful viable count be 0.60-0.65 hundred million strain/gram.Namely the add-on being rich in organic agriculture and industry waste described in is, makes plant ash be that 10-50% is advisable with the weight part being rich in the organic matter contained in the total mass of organic agriculture and industry waste; If organic content is inadequate, humic acid powder (organic matter containing 70%, water content 15%) can also be added further and regulate organic content; The add-on of described strain liquid (viable count is 5,000,000,000 strain/more than mL) is for ensureing in fertilizer that useful viable count is 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram to be advisable.
Further, described mineral manure be solubility nitrogenous fertilizer, solubility potash fertilizer, soluble phosphoric manure one or several, be respectively containing the inorganic salt of N, P or K; Add-on is the mass percent 6%-35% making the total amount of N, P2O5 and K2O preferably account for described active organic fertilizer dry weight; Preferred 16%-25% further.Wherein, N, P 2o 5and K 2the total amount of O is the dried weight summation of full nitrogen, full phosphorus, full potassium, and described full nitrogen is organonitrogen and inorganic nitrogen sum in organic compost; Described full phosphorus is with P 2o 5meter; Described full potassium is with K 2o counts.
Further, described drying for dry, its screening be 60 orders with top sieve, it is Powdered for obtaining Active organic bacterial fertilizer.
Further, described drying is spraying dry or spray granulating, preferred spray granulating; The Active organic bacterial fertilizer granularity 3-5mm obtained, hardness is 6-30N.
Further, described drying is cylinder granulation, and make Active organic bacterial fertilizer be spherical by cylinder not stall is dynamic, the Active organic bacterial fertilizer granularity 2-4.5mm obtained, hardness is 6-30N.
Because active bacteria liquid just mixes after organic fertilizer drying, probiotics can be ensured not by the impact of high temperature time dry, improve its survival rate, make the survival rate of microorganism to more than 95%.
Researchist of the present invention finds, some probioticses in existing theory, can not give full play to its due effect in actual production, this is because traditional theory can not simulate the situation in actual production completely, may there is very large error.In addition, the plant ash that this fertilizer uses, furfural dregs, animal excrement etc., its composition, deposition time, residing humidity, temperature conditions are widely different, if simple theory traditionally selects bacterial classification, are difficult to reach desirable effect.For this reason, inventor contemplate with existing theory for instruct, from the raw material of actual production, choose bacterial classification.Each environment has its specific microorganism species, and that only chooses from this environment passes through competition, the dominant bacteria that survival volume is large, effectively could ensure that the bacterial classification selected is more prone to survival in the fertilizer obtained with this raw material.
In addition, the kind of microbial bacteria is different, and its feature, effect, use rear effect to differ greatly, and microbial bacteria function has single and multi-functional dividing.The microbial bacteria that past is commonly used has vinelandii (root nodule bacterium), and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, subtilis), silicate bacteria and potassium solubilizing bacteria (colloid bacillus cereus) etc., function ratio is more single.Composite bacteria (not producing 2-3 bacterial strain of antagonistic action) has mutually collaborative action effect, is used alone a single class bacterial classification, all can not reaches the effect of fertilizer of the present invention.When selecting microbial bacteria, while its functional characteristics of consideration, must consider the resistance of used microbial bacteria, namely select high temperature resistance, resist drying, antiacid alkali, microbial strains that anti-salt ability is strong, this is the key factor of composite microbiological fertilizer industrialization.The performance of its function is excellent in laboratory conditions for some bacterial classification, but mortality in fertiliser production or preservation process, survival rate is low, be difficult to after using get a desired effect, therefore should consider selection from the feature of function and resistance when selecting microbial bacteria, the bacterial strain that its overall target is high is only the bacterial classification that outstanding composite microbiological fertilizer is produced and applied.
Genus bacillus (Bacillaceae) is a section of bacterium, can form bacillus or the coccus of gemma (statospore).Comprise bacillus, Sporolactobacillus, fusobacterium, Desulfotomaculum and Sporosarcina etc.Injurious factor resistibility is strong to external world for they, and distribution is wide, is present in the places such as soil, water, air and animal intestinal.The effect of spore bud bacillus is: moisture retention is strong, and the natural materials forming intensity very excellent gathers Vetsin, is the protective membrane of soil, prevents fertile part and water loss; Organic matter decomposition power is strong, while propagation, can disengage highly active amylase, and the macromolecular substance that difficulty is decomposed is resolved into available small-molecule substance; Produce abundant metabolism resultant, synthesize the materials such as multiple organic acid, enzyme, physiologically active, and other multiple nutrient be easily utilized; Antibacterial, harmful power of going out is strong, has the advantage of taking up space, and suppresses the harmful microorganism such as harmful bacteria, pathogenic bacteria growth and breeding; Deodorizing, can decompose the organic substance, organic sulfide, organonitrogen etc. that produce foul gas, greatly improve the environment in place.Its characteristic is: metabolism is fast, breeding is fast, four hours propagation 100,000 times, and standard bacteria only can breed 6 times in four hours; Vitality is strong, can low temperature resistant-60 DEG C, high temperature resistant+280 DEG C without wet condition, resistance to strong acid, resistance to highly basic, antibiotic and sterilizing, resistance to hyperoxia (breeding addicted to oxygen), lower oxygen concentration resistance (anaerobism breeding); Volume is large, large four times of volume ratio general pathogeny bacterium molecule, and take up space advantage, suppresses the growth and breeding of harmful bacteria.Because gemma has stronger resistibility to heat, drying, radiation, chemostefilant and other chemical factors, so one of target bacterial classification that genus bacillus is for we to be selected from the organism of production fertilizer.
