CN103008994B - Production method for dedicated steel ball for bearing of high-speed high-precision numerical control machine tool - Google Patents

Production method for dedicated steel ball for bearing of high-speed high-precision numerical control machine tool Download PDF

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CN103008994B
CN103008994B CN201210537293.8A CN201210537293A CN103008994B CN 103008994 B CN103008994 B CN 103008994B CN 201210537293 A CN201210537293 A CN 201210537293A CN 103008994 B CN103008994 B CN 103008994B
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steel ball
adopts
speed
ball
grinding
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CN201210537293.8A
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CN103008994A (en
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杨吉明
魏爱庆
徐学敏
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山东东阿钢球集团有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a production method for a dedicated steel ball for a bearing of a high-speed high-precision numerical control machine tool. The method comprises the following steps of steel ball cold heading, namely machining blank by sleeve cutting, shaping, cold heading multi-station and high-speed cold heading ways; rough machining by adopting a macrocyclic light bulb technology; performing controllable atmosphere quenching, cold treatment and tapering treatment by adopting a continuous drum furnace, automatically controlling carbon potential; surface strengthening by adopting a frequency conversion speed adjusting multi-beating-plate structure; hard grinding by adopting a ceramic sand wheel to perform macrocyclic process to machine; after primary grinding, adopting double-roller sorting; after fine grinding, performing photoelectric eddy current test; performing ultra-fine grinding machining after aging treatment; and performing photoelectric detection after ultra-fine grinding. The diameter variation of the steel ball which is machined and produced by the method provided by the invention is less than 0.07 micron, the roundness is less than 0.05 micron, the spherical error is less than 0.05 micron, the surface roughness Ra is less than 0.07 micron, the variation of the diameter of the ball lot is less than 0.09 micron, and the bearing dmn value of the steel ball after being sleeved is more than 2.5*10<6> mm*r/min.

Description

High speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball production method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of steel ball production method, especially a kind of production method of high speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball.

Background technology

Current high speed and precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing belongs to high accuracy, high-tech bearing species, technology content is higher, and development difficulty is comparatively large, and current major part needs dependence on import, seriously govern the localization process of high speed and precision Digit Control Machine Tool, become the key components and parts being badly in need of substituting import.Bearing mainly contain steel ball, inner and outer ring and retainer four part composition, in four large parts of bearing, steel ball is weakest link, the superficial makings of steel ball directly affects the life-span of bearing, to the contributive rate of bear vibration and noise more than 60%, and the bearing failure of more than 80% comes from the inefficacy of steel ball.

Current China steel ball and external steel ball with high precision are after tested in the simple grain such as " roughness ", " circularity " geometric accuracy etc. and it makes no odds, but the vibrating noise value difference of trap rear bearing is not larger, cause this difference, except raw-material difference, the more important thing is the difference of heat treatment level and steel ball moulding process, cause the difference of steel ball duty within the bearing, thus larger impact is created on bear vibration, noise and life-span.

Traditional steel ball production technology generally adopts the operation such as steel ball cold heading, photosphere, Q-tempering process, hard grind, early grind, lappingout to process, but does not also reach the requirement of high speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is for overcoming above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, providing a kind of high speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball production method, the method technique is simple, and the steel ball of production can reach " rolling bearing fine work steel ball technical conditions " requirement.

For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical proposals:

A kind of high speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball production method, step is as follows:

(1) steel ball cold heading, adopts multistation high-speed header system machining blanks;

(2) roughing, adopts systemic circulation photosphere technique;

(3) heat treatment, adopts continuous rotary drum furnace controlled atmosphere quenching, cold treatment, temper, automatic control of carbon potential;

(4) surface peening, application frequency control re-pack more body structure surface strengthening;

(5) hard grind, adopts vitrified abrasive systemic circulation processes;

(6) early grind, then adopts two roller sorting;

(7) lappingout, then photoelectricity eddy current inspection;

(8) Ageing Treatment, then superfinishing;

(9) photoelectric inspection, superfinishing is ground rear employing photoelectricity outward appearance instrument and is detected steel ball surface defect.

