CN103006207B - Based on the morphological analysis ECG wave alternating scattergram Method t - Google Patents

Based on the morphological analysis ECG wave alternating scattergram Method t Download PDF

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CN103006207B
CN103006207B CN201310011202.1A CN201310011202A CN103006207B CN 103006207 B CN103006207 B CN 103006207B CN 201310011202 A CN201310011202 A CN 201310011202A CN 103006207 B CN103006207 B CN 103006207B
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wave alternans
alternans
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赵捷
郭慧
李菲
李田田
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山东师范大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法。 The present invention discloses a method for analyzing ECG T-wave alternans based on morphological methods scattergram. 针对谱分析法检测T波交替的计算复杂、检测每个心拍T波交替幅值的困难等缺点,提出一种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的研究,为国内相关临床研究开展提供一种新的T波交替检测有效量化指标。 Scatter research method for spectrum analysis to detect T-wave alternans computing complex, difficult to detect each heart beat T-wave alternans amplitude and other shortcomings, it is proposed based on the morphology of the T-wave alternans, for domestic-related clinical research undertaken to provide a new T-wave alternans detection quantization index efficiently. 本发明通过T波窗口分析法,对选自美国MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T心电数据库的128个连续心拍的T波进行采样,利用所得采样点作一次差分散点图,用散点图的矢量角度指数对T波交替进行定量分析,得出判断T波交替存在与否的矢量角度指数取值范围。 The present invention, on the selected US MIT / BIH arrhythmia database and the European standard ST-T ECG database 128 consecutive heartbeat T-wave sampled by the T-wave window analysis, using the sample points for a difference resulting scattergram on T-wave alternans was analyzed by the angle of the vector index of the scatter plot, draw determines presence or absence of T-wave alternans index vector angular range. 将散点图法的矢量角度指数和谱分析法的T波交替幅值对T波交替的检测结果进行比较,判断矢量角度指数检测T波交替的可靠性。 The angle of T wave vector index scattergram analysis method and spectral amplitude of T-wave alternation of alternating detection result, and determines the vector angle detecting T-wave alternans index of reliability.

Description

基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法 Based on the morphological analysis of ECG T-wave alternation method scattergram

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种心电信号分析方法,具体涉及一种基于形态学的Τ波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a method for analyzing ECG signals, in particular, to an alternating ECG signal analysis method based on the scattergram Τ wave morphology. 属于生物医学信号处理技术领域。 Belonging to the field of biomedical signal processing technology.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] Τ波交替(TWaveAlternans,TWA)是在规整的心律时,一种体现在体表心电图上的T波形态、极性和振幅逐拍交替变化的心电变异现象。 [0002] Τ wave alternans (TWaveAlternans, TWA) at the time of regular rhythm, T wave morphology in a reflection on the surface ECG, the polarity and amplitude variation by ECG beat phenomenon alternating. 虽然T波交替的产生机理与室性心律失常的关系尚未有一致的定论,但大量的临床和动物实验研究表明,T波交替与室性心律失常、室速、室颤、心源性猝死等有直接的联系,微伏级T波交替已成为预测室性心律失常的重要指标。 Although the relationship and the mechanism of ventricular arrhythmia T-wave alternans not yet have a consistent conclusion, but a large number of animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that, T-wave alternans and ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, sudden cardiac death, etc. there is a direct link, microvolt T-wave alternans has become an important predictor of ventricular arrhythmias.

[0003]T波交替是一种非稳态的变异性现象。 [0003] T-wave alternans is a non-steady-state phenomenon of variability. 按照T波交替检测统计方法的不同,T波交替检测被分为短时傅里叶变换法、符号变换法和非线性法。 T-wave alternans detection according to various statistical methods, T wave alternans detection is divided into short-time Fourier transform, and a nonlinear transform process symbols. 频谱分析法(SM)是短时傅里叶变换法中最成熟一种方法,散点图法是非线性法的一种。 Spectrum analysis method (SM) is a short-time Fourier transform method, a method most mature, scatter plot method is a non-linear law. 随着数字信号处理技术和计算机技术的快速发展,微伏级的T波交替被检出的精确度越来越高。 With the rapid development of digital signal processing technology and computer technology, microvolt T-wave alternans detection accuracy is increasing. 使用数字信号处理技术检测体表电路图中是否存在微伏级的T波交替现象,已作为预测室性心律失常、心源性猝死风险的独立指标,并成为一项新的无创心电检测方法。 If there are separate indicators microvolt T-wave alternans detection surface circuit diagram of a digital signal processing techniques, it has been predicted as ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death risks, and become a new non-invasive cardiac electrical detection method.

[0004] 文献《利用Poincare散点图法检测t波交替的指标研究》(李斐、赵捷等,现代生物医学进展,V0L. 12,NO. 14MAY2012)和《基于Poincare散点图与谱分析法的T波交替检测》(李斐,山东师范大学,2012年)主要是根据散点图形态和T波交替幅值变化的特点,利用散点到x+y= 〇直线的距离均值作为定量检测指标来判断T波交替的存在与否。 "Index of Poincare plot detected using alternating wave t '[0004] Document (Fei Li, Zhao Jie, ADVANCES biomedicine, V0L. 12, NO. 14MAY2012) and" Poincare plot based on spectral analysis and T-wave alternans detection method "(Fei Li, Shandong Normal University, 2012) and are mainly based on morphological scattergram T wave alternans amplitude variation characteristics to use scatter x + y = the mean square distance line as a quantitative detection index to determine the presence or absence of T-wave alternans. 由于该方法受T波幅值变化影响较大,对于幅值差别较大的心电,会出现误检,降低了检测结果的准确性。 Since the method by changes in T-wave amplitude greater impact, the magnitude of the difference for the larger ECG, there will be false detection, reducing the accuracy of test results.

[0005] 文献《心率的Poincare散点图量化指标》(生物医学工程学杂志,2000 :17(4), P433-436)只提出了基于散点图的四个参数:长轴、短轴、面积和角度,并没有将矢量角度指数应用于实际心电进行检测,也没验证其可靠性。 [0005] Document "heart of Poincare plot quantitative indicators" (Journal of Medical Biomechanics, 2000: 17 (4), P433-436) only presents a scatter plot based on four parameters: major and minor axes, area and angle, not applied to actual vector angle index ECG is detected, there is no verification reliability.