Yeast is a kind of unicellular fungi, can survive, belong to facultative anaerobe under aerobic and oxygen-free environment.When aerobic, it can become carbonic acid gas and water the sugar decomposition in organic matter, and when aerobic exists, Yeast Growth is very fast.Make starter with yeast and make ecological organic fertilier, there is fermentation fast, ferment, can thermophilic fermentation, again can low temperature fermentation, greatly shorten Production Time, the feature such as to reduce costs, so yeast is us from producing one of target bacterial classification of selecting the organism of fertilizer.
Namely filamentous fungus is mould.Mould is being commonly called as of filamentous fungus, meaning i.e. " mouldy fungi ", and they often can form branch mycelium in great numbers, but does not resemble mushroom and produce large-scale sporophore.In the place of damp warm, a lot of article grow some macroscopic fine hair shapes, cotton-shaped or arachnoid bacterium colony, that is exactly mould.The spore of mould has little, light, dry, many, and form color and luster is different, resting stage is long and the feature such as strong stress resistance, and the spore count that each individuality produces is often thousands of, sometimes unexpectedly reaches hundreds of hundred million, several hundred billion even more.These features contribute to mould and disseminate everywhere at occurring in nature and breed.The potassium of plant utilization is mainly from soil, but in soil, most potassium exists with the form of mineral K, is present in aluminum silicate minerals more, not easily directly utilized by plant.Only have when mineral K is after physics, chemistry and organic weathering change available potassium into, just by plant is utilized.Filamentous fungus has extremely strong Decomposition to potassium-bearing mineral.So one of target bacterial classification that filamentous fungus is for we to be selected from the organism of production fertilizer.
Photosynthetic bacterium (be called for short PSB) earth occurs the earliest, occurring in nature ubiquity, has the prokaryotic organism of original luminous energy synthetic system, it is the general name of under anaerobic not putting the photosynthetic bacterium of oxygen, the Gram-negative bacteria that a class does not form gemma ability, be a class using light as the energy, the organism of occurring in nature, sulfide, ammonia etc. can be utilized under anaerobism illumination or aerobic dark condition to carry out photosynthetic microorganism as hydrogen donor carbon source of holding concurrently.Photosynthetic bacterium strong adaptability, can restrain oneself the organic waste water of high density, has and certain stands Sum decomposition ability, have stronger decomposition and inversion ability to the poisonous substance such as phenol, cyanogen.Photosynthetic bacterium can increase biological nitrogen fixation, improves rhizosphere fixed nitrogen effect, promotes soil fertility.In addition, photosynthetic bacterium also has certain effect to crop pest control aspect.Photosynthetic bacterium is us from producing one of target bacterial classification of selecting the organism of fertilizer.
Milk-acid bacteria refers to that fermenting carbohydrate primary product is the general name of a class without gemma, gram-positive bacterium of lactic acid.Every bacterium that can produce lactic acid from the fermenting process of glucose or lactose is referred to as milk-acid bacteria.Milk-acid bacteria can reduce nitric acid ion concentration in soil, solves acidification problem; Among milk-acid bacteria cells in vivo, moisture is approximately 70%, when having a large amount of milk-acid bacteria, can keep soil moisture, and simultaneously milk-acid bacteria can also absorb the certain soil moisture of water tariff collection of in air about 20%; Sugary and the lactic acid of milk-acid bacteria, thus those are facilitated with microorganism and degradation production thereof for a large amount of increase of the quantity of the soil microfauna (as earthworm class, beetle) of food, make the microecosystem composition of whole topsoil that fundamental change occur, improve biological activity of soil and surge capability; The rapid breeding of effective microbe in soil, with constantly supplementary, inhibits invasion and attack and the development of pathogenic micro-organism in soil; Suppress harmful microbe existence and breeding, alleviate and the insect pest of successive elimination soil-borne disease and continuous cropping obstacle; Without weedicide, can suppress and eliminate weeds: milk-acid bacteria can generate lactic acid and physiologically active substance, and lactic acid can make the seed coat deliquescing of weeds, makes it easily absorb moisture content, and by the impact of physiologically active substance breaking dormancy; Strengthen the metabolic function of plant, improve photosynthesis, promote seed germination, well developed root system, prematurity, how solid.Milk-acid bacteria is us from producing one of target bacterial classification of selecting the organism of fertilizer.