First bearing steel wire sleeve blank mode is cut into material section in described step (1), then will the section of expecting shaping, finally material section Upsetting is made steel ball blanks.

Per car processing capacity 1000-1200Kg in described step (2), filing and grinding are separately carried out; First adopt filing technique, eliminate endless belt and the two poles of the earth burr, and then grinding, process velocity 90-130r/min, pressure 100-200KN, stock removal 0.15-0.20mm.

The quenching of continuous rotary drum furnace controllable atmosphere of nitrogen is adopted in described step (3), hardening media is fast quenching oil, cold treatment is carried out after quenching, last temper, quenching temperature 830-850 DEG C, quench media temperature 60-80 DEG C, cold treatment temperature 6-8 DEG C, temperature 140-160 DEG C, atmosphere is nitrogen+propane+methyl alcohol (nitrogen 8-10m 3/ h, propane 0-300L/h controls automatically, methyl alcohol 1-2.5L/h).

Re-pack in described step (4) rotating speed 160-200r/min, drum rotation speed 8-12r/min, and strengthening rear surface hardness HRC62-63.5, then carries out temper, temperature 140-150 DEG C.

In described step (6), early grind is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, adopts 2000# resin wheel, process velocity 10-30r/min, pressure 2-4KN; Two roller sorting adopts ball size check system, and two roller becomes tilt distribution, and according to different product specifications, bigger than normal to qualified products, rule value, rule are worth size classes less than normal and select by the corresponding distance of adjustment and angle of inclination.

In described step (7), lappingout is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, adopts 4000# resin wheel, process velocity 10-20r/min, pressure 1-3KN; Photoelectricity eddy current inspection, adopts photoelectricity, eddy current and vibration three probe synchronous detection steel ball surface and latent defect.

Ageing Treatment in described step (8) adopts net belt type tempering furnace artificial aging, and temperature is 120 ~ 150 DEG C, eliminates residual stress, improves dimensional accuracy; Superfinishing is ground and is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, does not add abrasive material, adopts 6000# resin wheel, aqua lapping liquid, process velocity 10-15r/min, pressure 0.8-1KN.

The processing of aqua grinding fluid is adopted in described step (2), step (5); Diadust is adopted to mix (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid adds 150-500 gram of diadust) with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent in step (6) and step (7).

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the steel ball ball diameter variation processed by the present invention is less than 0.07 μm, circularity is less than 0.05 μm, and deviation from spherical form is less than 0.05 μm, and surface roughness Ra is less than 0.007 μm, ball lot diameter variation is less than 0.09 μm, steel ball trap rear bearing d mn value is greater than 2.5X10 6mmr/min.

Process route of the present invention is on existing processing technology for steel ball basis, by analyzing influence steel ball precision, life-span, high speed performance index (d mn) correlative factor, selects reliable, rational process, reasonably technological equipment to improve the accuracy of manufacture of steel ball, life-span and high speed performance

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further described.

Embodiment 1: for 3.969mm(5/32) production technology of steel ball, steel ball material is GCr15.

(1) steel ball cold heading: on high-speed cold heading machine, bearing steel wire is adopted sleeve blank; Then will the section of expecting shaping, remove burr; Then cold-heading is carried out.Adopt multi-station cold-heading mode, machining blanks per minute 700, blank dimension 4.27mm.

(2) roughing

Adopt systemic circulation photosphere technique, aqua grinding fluid is processed, processing capacity 1000Kg, first adopts filing technique, eliminates endless belt and the two poles of the earth burr, then changes trains or buses to carry out grinding.Process velocity 90r/min, pressure 100KN, stock removal 0.18mm.

