CN103004431A - Large-leave fast-growing locust tree nutrition plate seedling method - Google Patents

Large-leave fast-growing locust tree nutrition plate seedling method Download PDF

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CN103004431A
CN103004431A CN2012105511574A CN201210551157A CN103004431A CN 103004431 A CN103004431 A CN 103004431A CN 2012105511574 A CN2012105511574 A CN 2012105511574A CN 201210551157 A CN201210551157 A CN 201210551157A CN 103004431 A CN103004431 A CN 103004431A
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soil
seedling
root
transplanting
nutrient discs
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CN103004431B (en
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钱善勤
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Guangxi Science and Technology Normal University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a large-leave fast-growing locust tree nutrition plate seedling method. The method comprises the following steps of: (1) selecting a proper seedling period; (2) preparation work before seedling: preparing a plastic shed, preparing corresponding porous nutrition plates according to different mother root diameters, cutting the mother roots of fast-growing locust trees into root sections of certain lengths, cutting the mother roots with the diameters of over 5 mm into the root sections of 8 cm, cutting the mother roots with the diameters of 3 to 5 mm into the root sections of 10 cm, screening soil, drying the soil, and removing impurities from the soil; (3) cutting the mother roots: filling the soil, cutting the mother roots, spraying water, putting the mother roots on a frame, and keeping the temperature of the shed; (4) seedling management: keeping the humidity and weeding periodically; (5) transplanting: selecting a proper time, preparing a land, digging holes, spraying the water, transplanting, and spraying the water again; and (6) management after transplanting: keeping the humidity, weeding and performing the deinsectization. By the seedling method provided by the invention, the propagation coefficient of the mother roots can be improved; the seedling time can be shortened; the survival rate of the mother roots can be improved; the using amount of nitration soil is reduced; and the concentrated seedling unified management is facilitated.

Description

A kind of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree nutrient discs seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to artificial breeding propagation technique field, relate in particular to a kind of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree nutrient discs seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree is pulse family robinia deciduous tree, is the novel fodder seeds.Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree blade is large, and the blade length and width are respectively 2-3 times of common locust tree, and the food value of leaf is plump, and single leaf dry weight is 4-6 times of common locust tree.Blade is imparipinnate leaf, alternate, full edge.Leaflet is 7-19 piece, ellipse or oval, two sides Glabrous.Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree is unisexual flower, aubergine, and raceme without stamen, does not bear seeds, and main kind of the root that adopts is bred.
Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree is wide ecological amplitude plant, has the ability of stronger drought-enduring, cold-resistant, anti-soil depletion, suitablely is born in average temperature of the whole year 6-9 ℃, the climatic region of year precipitation 500-1200 millimeter.In the northwest drought of year precipitation 200-400 millimeter, semiarid zone also normal growth.But it is water-fast flooding not, and long-time root ponding then can rot root death.The fast-growing Chinese scholartree also has extremely strong anti-soil depletion ability, no matter sandy soil, the barren ground of barren hill, Degraded Pastures, flood land, light acid soil and light saline land, even can both grow on the sandstone gravel of for many years slagheap and weathering.
Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree root system is huge, the tool root nodule, and nitrogen fixing capacity is very strong, can effectively improve soil, promotes soil fertility.Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree tiller and regeneration capacity extremely strong, after cradling just the pier shape grow thickly, 10-20 branch of average every pier germinating can reach at most 40 branches.And Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree is after plant is cut down, and remaining in that residual in the soil be completely cured is also quick sprout growth.
Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree has the title of " king of leaf feed ", contains the about 21-25% of crude protein in the Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree cured leaf, and 2 kilograms of Chinese scholartree leaf powder are equivalent to 1 kilogram of soya-bean cake class crude protein content.Contain crude fat 4-5.5%, raw fiber 11-15%.Be rich in multivitamin, trace element and several amino acids, belong to high energy feed.Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree cauline leaf is fresh and tender, and quality is soft, good palatability, and digestibility is high, and all kinds of livestock and poultry such as ox, sheep are all liked food.And can promote significantly growing of livestock and poultry, livestock and poultry are had no side effect.