Actinomycetes (Actinomycete) are procaryotic monoids.Great majority have flourishing branch mycelia.The production of actinomycetes and the mankind and the relation of life are very close, and the microbiotic about 70% of current widespread use is that various actinomycetes produced.The thread actinomycetes of typical case mainly belong to streptomyces (Strephomyces) and micromonospora (Micromonospora) two class.All belong to aerobic heterotroph, can extensively utilize carbon containing and the nitrogenous compounds such as Mierocrystalline cellulose, hemicellulose, protein, xylogen.Optimum pH is 6.8-7.5, and optimum temperuture is 25-30 DEG C.The actinomycetes detected in agricultural land soil mainly streptomyces.Actinomycetes are us from producing one of target bacterial classification of selecting the organism of fertilizer.
The screening of bacterial strain and the application of associating flora are the work that many scientists are endeavouring.The application of associating flora is the problem of a more complicated, can not think simply, and the compound (or associating) of microorganism has been exactly mixed fermentation with various bacterium, or simple ferment rear mixing, combination.The seed selection of novel bacterial, transformation and restructuring, simple function to multi-functional development (as fertile medicine is unified), with nutritive element or organic reasonable compound etc.The development of biotechnology provides the foundation and possibility to the restructuring of bacterial strain, transformation.Contriver produces through practice, grope to find that six kinds of bacteriums more than selecting content the highest from the organism producing fertilizer, as long as there is not antagonism each other, just can play good fertilizer efficiency, reach the object improving soil.
Containing comprising genus bacillus, molten potassium bacterium (as filamentous fungus) etc. in complex microbial community fermented liquid in this Active organic bacterial fertilizer, these floras are by producing various enzyme or acids, thus reach decomposition inorganic phosphide and inorganic potassium salt (as calcium phosphate, salt of wormwood), reach the object of release phosphorus element.In addition, when composite flora acts on plant ash raw material, potassium and micro-positively charged ion are also released, and recover crumb structure with key bridge form, reach the object eliminating soil compaction.Also have multiple with CO in complex microbial community fermented liquid 2, carbonate is unique or the autotrophic bacteria of primary carbon source (as photosynthetic bacterium), under the own biological degraded of these autotrophic bacterias and the katalysis of flora secretory product, the water-soluble inorganic salt in original ash content, through a series of biological degradation combination reaction, defines K 4[Fe (CN) 6] etc. macromole polyacid type complex compound, multidentate ligand and various inner complex.The formation of these macromolecular structures, eliminates short, the easy loss of original ash fertilizer fertilizer efficiency at one stroke, easily causes many disadvantages such as water pollutions.In addition, the flora base fluid of complex microbial community fermented liquid is a kind of acidic cpd of complexity, and this acidic cpd can improve the strong basicity of original ash content just, extends the range of application of plant ash greatly.In addition, stalk ash content can adsorb the viable bacteria in complex microbial community fermented liquid in a large number, provides countless places to stay to these beneficial microorganisms.Inorganic salt a large amount of in ash content are also particularly important to the cultivation effect of microorganism species, are mainly reflected in: the moiety forming cell; As the moiety of enzyme; Maintain the activity of enzyme; Regulate the osmotic pressure of cell, hydrogen ion concentration and redox potential; As the energy of some autotrophic bacteria.As can be seen here, composite thallus is able to flourish by the nutrient in degraded ash content, produces the macromolecular cpd being of value to plant growth in a large number simultaneously, reaches a kind of effect of doulbe-sides' victory.
The preparation method of above-mentioned Active organic bacterial fertilizer, comprises the steps:
A) by above-mentioned agriculture and industry waste, fully stir, mix;
B) mixture is stacked, maintenance temperature is 65-75 DEG C, water content is 67%-70%, pH value is 8.0-9.0, every 2-4 days turns over buttress once, determines to turn over buttress number of times depending on the degree of becoming thoroughly decomposed, when in buttress, water content is stabilized in 10%-20%, temperature-stable 45-50 DEG C, PH drop to 6.5-6.9 time, digest process completes;
C) said mixture is carried out drying, screening after, add strain liquid, when viable count useful in mixture be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram time, namely obtain finished product.