(3) heat treatment

Adopt continuous rotary drum furnace to carry out controllable atmosphere of nitrogen quenching, hardening media is fast quenching oil, carries out cold treatment after quenching, last temper.Quenching temperature 830 DEG C, quench media temperature 70 DEG C, cold treatment temperature 7 DEG C, temperature 160 DEG C, atmosphere is nitrogen+propane+methyl alcohol (nitrogen 8m 3/ h, propane 0-300L/h controls automatically, methyl alcohol 2L/h), quenching-cold treatment-tempering on line is produced.

(4) surface peening

The application frequency control structure that re-packs carries out surface peening more, and re-pack rotating speed 160r/min, drum rotation speed 8r/min, strengthening rear surface hardness HRC62-63.5.Then temper is carried out, temperature 140 DEG C.

(5) hard grind

Hard grind adopts vitrified abrasive systemic circulation technique, and aqua grinding fluid is processed, stock removal 0.09mm.

(6) early grind

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 150 grams of diadusts), 2000# resin wheel, process velocity 15r/min, pressure 2KN.

(7) two roller sorting

Two roller sorting adopts ball size check system, and two roller becomes tilt distribution, and bigger than normal to qualified products, rule value, rule are worth size classes less than normal and select.

(8) lappingout

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 150 grams of diadusts), 4000# resin wheel, process velocity 15r/min, pressure 1KN.

(9) photoelectricity eddy current inspection

Adopt photoelectricity, eddy current and vibration three probe synchronous detection steel ball surface and latent defect.

(10) Ageing Treatment

Adopt net belt type tempering furnace to carry out artificial aging, temperature is 120 DEG C, eliminates residual stress, improves dimensional accuracy.

(11) superfinishing is ground

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, does not add abrasive material, adopt 6000# resin wheel, aqua lapping liquid.Process velocity 10r/min, pressure 0.8KN.

(12) photoelectric inspection

Photoelectricity outward appearance instrument is adopted to detect steel ball surface defect.

Embodiment 2: for 5.953mm(15/64) production technology of steel ball, steel ball material is GCr15.

(1) steel ball cold heading: on high-speed cold heading machine, bearing steel wire is adopted sleeve blank; Then will the section of expecting shaping, remove burr; Then cold-heading is carried out.Adopt multi-station cold-heading mode, machining blanks per minute 600, blank dimension 6.26mm.

(2) roughing

Adopt systemic circulation photosphere technique, aqua grinding fluid is processed, processing capacity 1100Kg, first adopts filing technique, eliminates endless belt and the two poles of the earth burr, then changes trains or buses to carry out grinding.Process velocity 130r/min, pressure 150KN, stock removal 0.15mm.

(3) heat treatment

Adopt continuous rotary drum furnace to carry out controllable atmosphere of nitrogen quenching, hardening media is fast quenching oil, carries out cold treatment after quenching, last temper.Quenching temperature 845 DEG C, quench media temperature 60 DEG C, cold treatment temperature 8 DEG C, temperature 140 DEG C, atmosphere is nitrogen+propane+methyl alcohol (nitrogen 9m 3/ h, propane 0-300L/h controls automatically, methyl alcohol 1L/h), quenching-cold treatment-tempering on line is produced.

(4) surface peening

The application frequency control structure that re-packs carries out surface peening more, and re-pack rotating speed 180r/min, drum rotation speed 10r/min, strengthening rear surface hardness HRC62-63.5.Then temper is carried out, temperature 140 DEG C.

(5) hard grind

Hard grind adopts vitrified abrasive systemic circulation technique, and aqua grinding fluid is processed, stock removal 0.09mm.

(6) early grind

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 400 grams of diadusts), 2000# resin wheel, process velocity, 25r/min, pressure 3KN.

(7) two roller sorting

Two roller sorting adopts ball size check system, and two roller becomes tilt distribution, and bigger than normal to qualified products, rule value, rule are worth size classes less than normal and select.