[0006] 中国专利申请201210064226公开了一种心电图中的T波交替检测的方法,采用相关分析法检测T波交替的存在与否,其缺点是相关分析法的频率分辨性较差,如当呼吸调制的振幅较大时,对相关分析法结果的影响要比谱分析法大得多。 [0006] Chinese Patent Application No. 201210064226 discloses a method for detecting a T-wave alternation of ECG, the detection of the presence or absence of T-wave alternans using correlation analysis, the drawback is poorer frequency resolution of the correlation analysis, such as when breathing modulation amplitude greater influence on the results of correlation analysis is much larger than the spectral analysis.

[0007] 中国专利申请201110418860. 3公开了一种基于模型的动态心电图T波交替定量分析方法,采用T波的解析函数即维格纳分布(Winger-VilleDistribution,WVD)对心电信号进行定量分析,而WVD容易产生交叉干扰项,加之其运算量较大,已超过了现有硬件的处理能力。 [0007] Chinese Patent Application No. 201110418860.3 discloses a dynamic model based on T wave alternating quantitative analysis method using the T-wave analytic function i.e. Wigner distribution function (Winger-VilleDistribution, WVD) quantitative analysis of the ECG , while the cross-interference terms WVD prone, together with a large amount of calculation, it exceeds the processing capacity of existing hardware.

[0008] 中国专利申请200410003212. 1公开了一种用于改善T波交替的测量的方法和系统,利用T波交替是每二次搏动自动重复并已经连接到基本心脏不稳定性的心电图的ST波段或T波的规则的或搏动对搏动的变化的特点,将某些搏动从T波交替测量中排除出去,该方法只是提取出T波交替信号,而并没有对T波交替信号做进一步的检测,缺乏对搏动变率可靠性的检验。 [0008] Chinese Patent Application No. 200410003212.1 discloses a method and system for improving the T wave alternans measurement, using a T-wave alternans beats per second and has been connected to an automatic repeat ECG instability of the heart substantially ST T-wave band or a regular pulsation or change the characteristics of the pulsation, the pulsation from certain T-wave alternans measurements excluded, but this method extracts the T-wave alternans signal, but not T-wave alternating signal further detection, lack of reliability testing beat variability.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0009] 本发明的目的是为克服上述现有技术的不足,提供一种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法。 [0009] The object of the present invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art described above, there is provided a T-wave based on morphological ECG analysis alternate method scattergram. 针对谱分析法检测T波交替的计算复杂、检测每个心拍T波交替幅值的困难等缺点,提出一种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的研究,为国内相关临床研究开展提供一种新的T波交替检测有效量化指标。 Scatter research method for spectrum analysis to detect T-wave alternans computing complex, difficult to detect each heart beat T-wave alternans amplitude and other shortcomings, it is proposed based on the morphology of the T-wave alternans, for domestic-related clinical research undertaken to provide a new T-wave alternans detection quantization index efficiently. 本发明的技术方案是通过T波窗口分析法,对选自美国MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T心电数据库的128个连续心拍的T波进行采样,利用所得采样点作一次差分散点图,用散点图的矢量角度指数对T波交替进行定量分析,得出判断T波交替存在与否的矢量角度指数取值范围。 Aspect of the present invention is that for selected U.S. MIT / BIH arrhythmia database and the European standard ST-T ECG database 128 consecutive heartbeat T-wave sampled by the T-wave window analysis, using the sample points for a difference resulting scatter plot points for T-wave alternans was analyzed by the angle of the vector index of the scatter plot, draw determines presence or absence of T-wave alternans index vector angular range. 将散点图法的矢量角度指数和谱分析法的T波交替幅值对T波交替的检测结果进行比较,判断矢量角度指数检测T波交替的可靠性。 The angle of T wave vector index scattergram analysis method and spectral amplitude of T-wave alternation of alternating detection result, and determines the vector angle detecting T-wave alternans index of reliability.

[0010] 为实现上述目的,本发明采用下述技术方案: [0010] To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme:

[0011] -种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法,包括以下步骤: [0011] - Species alternating ECG analysis method based on the scattergram T wave morphology, comprising the steps of:

[0012] (1)选取心电信号并进行心电信号预处理; [0012] (1) Select ECG and heart Preprocessing;

[0013] ⑵获取采样点:采用T波窗口分析法,对128个心拍进行采样,每一个心拍采用T 波窗口法选定7个采样点,就得到检测数据共有128*7个采样点; [0013] ⑵ acquiring sampling points: The T-wave window analysis of 128 heart beat is sampled every heart beat using the selected 7 samples T wave window method, to obtain detected data Total 128 * 7 samples;

[0014] (3)绘制散点图法:将128个相邻心拍的采样点作一次差分,绘制一次差分的T波散点图; [0014] (3) plotted scattergram method: heartbeat 128 adjacent sampling points make a difference, a difference T wave plotted scattergram;

[0015] (4)确定矢量角度指数取值范围,以判断T波交替存在与否; [0015] (4) determining the vector index angular range, to determine the presence or absence of T-wave alternans;

[0016] (5)绘制功率谱曲线图:利用快速傅立叶变换将采样点的幅度转化成能量谱并进行叠加平均得到其功率谱曲线图; [0016] (5) to draw a graph of the power spectrum: using a fast Fourier transform of the sampled points is converted into the amplitude of the energy spectrum and superimposed to obtain the average power spectrum graph;

[0017] (6)计算T波交替幅度值(VTWA): [0017] (6) Calculate T wave alternans amplitude value (VTWA):

[0018] 对心电信号中N个连续ST-T心动周期的一组采样点进行FFT快速傅里叶变换分析,其功率谱的计算公式如下: [0018] for a set of sample points from the ECG ST-T N consecutive cardiac cycles fast Fourier transform analysis FFT, the power spectrum is calculated as follows:

Figure CN103006207BD00051

[0020] 其中,0彡1彡127,N= 128,m= 7,h为第i个样点的值。 [0020] wherein 0 1 San San 127, N = 128, m = 7, h is the i-th value of the sample points.