Further, described drying is for drying, and its screening was that 60 orders are with top sieve.The finished product obtained is Powdered.
Further, described drying is spraying dry or spray granulating, preferred spray granulating.The finished product obtained is granular.
Further, described drying is cylinder granulation.The finished product now obtained is for block.
Further, step B) described in turn over buttress while, carry out the mensuration of the indexs such as temperature, water content, pH value, supplement raw material or water according to the situation of water content.
Further, the preparation method of described strain liquid is:
A) bacterial classification is selected: from plant ash, be rich in organic agriculture and industry waste and choose some samples, isolate genus bacillus, yeast, filamentous fungus, photosynthetic bacterium, lactobacillus strain, the some strains of actinomycetes strain from above-mentioned sample;
By statistical study, screening above-mentioned bacterial strains, determines that in each bacterial classification the bacterial strain that usefulness is the highest is as core bacterial classification; Under indoor cultivation condition, different strain is cultivated between two in same culture dish, with or without antagonism between observation, if find antagonism, then from its same class, select strain culturing in addition; Tested by comparative observation, genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus respectively select a kind of with other the two kinds of bacterial classifications in these three kinds of bacterial classifications not antibionts bacterial classification as essential bacterial classification; Photosynthetic bacterium strain, lactic bacterium strains, actinomycetes strain respectively select a kind of with other the two kinds of bacterial classifications in these three kinds of bacterial classifications and above-mentioned essential bacterial classification not antibionts bacterial classification as optional bacterial classification;
B) bacterial classification optimum inoculation amount and proportioning raw materials is determined: according to extractum carnis 1.1%-2.0%, peptone 1.1%-2.0%, sodium-chlor 0.55%-0.65%, agar 2%-3%, all the other are the fundamental quantity of water, make minimum medium, the pH value of minimum medium controls at 6-8.5; In minimum medium, access one or more of above-mentioned three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification, put into shaking table, liquid amount is the 20%-50% of culture vessel volume, and shaking speed is 160-190 rev/min; Arrange fundamental quantity according to each material in strain inoculation amount, substratum to increase by 10%, increase by 20%, reduce by 10% and minimizing 20% totally 4 ranks, change the composition of each composition of substratum; Observe each strain growth situation, determine the ratio that in substratum, each component is applicable to, produce selective medium;
C) slant strains preparation: access one or more of three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification in selective medium respectively, is placed in 28 DEG C of thermostat containers and cultivates 72h, be placed in refrigerator and preserve, for subsequent use;
D) Kolle flask bacterial classification preparation: get Kolle flask several, be respectively charged into selective medium, after sterilizing, in each Kolle flask, access a kind of slant strains, be placed in 36-45 DEG C of thermostat container and cultivate 72h, for subsequent use;
E) bacterial classification suspension preparation: the bacterial classification in above-mentioned Kolle flask is aseptically added 250mL sterilized water, makes suspension; Suspension in Kolle flask is poured in aseptic vacuum bottle, after wrapping, be bacterial classification suspension;
F) primary seed solution preparation: by the selective medium of above-mentioned suspension access sterilizing in vacuum bottle, at 36-45 DEG C of bottom fermentation 20h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min, obtained primary seed solution; In described primary seed solution, the weight ratio of selective medium is 50%-60%, and all the other are above-mentioned various bacterial classification suspension;
G) organic bacteria liquid preparation: inject selective medium in fermentor tank, by above-mentioned seed liquor according to the ratio access fermentor tank accounting for selective medium weight 10%-12%, 72h is cultivated at 36-45 DEG C, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; When bacteria containing amount reaches viable count 5,000,000,000 strain/more than mL, be organic bacteria liquid.
Further, step prepared by secondary seed solution is also comprised between step F and step G, step prepared by described secondary seed solution is, add in selective medium the starch of 0.3%-0.5%, 0.5%-0.7% sucrose, 0.3% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, the potassium primary phosphate of 0.16%-0.20%, 4.0%-5.0% dregs of beans, 10% sawdust after inject fermentor tank; Inoculation selective medium weight ratio is the primary seed solution of 2%-5%; Temperature controls at 36-45 DEG C, mixing speed 150-180 rev/min, and air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, ferments and makes secondary seed solution after 24 hours.Increase this step, contribute to active bacteria and expand numerous.
Further, in described step F, in vacuum bottle, the bacterial classification suspension access amount of genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus accounts for 30%-50%, 15%-25%, 15%-25% of total bacterial classification suspension access amount respectively.Essential bacterial classification advantage can be made like this to breed.
Further, in described step F, when accessing suspension in vacuum bottle, first access the suspension of essential bacterial classification, after cultivating for some time, access the suspension of optional bacterial classification again.Essential bacterial classification can be made so preferentially to breed.