(8) lappingout

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 200 grams of diadusts), 4000# resin wheel, process velocity 15r/min, pressure 2.5KN.

(9) photoelectricity eddy current inspection

Adopt photoelectricity, eddy current and vibration three probe synchronous detection steel ball surface and latent defect.

(10) Ageing Treatment

Adopt net belt type tempering furnace to carry out artificial aging, temperature is 135 DEG C, eliminates residual stress, improves dimensional accuracy.

(11) superfinishing is ground

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, does not add abrasive material, adopt 6000# resin wheel, aqua lapping liquid.Process velocity 12r/min, pressure 0.9KN.

(12) photoelectric inspection

Photoelectricity outward appearance instrument is adopted to detect steel ball surface defect.

Embodiment 3: for 6.747mm(17/64) production technology of steel ball, steel ball material is GCr15.

(1) steel ball cold heading: on high-speed cold heading machine, bearing steel wire is adopted sleeve blank; Then will the section of expecting shaping, remove burr; Then cold-heading is carried out.Adopt multi-station cold-heading mode, machining blanks per minute 600, blank dimension 7.05mm.

(2) roughing

Adopt systemic circulation photosphere technique, aqua grinding fluid is processed, processing capacity 1200Kg, first adopts filing technique, eliminates endless belt and the two poles of the earth burr, then changes trains or buses to carry out grinding.Process velocity 110r/min, pressure 200KN, stock removal 0.20mm.

(3) heat treatment

Adopt continuous rotary drum furnace to carry out controllable atmosphere of nitrogen quenching, hardening media is fast quenching oil, carries out cold treatment after quenching, last temper.Quenching temperature 850 DEG C, quench media temperature 80 DEG C, cold treatment temperature 6 DEG C, temperature 150 DEG C, atmosphere is nitrogen+propane+methyl alcohol (nitrogen 10m 3/ h, propane 0-300L/h controls automatically, methyl alcohol 2.5L/h), quenching-cold treatment-tempering on line is produced.

(4) surface peening

The application frequency control structure that re-packs carries out surface peening more, and re-pack rotating speed 200r/min, drum rotation speed 12r/min, strengthening rear surface hardness HRC62-63.5.Then temper is carried out, temperature 150 DEG C.

(5) hard grind

Hard grind adopts vitrified abrasive systemic circulation technique, and aqua grinding fluid is processed, stock removal 0.09mm.

(6) early grind

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 500 grams of diadusts), 2000# resin wheel, process velocity, 30r/min, pressure 4KN.

(7) two roller sorting

Two roller sorting adopts ball size check system, and two roller becomes tilt distribution, and bigger than normal to qualified products, rule value, rule are worth size classes less than normal and select.

(8) lappingout

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, adopts diadust to mix with aqua lapping liquid as grinding agent (per kilogram aqua lapping liquid joins 500 grams of diadusts), 4000# resin wheel, process velocity 20r/min, pressure 3KN.

(9) photoelectricity eddy current inspection

Adopt photoelectricity, eddy current and vibration three probe synchronous detection steel ball surface and latent defect.

(10) Ageing Treatment

Adopt net belt type tempering furnace to carry out artificial aging, temperature is 150 DEG C, eliminates residual stress, improves dimensional accuracy.

(11) superfinishing is ground

Vertical ball lapping machine carries out early grind processing, does not add abrasive material, adopt 6000# resin wheel, aqua lapping liquid.Process velocity 10r/min, pressure 1KN.

(12) photoelectric inspection

Photoelectricity outward appearance instrument is adopted to detect steel ball surface defect.

Steel ball product parameters through above-mentioned processing is as follows:

Inspection item Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Standard value Ball diameter variation (μm) 0.04 0.06 0.05 ≤0.13 Circularity (μm) 0.027 0.025 0.016 ≤0.13 Deviation from spherical form (μm) 0.032 0.032 0.034 ≤0.13 Surface roughness Ra (μm) 0.007 0.008 0.008 ≤0.10 Ball lot diameter variation (μm) 0.08 0.08 0.09 ≤0.25 d mn mm·r/min) 2.8×10 6 2.7×10 6 2.67×10 6 ≥1.5×10 6

Reach " rolling bearing fine work steel ball technical conditions " requirement.