Plantation Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree can be improved the ecological environment, can transform to check winds and fix drifting sand to desertization wasteland, the Northwest with work, the southwest Karst Mountains Desertification Area is transformed, both prevented water and soil loss, water conservation can promote again the development of local livestock breeding industry, simultaneously the fast-growing Chinese scholartree have again that implantation methods is simple, extensive management and the high characteristics of survival rate, so that it has the very large market demand, the research that therefore strengthens fast-growing Chinese scholartree propagation technique has become the emphasis of current fast-growing Chinese scholartree research.
In Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree kind root is grown seedlings the process of breeding; usually can run into some problems; first is exactly the problem how root of root (3-5mm) thinner in the fast-growing Chinese scholartree lateral root utilizes; second in the north; it is relatively more late when the Spring Festival, soil thawed; how to improve annual long-term in, the harvesting number of times of fast-growing Chinese scholartree branches and leaves.
Summary of the invention
For above-mentioned two technical problems, carried out extensive experimentation, not only so that the kind root of diameter 3-5mm also can utilize, and survival rate is near 100% for the method that adopts at last nutrient discs to grow seedlings, this method.If adopt warm canopy to grow seedlings simultaneously, then can time advance.Just can namely begin to grow seedlings previous month that soil thaws in the north, then can directly transplant after soil thaws, thereby improve working effect, and the survival rate of transplanted seedling also is significantly higher than straight cultivation seedling.And adopt nutrient discs to grow seedlings and just can realize growing seedlings on a large scale, thereby reach the target of factorial seedling growth.
A kind of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree nutrient discs seedling-cultivating method step provided by the invention is as follows:
(1) selects the suitable period grow seedlings;
(2) preparation before growing seedlings: preparing plastic booth; Prepare corresponding porous nutrient discs according to a diameter not of the same race; The kind root of fast-growing Chinese scholartree is cut into the root segment of certain-length, for the root segment that is cut into 8cm more than the diameter 5mm, for the root segment that then is cut into 10cm of diameter 3-5mm; And select soil for nutrient discs, sieve soil dries, and removes foreign material wherein;
(3) plant the root cuttage: for nutrient discs dress soil, then at the described kind root that shears of nutrient discs cuttage, and be the nutrient discs trickle, nutrient discs is added, put into booth thermal insulation after added;
(4) seedling management: keep the humidity of nutrient discs environment of living in, and regularly weeding;
(5) transplant: select hardening, whole ground after the suitable time, dig pit, trickle, transplanting, trickle again;
(6) transplant rear management: be the seedling moisturizing after transplanting, and the weeding deinsectization.
Further, wherein in the step (1), push ahead to concentrate about 40 days in the time that plan is transplanted and grow seedlings.
Further, wherein in the step (2), the above kind root of diameter 5mm is concentrated with the nutrient discs in 32 holes and is grown seedlings, and the kind root of diameter 3-5mm adopts the nutrient discs in 50 holes to concentrate and grows seedlings.
Further, wherein in the step (2), select fertile vegetable garden soil as the soil of nutrient discs.
Further, wherein in the middle cuttage step of step (3), with the root segment that shears, insert the hole of growing seedlings, insert 4-5cm in the soil.
Further, wherein in the middle trickle step of step (3), if sinkage appears in soil, then add again soil and compacting.
Further, wherein in the middle booth thermal insulation step of step (3), southern area need not be heated, and northern area keeps greenhouse temperature at 20-25 ℃.
Further, it is luxuriant for treating the seedling branches and leaves wherein to transplant the time of selecting in the step (5), and soil thaws, and transplants when temperature begins to present rise situation.