Application the inventive method, not only can consume a large amount of discarded agriculture and industry waste containing organic matter, decrease environmental pollution, can also in arviculture and urban afforestation process, solve owing to using chemical fertilizer year after year, cause soil compaction, subtract fertilizer efficiency day, the problem of contaminate environment, for agriculture production provides the new source of manure.For the large agricultural country that China is such, fertilizer has huge market, and its application progressively can change the undesirable condition that agricultural land organic content is low, soil fertility is poor.Present invention process route is ripe, and one-time investment is few, meets the industry policy that country turns waste into wealth.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1.
From 100, the organic substance sample will producing the furfural dregs of fertilizer, plant ash collection contains specified microorganisms, isolate genus bacillus 56 strain, yeast 132 strain, photosynthetic bacteria 27 strain, actinomycetes 18 strain, milk-acid bacteria 23 strain, filamentous fungus 18 strain.By statistical study, from all kinds of bacterial classification, determine the bacterial strain that 16 strains are excellent.16 kinds of alternative bacterial strains are sorted out according to genus bacillus, yeast, actinomycetes and filamentous fungus, photosynthetic bacteria and milk-acid bacteria, in each class, first selects the highest bacterial strain of usefulness as core bacterial classification.Under indoor cultivation condition, different strain is cultivated between two in same culture dish, with or without antagonism between observation, if find antagonism, then from its same class, select strain culturing in addition.Tested by comparative observation, determine that genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus are the essentially consist bacterial classification of bio-fermentation agent, other 1 strain photosynthetic bacteria bacterial strain, 1 strains of lactic acid bacteria bacterial strain and 1 strain actinomycetes strain are the composition bacterial classification of product, and product is altogether containing 6 bacterial classifications.
At laboratory simulation plant produced fermenting process, each factor of impact fermentation is tested one by one, determine to be applicable to often kind of beneficial microorganism optimal culture conditions.According to extractum carnis 1.1%-2.0%, peptone 1.1%-2.0%, sodium-chlor 0.55%-0.65%, agar 2%-3%, all the other are the fundamental quantity of water, and make minimum medium, the pH value of minimum medium controls at 6-8.5; In minimum medium, access one or more of above-mentioned three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification, put into shaking table, liquid amount is the 20-50% of culture vessel volume, and shaking speed is 160-190 rev/min; Arrange fundamental quantity according to each material in strain inoculation amount, substratum to increase by 10%, increase by 20%, reduce by 10% and minimizing 20% totally 4 ranks, change the composition of each composition of substratum; Observe each strain growth situation, determine the ratio that in substratum, each component is applicable to, produce selective medium.Under normal circumstances, genus bacillus is equal energy normal growth within the scope of 20-50 DEG C, and saccharomycetic growth temperature range is at 10-50 DEG C, and the growth temperature of actinomycetes and filamentous fungus is at 20-70 DEG C.Also can reduce thermograde test in each growth temperature range, determine its best cultivation temperature.
Prepared by slant strains.In selective medium, access above-mentioned bacterial classification respectively, be placed in 28 DEG C of thermostat containers and cultivate 72h, be placed in refrigerator and preserve, for subsequent use;
Prepared by Kolle flask bacterial classification: get Kolle flask several, be respectively charged into selective medium, after sterilizing, in each Kolle flask, access a kind of slant strains, be placed in 36-45 DEG C of thermostat container and cultivate 72h, for subsequent use.
Prepared by bacterial classification suspension: the bacterial classification in above-mentioned Kolle flask is aseptically added 250mL sterilized water, makes suspension; Suspension in Kolle flask is poured in aseptic vacuum bottle, after wrapping, be bacterial classification suspension.
Prepared by primary seed solution: by the primary seed solution of above-mentioned suspension access sterilizing in vacuum bottle, at 36-45 DEG C of bottom fermentation 20h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; In described primary seed solution, the weight ratio of selective medium is 50%-60%, and all the other are above-mentioned various bacterial classification suspension.
Prepared by organic bacteria liquid: in fermentor tank, inject selective medium, by above-mentioned seed liquor according to the ratio access fermentor tank accounting for selective medium weight 10%-12%, at 36-45 DEG C, cultivate 72h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; When bacteria containing amount reaches viable count 5,000,000,000 strain/more than mL, be strain liquid.