[0021] 设定0. 46~0. 49周期/心拍内的噪声视为背景噪声,其平均频率值用Sn表示; 0. 5周期/心拍处的频率值用Sa5表示,T波交替的功率值记作STWA,STWA的计算公式如下: Noise in the [0021] set to 0.46 ~ 049 cycles / heartbeat considered background noise, represented by an average value of the frequency of Sn; frequency value 0.5 cycles / beat at a heart showing Sa5, T wave alternans power values ​​referred to as STWA, STWA calculated as follows:

[0022]STWA=S〇.5-Sn [0022] STWA = S〇.5-Sn

[0023] 规定:当STWA〈0时,说明0. 5周期/心拍处的频率值小于背景噪声频率值,Sa5完全被背景噪声覆盖,则T波交替幅度值VTWA= 0,判定T波交替不存在;当STWA>0,T波交替幅度 [0023] states: when STWA <0, described frequency 0.5 cycles / heart beat at a value less than the background noise frequency value, Sa5 completely covered background noise, then T wave alternans amplitude value VTWA = 0, determining T-wave alternans is not exist; when STWA> 0, T wave alternans amplitude

Figure CN103006207BD00052

,判定T波交替存在; It determines the presence of T-wave alternans;

[0024] 通过观察0. 5cycles/beat处是否存在一明显的谱线,S卩为T波交替的标识谱线, 可判断在心动周期内是否存在T波交替:若线谱不明显,则心跳周期中不存在T波交替;若有明显线谱,则存在T波交替。 [0024] / beat at whether there is a distinct line by observing 0. 5cycles, S T-wave alternans Jie identification lines, may be determined whether there is T-wave alternans in a cardiac cycle: if the line spectrum is not obvious, the heartbeat absence of T-wave cycle alternately; if there are significant spectral line, the presence of T-wave alternans.

[0025]所述步骤(3)、(4)、(6)均通过MATLAB7.0软件实现。 [0025] The step (3), (4), (6) are implemented by software MATLAB7.0.

[0026] 所述步骤(1)中的心电信号是从美国MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T 心电数据库中获得。 [0026] ECG said step (1) is available from the American MIT / BIH arrhythmia database and the European standard ST-T ECG database.

[0027] 步骤⑴中所述心电信号预处理是指去除基线漂移、工频干扰及肌电干扰的随机干扰,获得具有明显特征的心电信号。 [0027] Step ⑴ said pretreatment means removal ECG baseline drift frequency interference and interference random interference EMG, ECG obtained having distinct characteristics.

[0028] 步骤(4)中所述判断T波交替存在与否的散点图矢量角度指数取值范围的确定, 包含以下步骤: [0028] Step (4) is determined in said determining the presence or absence of T-wave alternans index scattergram angular range of the vector, comprising the steps of:

[0029] 41)根据散点聚集区域的不同形态以及散点图的各种定量参数值,可得到所需的不同的信息;通过计算散点图的矢量角度指数(VAI)来判断T波交替的存在与否,其计算公式为: [0029] 41) in accordance with a variety of quantitative parameter values ​​as well as different forms of aggregated scatter scattergram area, different information required to be obtained; scattergram is determined by calculating the angle of the vector index (VAI) T-wave alternans the presence or absence, which is calculated as:

Figure CN103006207BD00061

[0031] 式中,N= 128,Xl为第i点的横坐标,Θi为第i点到坐标原点的连线与横坐标之间的夹角度,艮卩QiZarctanHUw-XiJ/Ui+fXi)]; [0031] In the formula, N = 128, Xl is the abscissa of the point i, the angle Theta] I is interposed between the i-th connecting point of the abscissa to the origin of coordinates, Gen Jie QiZarctanHUw-XiJ / Ui + fXi)] ;

[0032] 用软件仿真时,将45度化成弧度制取为0. 7854,VAI的大小表示相邻T波间的幅值差沿45°线的散开程度; [0032] When simulation software, to 45 degrees into radians Preparation of 0. 7854, VAI size indicates the degree of spread of the 45 ° line T-wave amplitude difference between the adjacent edge;

[0033] 42)规定:当矢量角度指数0.9rad彡VAI彡1.03rad时,则在心电信号中,含有T 波交替;当VAI< 0. 9rad或VAI> 1.03rad时,则在心电信号中,不含T波交替。 [0033] 42) provides: When the index of the vector angle 0.9rad San VAI San 1.03rad, the heart electrical signal, comprising T-wave alternans; when VAI <0. 9rad or VAI> 1.03rad when the heart electrical signal, free T-wave alternans.

[0034] 最后,进行了仿真结果分析:首先用MATLAB7. 0软件和对谱分析法和散点图法所得矢量角度指数和T交替幅值的数据进行对比分析,检验散点图中矢量角度指数的可靠性;再用Kappa-致性检验进行分析谱分析法与散点图法各个指标检测结果的一致性,检验散点图中矢量角度指数的可靠性。 [0034] Finally, the simulation results of the analysis: first with MATLAB7 0 software and data resulting spectral analysis method and scatter angle of the normal vector index and the amplitude of the alternating T comparative analysis, test vector angle index scattergram. reliability; Kappa- then induced consistency test analysis and spectral analysis results of the respective index detection method scattergram of inspection scattergram vector reliability index angle.