Although above-mentioned, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay various amendment or distortion that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a high speed and super precision Digit Control Machine Tool bearing special-purpose steel ball production method, it is characterized in that, step is as follows:
(1) steel ball cold heading, adopts multistation high-speed header system machining blanks; First bearing steel wire sleeve blank mode is cut into material section, then will the section of expecting shaping, finally material section Upsetting is made steel ball blanks;
(2) roughing, adopts systemic circulation photosphere technique; Per car processing capacity 1000-1200Kg, filing and grinding are separately carried out; First adopt filing technique, eliminate endless belt and the two poles of the earth burr, and then grinding, process velocity 90-130r/min, pressure 100-200KN, stock removal 0.15-0.20mm;
(3) heat treatment, adopts continuous rotary drum furnace controlled atmosphere quenching, cold treatment, temper, automatic control of carbon potential; Continuous rotary drum furnace controllable atmosphere of nitrogen is adopted to quench, hardening media is fast quenching oil, cold treatment is carried out after quenching, last temper, quenching temperature 830-850 DEG C, quench media temperature 60-80 DEG C, cold treatment temperature 6-8 DEG C, temperature 140-160 DEG C, atmosphere is nitrogen+propane+methyl alcohol, wherein nitrogen 8-10m 3/ h, propane 0-300L/h controls automatically, methyl alcohol 1-2.5L/h;
(4) surface peening, application frequency control re-pack more body structure surface strengthening; Re-pack rotating speed 160-200r/min, drum rotation speed 8-12r/min, and strengthening rear surface hardness HRC62-63.5, then carries out temper, temperature 140-150 DEG C;
(5) hard grind, adopts vitrified abrasive systemic circulation processes;
(6) early grind, then adopts two roller sorting;
(7) lappingout, then photoelectricity eddy current inspection;
(8) Ageing Treatment, then superfinishing;
(9) photoelectric inspection, superfinishing is ground rear employing photoelectricity outward appearance instrument and is detected steel ball surface defect.
2. the method for claim 1, is characterized in that, in described step (6), early grind is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, adopts 2000# resin wheel, process velocity 10-30r/min, pressure 2-4KN; Two roller sorting adopts ball size check system, and two roller becomes tilt distribution, and according to different product specifications, bigger than normal to qualified products, rule value, rule are worth size classes less than normal and select by the corresponding distance of adjustment and angle of inclination.
3. the method for claim 1, is characterized in that, in described step (7), lappingout is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, adopts 4000# resin wheel, process velocity 10-20r/min, pressure 1-3KN; Photoelectricity eddy current inspection, adopts photoelectricity, eddy current and vibration three probe synchronous detection steel ball surface and latent defect.
4. the method for claim 1, is characterized in that, the Ageing Treatment in described step (8) adopts net belt type tempering furnace artificial aging, and temperature is 120 ~ 150 DEG C, eliminates residual stress, improves dimensional accuracy; Superfinishing is ground and is processed on vertical ball lapping machine, does not add abrasive material, adopts 6000# resin wheel, aqua lapping liquid, process velocity 10-15r/min, pressure 0.8-1KN.
5. the method for claim 1, is characterized in that, adopts the processing of aqua grinding fluid in described step (2), step (5); Adopt diadust to mix as grinding agent with aqua lapping liquid in step (6) and step (7), wherein per kilogram aqua lapping liquid adds 150-500 gram of diadust.
CN201210537293.8A 2012-12-12 2012-12-12 Production method for dedicated steel ball for bearing of high-speed high-precision numerical control machine tool CN103008994B (en)

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