Measure content organic in raw materials for production such as plant ash, furfural dregs, estimation mixture in containing weight ratio be 20% organic time need raw material quantity, mixture is added after estimating the quantity according to mineral manure required when accounting for mixture dry ratio 16% of full nitrogen, full phosphorus, full potassium, abundant stirring, after mixing.Mixture is stacked, stacks and require wide 4m, high 2m.Maintenance temperature is 65-75 DEG C, and water content is 67%-70%, and pH value is 8.0-9.0.Within every 3 days, turn over buttress once, detect the indexs such as content of microorganisms, pH value, temperature, water content, organic content, in mixture, add water, furfural dregs, plant ash depending on practical situation, determine to turn over buttress number of times depending on temperature in the degree of becoming thoroughly decomposed or buttress.When buttress in water content be stabilized in 10%-20%, temperature-stable 45-50 DEG C, pH drop to 6.5-6.9 time, digest process completes.Now, mixture is with earth temperature, and stink is eliminated.
Said mixture is carried out drying, screening after, add strain liquid, when viable count useful in mixture be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram time, namely obtain finished product.Described drying is spraying dry or spray granulating, preferred spray granulating; The Active organic bacterial fertilizer granularity 3-5mm obtained, hardness is 6-30N.The product of the Active organic bacterial fertilizer obtained, after testing, product index reaches the requirement of relevant criterion, and some index is far superior to standard.Product index detection case sees the following form:
Embodiment 2.
From producing the active sludge of fertilizer, feces of livestock and poultry, plant ash, agricultural crop straw 100, the organic substance sample gathered containing specified microorganisms, isolate genus bacillus 52 strain, yeast 112 strain, photosynthetic bacteria 26 strain, actinomycetes 20 strain, milk-acid bacteria 25 strain, filamentous fungus 20 strain.By statistical study, from all kinds of bacterial classification, determine the bacterial strain that 24 strains are excellent.24 kinds of alternative bacterial strains are sorted out according to genus bacillus, yeast, actinomycetes and filamentous fungus, photosynthetic bacteria and milk-acid bacteria, in each class, first selects the highest bacterial strain of usefulness as core bacterial classification.Under indoor cultivation condition, different strain is cultivated between two in same culture dish, with or without antagonism between observation, if find antagonism, then from its same class, select strain culturing in addition.Tested by comparative observation, determine that genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus are the essentially consist bacterial classification of bio-fermentation agent, other 1 strain photosynthetic bacteria bacterial strain, 1 strains of lactic acid bacteria bacterial strain, product is altogether containing 5 bacterial classifications.
At laboratory simulation plant produced fermenting process, each factor of impact fermentation is tested one by one, determine to be applicable to often kind of beneficial microorganism optimal culture conditions.Utilize hypermetabolism flux distribution technology screening high-effective microorganism microbial inoculum, adopt orthogonal test and response phase method determination bacterial classification optimum inoculation amount and proportioning raw materials, specific practice is: according to extractum carnis 1.1%-2.0%, peptone 1.1%-2.0%, sodium-chlor 0.55%-0.65%, agar 2%-3%, all the other are the fundamental quantity of water, make minimum medium, the pH value of minimum medium controls at 6-8.5; In minimum medium, access one or more of above-mentioned three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification, put into shaking table, liquid amount is the 20-50% of culture vessel volume, and shaking speed is 160-190 rev/min; Arrange fundamental quantity according to each material in strain inoculation amount, substratum to increase by 10%, increase by 20%, reduce by 10% and minimizing 20% totally 4 ranks, change the composition of each composition of substratum; Observe each strain growth situation, determine the ratio that in substratum, each component is applicable to, produce selective medium.Under normal circumstances, genus bacillus is equal energy normal growth within the scope of 20-50 DEG C, and saccharomycetic growth temperature range is at 10-50 DEG C, and the growth temperature of actinomycetes and filamentous fungus is at 20-70 DEG C.Also can reduce thermograde test in each growth temperature range, determine its best cultivation temperature.Hypermetabolism flux distribution technology refers to a kind of quantitative analysis method with the lower intramicellar reaction of stoichiometric matrix model representation quasi-stable state hypothesis.In its supposition certain hour, in born of the same parents, the concentration of mesostate is constant, according to the base consumption speed recorded in the quantitative relation respectively reacted in pathways metabolism and experiment or product formation rate, determine unknown speed of reaction based on mass balance and possible energy balance, and then determine the flux distribution diagram of metabolism network.Metabolic flux analysis is accurate quantitative description metabolic characteristic not only, can also provide some information that some thalline physiology aspects are more deep.By comparing the change of metabolic flux, we just can give sufficient evaluation to the impact of h and E disturbance, and can describe accurately the importance of particular approach and reaction.Orthogonal test makes again orthogonal experimental design (Orthogonal experimental design) be multifactor another the multilevel method of design of research, it from comprehensive test, picks out the representational point of part according to orthogonality to test, these representational points have possessed the feature of " dispersed; neat comparable ", and orthogonal experimental design is the main method of fraction Factorial Design.A kind of high-level efficiency, quick, economic experimental design method.The horizontal combination that orthogonal test is selected by the famous statistician field mouth profound of Japan is tabulating, is called orthogonal table.Response surface refers to is tested by a series of determinacy, carrys out approximate implicit limit state function with polynomial function.By reasonably choosing test point and iterative strategy, ensure that polynomial function can converge on the probability of failure of real implicit limit state function on probability of failure.