[0035] 所述仿真结果分析,具体包含以下步骤: [0035] The simulation results, particularly comprising the steps of:

[0036]a)选取美国MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T心电数据库的数据,并连续取128个周期心电信号进行软件仿真检测。 [0036] a) Select U.S. MIT / BIH arrhythmia database standards and European data database ECG ST-T, and 128 cycles of continuous taking ECG detection software emulation. MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库原始抽样频率为360Hz,而欧洲ST-T心电数据库的频率为250Hz,故为分析数据方便,对两组数据库的数据进行再抽样,抽样频率为200Hz; MIT / BIH arrhythmia database standard original sampling frequency of 360Hz, the frequency of ST-T European ECG database is 250Hz, it is convenient to analyze the data, the data re-sampling the two databases, the sampling frequency is 200Hz;

[0037]b)用CurveFittingTool工具对仿真所得的VTWA和VAI的离散数据进行二次曲线拟合,VTWA和VAI之间关系式如: [0037] b) discrete secondary curve fit data obtained by the simulation and VAI VTWA CurveFittingTool tool, and the relationship between VTWA VAI as:

[0038]VTWA= 4300*VAI2-7185*VAI+3001 [0038] VTWA = 4300 * VAI2-7185 * VAI + 3001

[0039] VTWA和VAI二次曲线的拟合度为0. 867。 [0039] and VAI VTWA fit quadratic curve is 0.867. VTWA和VAI之间的相关系数,两者之间的相关系数γ= 0.8601。 And the correlation coefficient between VTWA VAI, the correlation coefficient between the two γ = 0.8601. 由于VT波交替和VAI之间的互相关系数γ= 0.8601,这表明由散点图法得到的VAI与非常成熟的谱分析法得到的VT波交替具有很强的相关性,同时这也说明矢量角度VAI能够很好应用到Τ波交替的检测中。 Since the mutual relationship between the number of VT γ-wave alternans and VAI = 0.8601, indicating that the wave VT scattergram obtained by a very sophisticated method and VAI Spectral Analysis alternating obtained a strong correlation, which also described vector VAI angle Τ well be applied to detection of an alternating wave.

[0040] 本发明的优点是: [0040] The advantage of the present invention are:

[0041] 1.本发明采用矢量角度指数,即散点图每一点到原点的连线与X轴构成的角度Ai 与45度之差的和的平均值,来判断T波交替的存在与否,故该方法与T波幅值变化率有关, 进而减小了因T波幅值变化而使检测准确率下降的可能性。 [0041] 1. The present invention uses the vector index angle, i.e. an angle to the origin of the scattergram for each connection point and the X axis Ai of the difference between the 45 degrees and the average value to determine the presence or absence of T-wave alternans , so the method and T-wave amplitude related to the rate of change, thereby reducing the likelihood of T-wave amplitude variation due to the decrease in detection accuracy.

[0042] 2.本发明将矢量角度指数应用于实际心电进行检测,并找出了判断T波交替存在与否的矢量角度指数合适阈值。 [0042] 2. The present invention will be applied to the actual vector angle index ECG to detect and identify the presence or absence determining T-wave alternans index vector suitable threshold angle.

[0043] 3.本发明采用非线性方法中的散点图法,非线性法的抗干扰能力较强,当存在异常心搏、急剧变化、人为干扰以及"大尾巴"的生理噪声时,非线性方法的检测结果比较理想,鲁棒性很好。 [0043] 3. The method of the present invention in the scatter plot using nonlinear method, strong anti-interference ability of the non-linear method, when there is an abnormal heart beat, rapid change, man-made interference and "big tail" physiological noise, non- the method of the detection result of the linear ideal, excellent in robustness.

[0044] 4.本发明采用用散点图的矢量角度指数对Τ波交替进行定量分析,计算比较简单,易于硬件操作。 [0044] 4. The present invention employs a pair of alternately Τ wave vector was analyzed by scatter plots of the angle index, calculated relatively simple, easy to operate the hardware.

[0045] 5.本发明不仅找出了判断Τ波交替存在与否的矢量角度指数合适阈值,还对其可靠性作出评估。 [0045] The present invention is not to identify the presence or absence judgment Τ vector wave alternans index suitable threshold angle, further assessment of its reliability.

[0046] 6.具有直观形态且计算简单,由于是差值作图,抗干扰性较强,对信号没有高质量要求,不仅可以测得相邻Τ波交替幅值,而且包含时域信息。 [0046] 6. The intuitive and simple calculation aspect, since the difference is plotted, strong anti-interference, no signal quality requirements, not only can measure the neighboring Τ-wave alternans amplitude, and temporal information comprising.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0047] 图1为不存在和存在Τ波交替散点图(a)存在Τ波交替散点图(b)不存在Τ波交替的散点图; [0047] Figure 1 is the absence and presence Τ wave alternans scattergram (a) the presence Τ wave alternans scattergram (b) Τ wave alternating scattergram absent;

[0048] 图2为不存在T波交替交替的功率谱图和存在T波交替交替的功率谱图(a)不存在T波交替的功率谱图(b)存在T波交替交替的功率谱图; [0048] FIG. 2 is a T-wave alternans alternating power spectrum and the presence of T-wave alternans alternating power spectrum (a) the absence of T-wave alternans power spectrum (b) the absence of the presence of T-wave alternans alternating power spectrum ;

[0049] 图3为VTWA和VAI的曲线拟合图。 [0049] FIG. 3 is a curve fitting of FIG VTWA and VAI.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0050] 下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进行进一步的阐述,应该说明的是,下述说明仅是为了解释本发明,并不对其内容进行限定。 Drawings and embodiments of the present invention will be further described [0050] below in conjunction, it should be noted that the following description is merely for purposes of explanation of the present invention is not limited in its content.

[0051] -种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的心电信号分析方法,包括以下步骤: [0051] - Species alternating ECG analysis method based on the scattergram T wave morphology, comprising the steps of:

[0052] (1)选取心电信号并进行心电信号预处理:从美国MIT/BIH标准心律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T心电数据库中获得心电信号,进行去除基线漂移、工频干扰及肌电干扰的随机干扰,获得具有明显特征的心电信号。 [0052] (1) Select ECG and heart Preprocessing: ECG signals obtained from the American MIT / BIH arrhythmia database and the European standard ST-T ECG database, baseline drift removal, and frequency interference random noise interference EMG, ECG obtained having distinct characteristics. 用简单整系数法去掉50Hz工频干扰,利用零相位数字滤波器去除心电信号的基线漂移以及采用bior2. 2小波函数进行小波变换阈值去噪法去除肌电干扰,进而获得具有明显特征的心电信号。 50Hz power is removed by a simple integer coefficient frequency interference, using the zero-phase digital filter remove the baseline drift of the ECG signal using bior2. 2 wavelet function for the wavelet transform threshold denoising EMG Removal of disturbance, and the obtained core has distinct characteristics electric signal.