Further, wherein in the step (5) during hardening, the plastic film of booth is raised, the hardening that allows the direct ingress of air of seedling carry out 2-3 days is processed, to adapt to extraneous climatic environment;
During whole ground, will carry out with transplanting smooth, place to go foreign material and weeds, and excavate on the ground the drain ditch;
When digging pit, dig pit according to the seeding row spacing of planting plan, and the foreign material in the removing hole, cheat about degree of depth 20cm, and spread soft fine earth at the end, hole;
During trickle, the previous day of transplanting, nutrient discs is drenched the water of standing up, so that the soil in the nutrient discs tightens together, be convenient to whole young plant and connect soil mud and go out;
During transplanting, seedling band soil mud gone out and plant in the hole, and use native landfill, at last with the soil pressure reality;
And after transplanting end, drench once permeable to seedling.
Further, wherein during the weeding step in the step (6), before the closing of fast-growing Chinese scholartree envelope row, weeding is twice at least.
Implement seedling-cultivating method of the present invention, have following beneficial effect:
1) improves the reproduction coefficient of planting root, improved the degree of utilizing than radicula system, increased the reproduction coefficient of unit length kind root.
2) seedling raise period in advance, nutrient discs is concentrated to grow seedlings and is adopted booth to carry out breeding, soil in spring can begin to grow seedlings before thawing in the north, can with seedling raise period one month earlier about, after soil thaws, can plant.
3) survival rate of raising seedling, nutrient discs is concentrated and is grown seedlings, convenient management, thus also improved survival rate of seedling.
4) reduce the consumption of Nutrition Soil, the hole of nutrient discs is less, the Nutrition Soil that adopts, and with respect to nutrition cup, the consumption of Nutrition Soil significantly reduces, and the service efficiency of Nutrition Soil increases and pays.
5) be convenient to concentrate the unified management of growing seedlings.Nutrient discs is grown seedlings to concentrate at booth and is carried out, and is convenient to the unified water and fertilizer management that carries out.
Embodiment
Da Ye fast-growing Sophora is in the hybridization seeds, and unisexual flower is without stamen, only bloom and do not bear seeds, branch and the root system of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree have very strong sprouting ability, can germinate seedling after branch grafting and the cuttage, and taproot and lateral root all can germinate seedling, but grafting and cuttage are because time-consuming, and survival rate is low, and now less employing mainly is to adopt kind of root and seedling to breed now, stem with root is called seedling, and the main root lateral root all is called kind of a root.
Seedling has lignified stem and root system, and environmental suitability and plantation survival rate are significantly higher than kind of a root, and branches and leaves and root system germinating speed are significantly higher than kind of a root.Be selected in after spring, soil thawed at northern repoductive time, and on Nanning, Liuzhou and other places, in the fall, all can plant spring, from day maximum temperature drop to about 15 degrees centigrade, Summer Solstice or the Winter Solstice maximum temperature rose to before 30 ℃, all can plant before May time from December to next year.Planting patterns adopts trench digging to do Gansu Province plantation, spacing in the rows 60cm, and line-spacing 80cm, density is planted with the density of every mu of 1500-2000 strain.
Gathering of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree seedling and kind root excavated and will be come off fully at Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree blade, and root system is stopped action, and trees carry out after entering resting stage, can guarantee that like this kind of a root activity preserves from.Therefore all can carry out nursery stock spring in autumn gathers.Quality is better because dormancy time is long for the seedling that excavate spring and kind root, and no matter southern and northern, the seedling of gathering spring and kind root all can be planted, and the seedling that excavate autumn and kind root, southern seedling can be planted, the method that kind of root can adopt overlay film to grow seedlings is bred, also can tie integrated bundle and it is imbedded in soil or the sand to keep moisture by the time plant spring again, but the seedling that excavate autumn in the north and plant that root can only be heeled in by the time spring soil thaw after again plantation.Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree is also found in the process of planting, the seedling transplanting survival rate is higher, it is relatively low to plant the root transplanting survival rate, if be used for the restoration of the ecosystem of Karst Mountains Desertification Area, then need to adopt comparatively sturdy seedling, if be used for fodder forest, and be planted on the loose soil, then both can adopt seedling also can adopt kind of a root.