Prepared by slant strains.In selective medium, access above-mentioned bacterial classification respectively, be placed in 28 DEG C of thermostat containers and cultivate 72h, be placed in refrigerator and preserve, for subsequent use;
Prepared by Kolle flask bacterial classification: get Kolle flask several, be respectively charged into selective medium, after sterilizing, in each Kolle flask, access a kind of slant strains, be placed in 36-45 DEG C of thermostat container and cultivate 72h.
Prepared by bacterial classification suspension: the bacterial classification in above-mentioned Kolle flask is aseptically added 250mL sterilized water, makes suspension; Suspension in Kolle flask is poured in aseptic vacuum bottle, after wrapping, be bacterial classification suspension.30%-50%, 15%-25%, 15%-25% of total bacterial classification suspension access amount is accounted for respectively in the bacterial classification suspension access amount of vacuum bottle genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus.Access bacterial classification is the bacterial classification suspension first accessing genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus, cultivates the 8 hours later suspension accessing other bacterial classifications again.
Prepared by primary seed solution: by the primary seed solution of above-mentioned suspension access sterilizing in vacuum bottle, at 36-45 DEG C of bottom fermentation 20h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; In described primary seed solution, the weight ratio of selective medium is 50%-60%, and all the other are above-mentioned various bacterial classification suspension.
Prepared by secondary seed solution: add in selective medium the starch of 0.3-0.5%, 0.5-0.7% sucrose, 0.3% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, the potassium primary phosphate of 0.16-0.20%, 4.0-5.0% dregs of beans, 10% sawdust after inject fermentor tank; Inoculation selective medium weight ratio is the primary seed solution of 2%-5%; Temperature controls at 36-45 DEG C, mixing speed 150-180 rev/min, and air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, ferments and makes secondary seed solution after 24 hours.
Prepared by organic bacteria liquid: in fermentor tank, inject selective medium, by above-mentioned seed liquor according to the ratio access fermentor tank accounting for selective medium weight 10%-12%, at 36-45 DEG C, cultivate 72h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; When bacteria containing amount reaches viable count 5,000,000,000 strain/more than mL, be strain liquid.
Measure content organic in raw materials for production such as plant ash, furfural dregs, estimation mixture in containing weight ratio be 20% organic time need raw material quantity, mixture is added after estimating the quantity according to mineral manure required when accounting for mixture dry ratio 30% of full nitrogen, full phosphorus, full potassium, abundant stirring, after mixing.Mixture is stacked, stacks and require wide 4m, high 2m.Maintenance temperature is 65-75 DEG C, and water content is 67-70%, and pH value is 8.0-9.0.Within every 2 days, turn over buttress once, detect the indexs such as content of microorganisms, pH value, temperature, water content, organic content, in mixture, add water, furfural dregs, plant ash depending on practical situation, determine to turn over buttress number of times depending on temperature in the degree of becoming thoroughly decomposed or buttress.When buttress in water content be stabilized in 10-20%, temperature-stable 45-50 DEG C, pH drop to 6.5-6.9 time, digest process completes.Now, mixture is with earth temperature, and stink is eliminated.Cylinder granulation is carried out to mixture, makes mixture be spherical by cylinder not stall is dynamic.After mixture is sieved, add strain liquid, when viable count useful in mixture be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram time, namely obtain finished product.The Active organic bacterial fertilizer granularity 2-4.5mm obtained, hardness is 6-30N.
Embodiment 3.Zymotechnique is identical with embodiment 2.After digest process completes, mixture is dried, after having dried, cross 60 mesh sieves.After having sieved, add strain liquid, when viable count useful in mixture be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram time, namely obtain finished product.Finally obtain pulverous Active organic bacterial fertilizer.