[0053] (2)获取采样点: [0053] (2) obtaining samples:

[0054] 我们采用T波窗口分析法,以便于更准确地检测微伏TWA(MTWA)。 [0054] We use the T-wave analysis window, in order to more accurately detect microvolt TWA (MTWA). 由RR间期的大小来选择T波窗口起点及窗宽,T波起点按经验选取见表1: RR interval by the size of the selected T-wave window width and window start point, T wave start point selected empirically in Table 1:

Figure CN103006207BD00071

[0055] 表1 [0055] TABLE 1

Figure CN103006207BD00072

[0057]根据QT和RR间期的关系式,计算出窗口的终点,如公式所示: [0057] The relationship of QT and RR interval, the end of the window is calculated, as shown in formula:

Figure CN103006207BD00073

[0059] 其中,Q表示Q波起点,近似在R峰前50ms处;T表示T波起点;RR表示间期。 [0059] wherein, Q represents a Q wave start point, approximately 50ms before the R-peak; T represents the starting point of the T wave; indicates the RR interval. k是常数,一般取k= 0. 4。 k is a constant, and generally k = 0. 4.

[0060] 采用T波窗口分析法,对128个心拍进行采样,每一个心拍采用T波窗口法选定7 个采样点,就得到检测数据点集合,共有128*7个采样点;本发明采用T波窗口分析法,以便于更准确地检测微伏T波交替(MT波交替),即选取L= 128个连续的心跳周期,每一个周期采用T波窗口法选定一组m= 7个采样点。 [0060] The T-wave window analysis of 128 heart beat is sampled every heart beat using the selected T-wave window method seven samples, to be detected set of data points, a total of 128 * 7 samples; the present invention employs T-wave analysis window, in order to more accurately detect microvolt T wave alternans (MT-wave alternans), i.e. L = 128 select successive heartbeat cycles, each cycle using a selected set of T-wave window method m = 7 Sampling point.

[0061] 在一个心跳周期内,将T波分析窗口平均分配,每两个采样数据间的间距为ID。 [0061] In one heartbeat period, the T-wave analysis window evenly spacing between each of the two sampled data ID. 采样点匕由如下公式得到,公式为: Dagger sampling points obtained by the following formula, the formula is:

[0062] bi+1= b (i = 1,2…6) [0062] bi + 1 = b (i = 1,2 ... 6)

[0063] 利用QT和b1+1的公式,若每一个心跳周期采样点数为7个,且连续选取L个心跳周期,可得到7*L个采样点,进而我们得到一组信号采样点序列P= {Xl,x2, . . .,Xl,. . . },取序列中的采样点的差值组成新的序列Q= {χ2-Χι,χ3-χ2, . ..,Xi-Xiv . . 。 [0063] Equation using QT and b1 + 1, if each of a number of samples heartbeat period 7, and select the L successive heartbeat cycles, obtained 7 * L sampling points, and thus we get a set of signal sampling point sequence P = {Xl, x2,..., Xl ,...}, taking the difference of the sampling points in sequence to form a new sequence Q = {χ2-Χι, χ3-χ2,. .., Xi-Xiv.. .

[0064] (3)绘制散点图:将128个相邻心拍的采样点作一次差分,绘制一次差分的T波散点图;得出(x1+2-x1+1)和(x1+1-Xl)的散点图,其中i是识别心跳序数指数。 [0064] (3) a scattergram drawn: for the first heartbeat 128 adjacent sampling points difference, time difference T wave plotted scattergram; stars (x1 + 2-x1 + 1) and (x1 + 1 -XL) scattergram, where i is the ordinal index identifying a heartbeat. 根据散点聚集区域的不同形态以及散点图的各种定量参数值,可得到所需的不同信息。 The different forms of a variety of quantitative parameter values ​​and scatter scattergram aggregation area, required to obtain different information.

[0065] (4)确定矢量角度指数取值范围,以判断T波交替存在与否的; [0065] (4) determining the vector index angular range, to determine the presence or absence of T-wave alternans;

[0066] 矢量角度指数(VAI)的计算公式为: [0066] The angle of the vector index (VAI) is calculated as follows:

Figure CN103006207BD00081

[0068] 式中,N=128,Xi为第i点的横坐标,Θ;为第i点到坐标原点的连线与横坐标之间的夹角度,即Θ;=arctanHUidJ/Uiu-Xi)]。 [0068] In the formula, N = 128, Xi is the abscissa of the point i, [Theta]; is the included angle between the i-th connecting point of the abscissa to the origin of coordinates, i.e. Θ; = arctanHUidJ / Uiu-Xi) ]. 用软件仿真时,将45度化成弧度制取为0.7854。 Simulation software, to 45 degrees into radians taken as 0.7854. VAI的大小表示相邻T波间的幅值差沿45°线的散开程度。 VAI size spread indicates the extent of the adjacent line of 45 ° between the T-wave amplitude difference along. 当矢量角度指数0· 9rad彡VAI彡1. 03rad时,则在心电信号中,含有T波交替;当VAI< 0· 9rad或VAI> 1. 03rad时,则在心电信号中,不含T波交替。 When the angle of the vector index 0 · 9rad San San when VAI 1. 03rad, the heart electrical signal, comprising T-wave alternans; when VAI <0 · 9rad or VAI> When 1. 03rad, the heart electrical signal, the non-T wave alternately. 如图1不存在T波交替散点图和存在T波交替散点图(a)存在T波交替散点图(b)不存在T波交替的散点图。 1 absent the presence of T-wave alternans and T wave alternans scattergram scattergram (a) the presence of T-wave alternans scattergram (B) T-wave alternans scattergram absent.

[0069] (5)绘制功率谱曲线图:利用快速傅立叶变换将采样点的幅度转化成能量谱并进行叠加平均得到其功率谱曲线图;将采样点的能量谱对应叠加法,以提高信噪比,从而能够更加明显地显现出T波功率谱图中的T波交替。 [0069] (5) to draw power spectrum graph of: using a fast Fourier transform to the sampled amplitude points into energy spectrum and superimposed averaged power spectrum graph; energy sample point spectrum corresponds to the superposition method, in order to improve the signal to noise ratio, can be more clearly show T T wave alternating signal power spectrum. 谱分析法是一种趋近于标准化的T波交替频域检测方法,也是目前应用最广泛的方法。 Spectral analysis is a standardized approach to T-wave alternans frequency domain detection method, is currently the most widely used method.