The kind root of fast-growing Chinese scholartree has very strong asexual multiplication ability, under the suitable condition of temp. and humidity, plants root and can germinate and leaf bud and Xin Gen, and generate a new plant.Under study for action, find that at kind of root leaf bud and the root system of planting on the root germinate at random when keeping flat, the position is indefinite.If the root system cuttage in wet sand, is then shown epimere and sprouts, the phenomenon of taking root in the lower end.
According to this discovery, the inventor goes through test of many times, tries to adopt the method for cuttage to breed, and found that kind of a root cuttage and seedling culture survival rate is significantly increased.Find that by analysis and research in the time of cuttage, it is long that root segment is cut into 10cm, insert underground 6-7cm, acrial part 3-4cm, under ground portion absorbs moisture, keeps the humidity of root segment, acrial part is exposed in the air, ventilated, be conducive to the respiration of root skin, be conducive to the sprouting of leaf bud, and the germinating leaf bud also can in time carry out photosynthesis so that the survival rate of seedling increases.The cuttage and seedling culture propagation method can be avoided traditional flat burying in the earthing seedling raising process, because the factors such as soil moisture content, gas permeability are sprouted some harmful effects that produce to kind of root.
Introduce a fine variety reproduction test from the end of the year in 2009 with hand research Guangxi central Guilin area Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree, through the research more than 2 years, find out the relatively ripe fast-growing Chinese scholartree seed root propagation technology of a cover, embodiment is as follows:
1 grows seedlings period
Adopt nutrient discs to grow seedlings on a large scale, can push ahead to concentrate about 40 days in the time that plan is transplanted and grow seedlings, because intemperance adopts warm canopy to carry out nutrient discs and grows seedlings, to guarantee the survival rate of seedling.
2 preparations before growing seedlings
The first, be exactly the preparing plastic booth.
The second, porous plastics nutrient discs, the nutrient discs that we adopt are to shine 32 holes and the 50 hole plastic nutritional dishes that net factory produces available from the Taizhou City of Zhejiang Province peasants who dig gold, nutrient discs thickness reaches 1mm, and is durable, the square hole dish for cultivating that we adopt, also can adopt the circular hole dish for cultivating, be determined on a case-by-case basis.
32 hole nutrient discs, the size of dish can be 54 cm *, 28 cm, the degree of depth is 6cm.The above kind root of diameter 5mm is just concentrated with the nutrient discs in 32 holes and is grown seedlings.The kind root of diameter 3-5mm adopts 50 holes, and the size of dish can be 54 cm *, 28 cm, and the degree of depth is that the nutrient discs of 5cm is concentrated and to be grown seedlings.Utilization ratio that like this can the raising dish can certainly adopt the dish of other appropriate sizes.
The 3rd, the kind root of fast-growing Chinese scholartree is cut into the root segment of certain-length, for the root segment that is cut into 8cm more than the diameter 5mm, for the root segment that then is cut into 10cm of diameter 3-5mm;
The 4th, sieve soil is selected fertile vegetable garden soil, dries, and removes wherein foreign material such as sandstone, rubble with the solarization mesh screen.
3 kinds of root cuttages
The first, dress soil, the vegetable garden soil that sieve is good are packed in the nutrient discs, and with plank unnecessary soil are scraped off
The second, cuttage with the root segment that shears, is inserted the hole of growing seedlings, and inserts 4-5cm in the soil,
The 3rd, trickle adopts watering can, and thin water drenches nutrient discs soil, if sinkage appears in soil, then adds soil and compacting again.
The 4th, added, nutrient discs all installs after the trickle, puts nutrient discs is added, can adopt the yoke of wooden formula structure, also can adopt the stainless steel plate rail, can not adopt illumination cultivation.
The 5th, booth thermal insulation at southern area, can not heated in the warm canopy, in the north of china in winter severe cold, then needs warm canopy is heated, and keeps greenhouse temperature to get final product at 20-25 ℃.