Claims (2)

1. the preparation method of an Active organic bacterial fertilizer, described Active organic bacterial fertilizer with plant ash, be rich in organic agriculture and industry waste, mineral manure for raw material, disposablely to continuously ferment, granulation, drying, after screening, by inoculation by from the plant ash in above-mentioned raw materials, be rich in seed selection in organic agriculture and industry waste bacterial classification after obtained, comprise the steps:
A) plant ash, the agriculture and industry waste being rich in organic matter, mineral manure are fully stirred, mix;
B) mixture is stacked, maintenance temperature is 65-75 DEG C, water content is 67%-70%, pH value is 8.0-9.0, every 2-4 days turns over buttress once, determines to turn over buttress number of times depending on the degree of becoming thoroughly decomposed, when in buttress, water content is stabilized in 10%-20%, temperature-stable 45-50 DEG C, pH drop to 6.5-6.9 time, digest process completes;
C) said mixture is carried out drying, screening after, add strain liquid, when viable count useful in mixture be 0.20-0.65 hundred million strain/gram time, namely obtain finished product;
It is characterized in that: the preparation method of described strain liquid is:
A) bacterial classification is selected: from plant ash, be rich in organic agriculture and industry waste and choose some samples, isolate genus bacillus, yeast, filamentous fungus, photosynthetic bacterium, lactobacillus strain, the some strains of actinomycetes strain from above-mentioned sample;
By statistical study, screening above-mentioned bacterial strains, determines that in each bacterial classification the bacterial strain that usefulness is the highest is as core bacterial classification; Under indoor cultivation condition, different strain is cultivated between two in same culture dish, with or without antagonism between observation, if find antagonism, then from its same class, select strain culturing in addition; Tested by comparative observation, genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus respectively select a kind of with other the two kinds of bacterial classifications in these three kinds of bacterial classifications not antibionts bacterial classification as essential bacterial classification; Photosynthetic bacterium strain, lactic bacterium strains, actinomycetes strain respectively select a kind of with other the two kinds of bacterial classifications in these three kinds of bacterial classifications and above-mentioned essential bacterial classification not antibionts bacterial classification as optional bacterial classification;
B) bacterial classification optimum inoculation amount and proportioning raw materials is determined: according to extractum carnis 1.1%-2.0%, peptone 1.1%-2.0%, sodium-chlor 0.55%-0.65%, agar 2%-3%, all the other are the fundamental quantity of water, make minimum medium, the pH value of minimum medium controls at 6-8.5; In minimum medium, access one or more of above-mentioned three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification, put into shaking table, liquid amount is the 20%-50% of culture vessel volume, and shaking speed is 160-190 rev/min; Arrange fundamental quantity according to each material in strain inoculation amount, substratum to increase by 10%, increase by 20%, reduce by 10% and minimizing 20% totally 4 ranks, change the composition of each composition of substratum; Observe each strain growth situation, determine the ratio that in substratum, each component is applicable to, produce selective medium;
C) slant strains preparation: access one or more of three kinds of essential bacterial classifications and optional bacterial classification in selective medium respectively, is placed in 28 DEG C of thermostat containers and cultivates 72h, be placed in refrigerator and preserve, for subsequent use;
D) Kolle flask bacterial classification preparation: get Kolle flask several, be respectively charged into selective medium, after sterilizing, in each Kolle flask, access a kind of slant strains, be placed in 36-45 DEG C of thermostat container and cultivate 72h, for subsequent use;
E) bacterial classification suspension preparation: the bacterial classification in above-mentioned Kolle flask is aseptically added 250mL sterilized water, makes suspension; Suspension in Kolle flask is poured in aseptic vacuum bottle, after wrapping, be bacterial classification suspension;
F) primary seed solution preparation: by the selective medium of above-mentioned suspension access sterilizing in vacuum bottle, at 36-45 DEG C of bottom fermentation 20h, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min, obtained primary seed solution; In described primary seed solution, the weight ratio of selective medium is 50%-60%, and all the other are above-mentioned various bacterial classification suspension; In described step, in vacuum bottle, the bacterial classification suspension access amount of genus bacillus, yeast and filamentous fungus accounts for 30%-50%, 15%-25%, 15%-25% of total bacterial classification suspension access amount respectively; When accessing suspension in vacuum bottle, first access the suspension of essential bacterial classification, after cultivating for some time, access the suspension of optional bacterial classification again;
G) organic bacteria liquid preparation: inject selective medium in fermentor tank, by above-mentioned seed liquor according to the ratio access fermentor tank accounting for selective medium weight 10%-12%, 72h is cultivated at 36-45 DEG C, air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, and stirring velocity is 150-250 rev/min; When bacteria containing amount reaches viable count 5,000,000,000 strain/more than mL, be organic bacteria liquid.
2. the preparation method of Active organic bacterial fertilizer as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: between step F and step G, also comprise step prepared by secondary seed solution, step prepared by described secondary seed solution is, add in selective medium the starch of 0.3%-0.5%, 0.5%-0.7% sucrose, 0.3% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, the potassium primary phosphate of 0.16%-0.20%, 4.0%-5.0% dregs of beans, 10% sawdust after inject fermentor tank; Inoculation selective medium weight ratio is the primary seed solution of 2%-5%; Temperature controls at 36-45 DEG C, mixing speed 150-180 rev/min, and air flow and liquid volume ratio are 0.5-1.0, ferments and makes secondary seed solution after 24 hours.
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