[0070] (6)计算T波交替幅度值(VTWA): [0070] (6) Calculate T wave alternans amplitude value (VTWA):

[0071] 对心电信号中N个连续ST-T心动周期的一组采样点进行FFT快速傅里叶变换分析,其功率谱的计算公式如下: [0071] for a set of sample points from the ECG ST-T N consecutive cardiac cycles fast Fourier transform analysis FFT, the power spectrum is calculated as follows:

Figure CN103006207BD00082

[0073] 其中,0彡1彡127,N= 128,m= 7,h为第i个样点的值。 [0073] wherein 0 1 San San 127, N = 128, m = 7, h is the i-th value of the sample points.

[0074]设定0.46~0.49周期/心拍内的噪声视为背景噪声,其平均频率值用Sn表示; 0. 5周期/心拍处的频率值用Sa5表示,T波交替的功率值记作STWA,STWA的计算公式如下: Noise in the [0074] set to 0.46 to 0.49 cycles / heartbeat considered background noise, represented by an average value of the frequency of Sn; frequency value 0.5 cycles / beat at a heart showing Sa5, T wave alternans power value referred to as STWA , STWA calculated as follows:

[0075] STWA=S0.5_Sn [0075] STWA = S0.5_Sn

[0076] 规定:当STWA〈0时,说明0. 5周期/心拍处的频率值小于背景噪声频率值,Sa5完全被背景噪声覆盖,则T波交替幅度值VTWA= 0,判定T波交替不存在;当STWA>0,T波交替幅度 [0076] states: when STWA <0, described frequency 0.5 cycles / heart beat at a value less than the background noise frequency value, Sa5 completely covered background noise, then T wave alternans amplitude value VTWA = 0, determining T-wave alternans is not exist; when STWA> 0, T wave alternans amplitude

Figure CN103006207BD00091

. 判定T波交替存在。 Determining the presence of T-wave alternans.

[0077] 通过观察0. 5cycles/beat处是否存在一明显的谱线(即为T波交替的标识谱线),可判断在心动周期内是否存在T波交替。 [0077] beat at whether there is a significant lines (i.e. T-wave alternating line identification) by observing 0. 5cycles /, may determine whether the presence of T-wave alternans in a cardiac cycle. 若线谱不明显,则心跳周期中不存在T波交替;若有明显线谱,则存在T波交替。 If the line spectrum is not obvious, then the cardiac cycle alternating T wave exists; if there are significant spectral line, the presence of T-wave alternans. 以100信号的00:17:13~00:19 :00时间范围内的功率谱为例,如图2(a)在0. 5cyCleS/beat处不存在一明显的谱线,故在心跳周期中不存在T 波交替交替。 Signals to 00,100: 17: 13 to 00: 19: 00 within a time range of the power spectrum of an example, FIG. 2 (a) at 0. 5cyCleS / beat is not a significant line at present, so the cardiac cycle T-wave alternation does not exist alternately. 以e0105信号的00 :05 :20~00 :07 :40的谱为例,如图2 (b)在0. 5cycles/ beat处存在一明显的谱线,故在心跳周期中存在T波交替。 E0105 signal to 00: 05: 20 to 00: 07: 40 spectra as an example, FIG. 2 (b) in the presence of a significant line 0. 5cycles / beat place, so there is T-wave alternans in the heartbeat cycle.

[0078] 仿真结果分析: [0078] The simulation results analysis:

[0079] 本发明矢量角度指数(VAI)和T波交替幅值(VTWA)进行比较。 [0079] The present invention is a vector index angle (VAI) and T-wave alternans amplitude (VTWA) were compared. 在MATLAB7.0软件的环境下,用CurveFittingTool工具对实验中VTWA和VAI的离散数据进行二次曲线拟合, VTWA和VAI之间关系式如: Under the software environment MATLAB7.0 performs quadratic curve fit to the experimental data in discrete and VAI VTWA with CurveFittingTool tool, and the relationship between VTWA VAI as:

[0080] VTWA= 4300*VAI2-7185*VAI+3001 [0080] VTWA = 4300 * VAI2-7185 * VAI + 3001

[0081]VTWA和VAI的二次曲线拟合如图3,该坐标系中纵坐标为VAI,横坐标为VTWA,其二次曲线的拟合度为0.867。 [0081] Secondary VAI and curve fitting VTWA FIG. 3, the coordinate system VAI ordinate, abscissa is VTWA, which fit quadratic curve is 0.867. VTWA和VAI之间的相关系数,两者之间的相关系数γ= 0.8601。 And the correlation coefficient between VTWA VAI, the correlation coefficient between the two γ = 0.8601. 由于VTWA和VAI之间的互相关系数γ= 0. 8601,这表明由散点图法得到的VAI与由已经非常成熟的谱分析法得到的VT波交替具有很强的相关性,同时这也说明矢量角度VAI能够很好应用到T波交替的检测中。 Since the mutual relationship between the number of γ VTWA and VAI = 0. 8601, which indicates that the wave VT VAI obtained by the already very mature Spectral Analysis scattergram obtained by the process of alternating a strong correlation, which also DESCRIPTION vector angle VAI well applied to the detection of T-wave alternans.