4 seedling managements
The first, keep humidity.Observe the middle soil moisture situation of growing seedlings every day.Regularly trickle guarantees ground moistening
The second, regularly weeding.Because may be mixed with weed seed in the vegetable garden soil, therefore, regularly remove the weeds that grow in the nutrient discs, in order to avoid affect the growth of seedling.
5 transplant
The first, the time.Treat that the seedling branches and leaves are luxuriant, and soil thaws, temperature begins to present rise situation, can transplant.
The second, hardening.The plastic film of booth is raised, and the hardening that allows the direct ingress of air of seedling carry out 2-3 days is processed, to adapt to extraneous climatic environment.
The 3rd, whole ground.To carry out with transplanting smooth, place to go rubble, fragment of brick and weeds, and excavate on the ground the drain ditch.
The 4th, dig pit.Seeding row spacing according to planting plan is digged pit, and removes the foreign material such as rubble, sandstone and grass roots in the hole, cheats about degree of depth 20cm, and spreads soft fine earth at the end, hole.
The 5th, trickle.The previous day of transplanting, nutrient discs is drenched the water of standing up, so that the soil in the nutrient discs tightens together, be convenient to whole young plant and connect soil mud and go out, thereby reduce because of the impact of root system damage on transplanting survival rate.
The 6th, transplant.Seedling band soil mud gone out and plant in the hole, and use native landfill, at last with the soil pressure reality.
The 7th, trickle.It is rear once permeable to the seedling pouring to transplant end, so that seedling adapts to new environment as early as possible.
6 transplant rear management
The first, moisturizing.Behind the seedling replanting, often water the humidity that keeps soil enough, will prevent that also rainfall from causing damage or crop failure caused by waterlogging, performs drainage works simultaneously.
The second, weeding.Although Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree growth fraction is very fast, the too fast growth of grass can affect the growth of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree, therefore, before the closing of fast-growing Chinese scholartree envelope row, will remove twice grass at least, and the guarantee seedling is grown well.
The 3rd, deinsectization.Because the branches and leaves of Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree have abundant nutritive value, therefore, its insect pest also occurs often, therefore, when finding damaged by vermin, in time effect a radical cure.
The technique effect that nutrient discs is grown seedlings and obtained:
1) improves the reproduction coefficient of planting root, improved the degree of utilizing than radicula system, increased the reproduction coefficient of unit length kind root.
2) seedling raise period in advance, nutrient discs is concentrated to grow seedlings and is adopted booth to carry out breeding, soil in spring can begin to grow seedlings before thawing in the north, can with seedling raise period one month earlier about, after soil thaws, can plant.
3) survival rate of raising seedling, nutrient discs is concentrated and is grown seedlings, convenient management, thus also improved survival rate of seedling.
4) reduce the consumption of Nutrition Soil, the hole of nutrient discs is less, the Nutrition Soil that adopts, and with respect to nutrition cup, the consumption of Nutrition Soil significantly reduces, and the service efficiency of Nutrition Soil increases and pays.
5) be convenient to concentrate the unified management of growing seedlings.Nutrient discs is grown seedlings to concentrate at booth and is carried out, and is convenient to the unified water and fertilizer management that carries out.
Above disclosed is some preferred embodiments of the present invention only, does not limit interest field of the present invention with this, and the equivalent variations of therefore doing according to claim of the present invention still belongs to the scope that the present invention is contained.

Claims (10)

1. Da Ye fast-growing Chinese scholartree nutrient discs seedling-cultivating method is characterized in that:
(1) selects the suitable period grow seedlings;
(2) preparation before growing seedlings: preparing plastic booth; Prepare corresponding porous nutrient discs according to a diameter not of the same race; The kind root of fast-growing Chinese scholartree is cut into the root segment of certain-length, for the root segment that is cut into 8cm more than the diameter 5mm, for the root segment that then is cut into 10cm of diameter 3-5mm; And select soil for nutrient discs, sieve soil dries, and removes foreign material wherein;
(3) plant the root cuttage: for nutrient discs dress soil, then at the described kind root that shears of nutrient discs cuttage, and be the nutrient discs trickle, nutrient discs is added, put into booth thermal insulation after added;
(4) seedling management: keep the humidity of nutrient discs environment of living in, and regularly weeding;
(5) transplant: select hardening, whole ground after the suitable time, dig pit, trickle, transplanting, trickle again;
(6) transplant rear management: be the seedling moisturizing after transplanting, and the weeding deinsectization.