[0082] 为了从定性的角度验证对于散点图和谱分析两种方法在检验T波交替时的一致性关系,本发明选用Kappa-致性检验。 [0082] In order to verify from a qualitative point of view and spectral analysis for scattergram two methods consistent relationship at the time T-wave alternans test, the present invention selects Kappa- consistency test. 用两种方法分别对N个观察对象逐个判断其属于C类别中的哪一类,其判断结果常以CXC列联表的形式表示,如表2: The N-by-observation target which is determined by two methods which category belongs to the category C, the results are often expressed in terms of determination CXC contingency table, as shown in Table 2:

[0083]表2 [0083] TABLE 2

[0084] [0084]

Figure CN103006207BD00092

[0085]Kappa系数的计算公式为: [0085] Kappa coefficient is calculated as:

[0086]K=Po-Pe/1-Pe [0086] K = Po-Pe / 1-Pe

[0087]其中,Ρο= ΣAii/N,Pe= Σai*bi,ai=Ai/N,bi=Bi/N。 [0087] wherein, Ρο = ΣAii / N, Pe = Σai * bi, ai = Ai / N, bi = Bi / N. P〇_Pe为实际一致率, 1-Pe为非机遇一致率,Aii为CC联表中的主对角线上的实际值,N表示总例数,Ai、Bi表示第i行、第i列的边缘值,ai、bi表示第i行、第i列的边缘概率。 P〇_Pe actual matching rate, 1-Pe opportunities for non-uniform rate, Aii actual value on the CC with the main diagonal of the table, N represents the total number of cases, Ai, Bi represents the i-th row, i th column edge values, ai, bi represents the i-th row, i th column of the marginal probabilities. 目前,对一致性强度的参考指标划分有细微差异,Landies和Koch将Kappa系数划分为六个区段代表不同强弱的一致性,如表3 : Currently, there are divided reference index consistency intensity nuances, Landies Koch and the Kappa coefficient divided into six sections of the representative of the strength of different consistency, as shown in Table 3:

[0088]表3 [0088] TABLE 3

[0089] [0089]

Figure CN103006207BD00101

[0090] 本发明采用更为细致的六级划分来判断。 [0090] The present invention uses six more detailed division is determined. 由于实际资料计算的K值只是一个两本的统计量,存在抽样误差,故计算所得K值是否来自K值为"0"的总体即离散数据的一致程度是由于机遇造成的,这需要假设检验即u检验,检验公式为: Since the K value of the actual data to calculate a statistic of just two, there is a sampling error, so the K value is calculated from the degree of consistency K value of "0" overall discrete data that is caused because of the opportunity, which requires hypothesis testing That u test, test formula is:

Figure CN103006207BD00102

[0092] 式中,u为标准正态分位数,Se(K)为K的标准误。 [0092] In the formula, u is a standard normal quantile, Se (K) as K standard error. 用Kappa系数的计算原理定性判断T波交替的存在与否,可将不存在定性为阴性,用表示;将存在定义为阳性,用" + " 表示,就得到了一个两分类,故可用一个2*2联表的形式表示检测结果。 Kappa coefficient is calculated using the principle of T-wave alternans qualitative judgment of the presence or absence, can be characterized as negative for the absence, denoted; there will be defined as positive, with "+", and there was obtained a two classification, it can be used a 2 * 2 contingency table form showing the detection result. 通过统计学中的Kappa-致性检验,进行分析谱分析法与散点图法各个指标检测结果的一致性,设H。 The Kappa- induced by statistical test, the detection result for each index and the scatter plot analysis spectral analysis method consistency, provided H. 两种方法对应的结果无关,氏两种方法对应的结果有关系。 The results correspond to the two methods is independent of the results of the two methods's corresponding relationship. 谱分析法指标与各个散点图法指标的联表如表4所示: Spectral Analysis Method index and the respective indices scattergram biphenyl As shown in Table 4:

[0093]表4 [0093] TABLE 4

[0094] [0094]

Figure CN103006207BD00103

[0095]P0=0· 8222,Pe=0· 5238,K= 0· 6266,参考评价原则,Ke(〇· 4, 0· 75) -致性好,同时,μ为9. 2419,大于95 %标准正态分布位数1.96,故P〈0. 05,拒绝H0,接受H1,可认为两种检测方法具有一致性。 [0095] P0 = 0 · 8222, Pe = 0 · 5238, K = 0 · 6266, with reference to the principle of the evaluation, Ke (5.4 billion, 0 · 75) - good consistency, while, to 9.2419 [mu], greater than 95 standard normal distribution median 1.96%, so P <0. 05, reject H0, to accept H1, two methods may be considered consistent.

[0096] 以上两种评价方法表明VAI与VTWA具有很强的相关性,矢量角度VAI能够很好应用到T波交替的检测中。 Two kinds of evaluation methods [0096] VAI and VTWA above show a strong correlation of the vector angle VAI well applied to the detection of T-wave alternans.

[0097] 上述虽然结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式进行了描述,但并非对本发明保护范围的限制,在本发明的技术方案的基础上,本领域技术人员不需要付出创造性劳动即可做出的各种修改或变形仍在本发明的保护范围以内。 [0097] Although the above-described specific embodiments of the present invention has been described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, but not limit the scope of the present invention, on the basis of the technical solution of the present invention, those skilled in the art without creative efforts to make various modifications or variations are still within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

  1. I. 一种基于形态学的T波交替散点图法的屯、电信号分析方法,其特征在于,包括W下步骤: (1) 选取屯、电信号并进行屯、电信号预处理; 步骤(1)中所述屯、电信号预处理是指去除基线漂移、工频干扰及肌电干扰的随机干扰,获得具有明显特征的屯、电信号; (2) 获取采样点:采用T波窗口分析法,对128个屯、拍进行采样,每一个屯、拍采用T波窗口法选定7个采样点,就得到检测数据共有128*7个采样点;采用T波窗口分析法,W便于更准确地检测微伏TWA,由RR间期的大小来选择T波窗口起点及窗宽,T波起点按经验选取,窗宽取〇.4^»^6>娜掛?,根据QT和RR间期的关系式,计算出窗口的终点,如公式所示: I. Morphology based Tun T wave alternans scattergram method, method of analyzing the electrical signal, characterized in that W comprises the steps of: (1) selecting Tun, and electric signals Tun, preprocessind; Step (1) in the village, preprocessing means removal of baseline drift frequency interference and random interference EMG interference obtain Tun having obvious features, the electrical signal; (2) obtaining samples: the T-wave window analysis of 128 village, shot sampling, each village, making use of the selected 7 samples T wave window method, to obtain a total of detected data samples 128 * 7; analysis using the T-wave window, W facilitate microvolt more accurately detect the TWA, by the size of the RR interval T wave window to select a start point and the window width, T wave start point selected empirically, taking 〇.4 window width ^ »^ 6> Na linked? the QT and RR of the relationship between the calculated end point of the window, as shown in formula:
    Figure CN103006207BC00021
    (怎=〇3;9±化〇5) 其中,Q表示Q波起点,近似在R峰前50ms处;T表示T波起点;RR表示间期,k是常数; (3) 绘制散点图:将128个相邻屯、拍的采样点作一次差分,绘制一次差分的T波散点图; (4) 确定矢量角度指数取值范围,W判断T波交替存在与否; (5) 绘制功率谱曲线图:利用快速傅立叶变换将采样点的幅度转化成能量谱并进行叠加平均得到其功率谱曲线图; (6) 计算T波交替幅度值: 对屯、电信号中N个连续ST-T屯、动周期的一组采样点进行FFT快速傅里叶变换分析,其功率谱的计算公式如下: (How = 〇3; 9 ± of 〇5) wherein, Q denotes Q-wave start point, approximately 50ms before the peak of the R; T represents the starting point of the T wave; represents the RR interval, k is a constant; (3) plotted scattergram : 128 adjacent village, shot sampling points make a difference, a difference T wave plotted scattergram; (4) determine the vector index angular range, W determines presence or absence of T-wave alternans; (5) draw graph of the power spectrum: using a fast Fourier transform of the amplitude of the sample point into energy spectrum and superimposed to obtain the average power spectrum graph; (6) T-wave alternans amplitude value calculation: for Tun, N continuous electrical signal ST- T village, a set of sample periods jog performs FFT fast Fourier transform analysis, the power spectrum is calculated as follows:
    Figure CN103006207BC00022
    其中,0《1《127,N= 128,m= 7,bi为第i个样点的值。 Wherein, 0 "1" 127, N = 128, m = 7, bi is the i-th value of the sample points. 设定0. 46~0. 49周期/屯、拍内的噪声视为背景噪声,其平均频率值用Sn表示;0. 5周期/屯、拍处的频率值用S。 Set 0.46 ~ 049 cycles / Tun, beat noise considered within the background noise, the average frequency value represented by Sn;. 0 5 cycles / Tun, at the beat frequency value with S. .5表示,T波交替的功率值记作STWA,Stwa的计算公式如下: Stwa - S〇' 5_Sn 规定:当S™<〇时,说明0. 5周期/屯、拍处的频率值小于背景噪声频率值,S。 .5 represents, T wave alternans power value recorded as STWA, Stwa calculated as follows: Stwa - 5_Sn predetermined S〇 ': When S ™ <billion described 0.5 cycle / Tun, the beat frequency is less than the background noise frequency value, S. .篇全被背景噪声覆盖,则T波交替幅度值V™= 0,判定T波交替不存在;当S™〉〇,T波交替幅度值为 . Articles were all covered background noise, then T wave alternans amplitude value V ™ = 0, determining T-wave alternans is absent; when S ™> billion, T-wave alternans amplitude value
    Figure CN103006207BC00023
    判定T波交替存在; 通过观察0. 5cycles/beat处是否存在一明显的谱线,即为T波交替的标识谱线,可判断在屯、动周期内是否存在T波交替:若线谱不明显,则屯、跳周期中不存在T波交替;若有明显线谱,则存在T波交替; 步骤(4)中所述判断T波交替存在与否的散点图矢量角度指数取值范围的确定,包含W下步骤: 41)根据散点聚集区域的不同形态W及散点图的各种定量参数值,可得到所需的不同信息;通过计算散点图的矢量角度指数VAI来判断T波交替的存在与否,其计算公式为: Determining the presence of T-wave alternans; Beat by observing the presence or absence of 0. 5cycles / a distinct spectral line, i.e. line identification of T-wave alternans, may be determined whether there is T-wave alternans in a village, movable cycle: if the line spectrum is not obviously, the village, hop period T alternating wave exists; if there are significant spectral line, the presence of T-wave alternans; step (4) is determined in the presence or absence of T-wave alternans index angular range vector scattergram determining, W comprises the steps of: 41) in accordance with a variety of quantitative parameter values ​​and different forms W scatter scattergram aggregation area, required to obtain different information; scattergram is determined by calculating a vector angle index VAI the presence or absence of T-wave alternans, which is calculated as:
    Figure CN103006207BC00031
    式中,N= 128,Xi为第i点的横坐标,0 1为第i点到坐标原点的连线与横坐标之间的夹角度,即目i=arctan[(X /(Xw-Xi)]; 用软件进行仿真时,将45度化成弧度制取为0. 7854,VAI的大小表示相邻T波间的幅值差沿45D线的散开程度; 4。规定:当矢量角度指数0.化ad《VAI《1.03rad时,则在屯、电信号中,含有T波交替;当VAI< 0.化ad或VAI> 1.0化ad时,则在屯、电信号中,不含T波交替。 Where, N = 128, Xi is the abscissa of the point i, 01 i-th point to the origin of coordinates included angle between the connection line and the abscissa, i.e., mesh i = arctan [(X / (Xw-Xi )]; when simulation software, to 45 degrees into radians Preparation of 0. 7854, VAI size indicates the degree of spread 45D adjacent lines T-wave amplitude difference between direction; 4. Provide: when the angle of the vector index of 0. when the ad "VAI" 1.03rad, in the village, an electrical signal, comprising T-wave alternans; when VAI <0. of the ad or VAI> 1.0 of the ad, then the village, an electrical signal, the non-T wave alternans.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的分析方法,其特征在于,所述步骤(3)、(4)、(6)均通过MATLAB7. 0软件实现。 2. The analysis method according to claim 1, wherein said step (3), (4), (6) MATLAB7. 0 are implemented by software.
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的分析方法,其特征在于,所述步骤(1)中的屯、电信号是从美国MIT/BIH标准屯、律失常数据库和欧洲ST-T屯、电数据库中获得。 The analysis method according to claim 1, wherein said step (1) in the village, the electrical signal from the United States MIT / BIH standard Tun, arrhythmias and European ST-T database Tun, Database, obtain.
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