2. the method for claim 1: it is characterized in that: in the step (1), push ahead to concentrate about 40 days in the time that plan is transplanted and grow seedlings.
3. such as the described method of one of claim 1-2: it is characterized in that: in the step (2), the above kind root of diameter 5mm is concentrated with the nutrient discs in 32 holes and is grown seedlings, and the kind root of diameter 3-5mm adopts the nutrient discs in 50 holes to concentrate and grows seedlings.
4. such as the described method of one of claim 1-3: it is characterized in that: in the step (2), select fertile vegetable garden soil as the soil of nutrient discs.
5. such as the described method of one of claim 1-4: it is characterized in that: in the cuttage step, with the root segment that shears, insert the hole of growing seedlings in the step (3), insert 4-5cm in the soil.
6. such as the described method of one of claim 1-5: it is characterized in that: in the trickle step, if sinkage appears in soil, then add again soil and compacting in the step (3).
7. such as the described method of one of claim 1-6: it is characterized in that: in the booth thermal insulation step, southern area need not be heated in the step (3), and northern area keeps greenhouse temperature at 20-25 ℃.
8. such as the described method of one of claim 1-7: it is characterized in that: transplanting the time of selecting in the step (5) is: treat that the seedling branches and leaves are luxuriant, and soil thaws, transplant when temperature begins to present rise situation.
9. such as the described method of one of claim 1-8: it is characterized in that: during the middle hardening of step (5), the plastic film of booth is raised, the hardening that allows the direct ingress of air of seedling carry out 2-3 days is processed, to adapt to extraneous climatic environment;
During whole ground, will carry out smoothly with transplanting, and remove foreign material and weeds, and excavate on the ground the drain ditch;
When digging pit, dig pit according to the seeding row spacing of planting plan, and the foreign material in the removing hole, cheat about degree of depth 20cm, and spread soft fine earth at the end, hole;
During trickle, the previous day of transplanting, nutrient discs is drenched the water of standing up, so that the soil in the nutrient discs tightens together, be convenient to whole young plant and connect soil mud and go out;
During transplanting, seedling band soil mud gone out and plant in the hole, and use native landfill, at last with the soil pressure reality;
And after transplanting end, drench once permeable to seedling.
10. such as the described method of one of claim 1-9: it is characterized in that: during weeding step in the step (6), before the closing of fast-growing Chinese scholartree envelope row, weeding is twice at least.
CN201210551157.4A 2012-12-18 2012-12-18 Large-leave fast-growing locust tree nutrition plate seedling method Expired - Fee Related CN103004431B (en)

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CN104380992A (en) * 2014-11-17 2015-03-04 苏州市新巷农艺科技园 Cutting method for sophora japonica var. violacea carr.
CN106376390A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-08 泗县美丽园艺农民专业合作社 Method of root cuttage of fast-growing locust trees in greenhouse
CN109197333A (en) * 2018-10-01 2019-01-15 泓森林业有限公司 A kind of locust tree root method for culturing seedlings
CN110122152A (en) * 2019-05-29 2019-08-16 中交第一公路勘察设计研究院有限公司 Sandliving sophora seed factory culturing method

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104380992A (en) * 2014-11-17 2015-03-04 苏州市新巷农艺科技园 Cutting method for sophora japonica var. violacea carr.
CN106376390A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-08 泗县美丽园艺农民专业合作社 Method of root cuttage of fast-growing locust trees in greenhouse
CN109197333A (en) * 2018-10-01 2019-01-15 泓森林业有限公司 A kind of locust tree root method for culturing seedlings
CN110122152A (en) * 2019-05-29 2019-08-16 中交第一公路勘察设计研究院有限公司 Sandliving sophora seed factory culturing method

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