CN102986338B - Early-spring high-yield potato cultivation method - Google Patents

Early-spring high-yield potato cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102986338B
CN102986338B CN201210380474.4A CN201210380474A CN102986338B CN 102986338 B CN102986338 B CN 102986338B CN 201210380474 A CN201210380474 A CN 201210380474A CN 102986338 B CN102986338 B CN 102986338B
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potato
soil
ridge
disease
seedling
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CN201210380474.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102986338A (en
Inventor
杨世安
李鉴
张定聪
张庆武
孙坚政
张大来
陈永龙
韦世宏
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肥西县农业技术推广中心
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Abstract

The invention discloses an early-spring high-yield potato cultivation technology. The early-spring high-yield potato cultivation technology comprises the following steps: variety selection, potato seed processing, grading-based germination acceleration, planting land selection, land preparation and fertilization, sowing and seedling raising, field management, control of pest and disease, harvesting and the like. According to the invention, by means of immersing seeds with a Chinese medicinal herbal solution and carrying out preventive spraying by using a Chinese medicinal herbal agent for preventing diseases and pests, disease and pest damages to potatoes can be reduced greatly, the growth environment of the potatoes is purified, the utilization of chemical pesticides is reduced, and an ecological environment is protected. The potatoes planted according to the invention are good in grade and are safe and pollution-free. The cultivation technology disclosed by the invention is simple, has the advantages of low cost, high yield, convenience for management and the like, and is suitable for large-scale cultivation.

Description

A kind of potato culture in early spring method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of potato culture in early spring method, belong to vegetable growing technical field.
Background technology
As the large important cereal crops-potato in third place in the world, because the moisture of potato tubers is more, fat is less, the heat of unit volume is quite low, and nutrient component is very comprehensive, and trophic structure is more reasonable, and contain the unexistent carotin of cereal crop and ascorbic acid, therefore, having very high nutritive value and medical value, is the important improved seeds that integrate grain and vegetables.
The plantation history of potato is comparatively long, but the potato yield of planting out by traditional planting technology average every mu 3000 kilograms of left and right, in addition with the potato of existing implantation methods plantation, there is the problems such as damage by disease and insect is many, quality is not good, cause potato yield to be difficult to obtain new breakthrough, in addition, because potato seed, chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals drop into larger, not only economic benefit is low, but also make soil deterioration, ecotope is damaged, therefore, explore new potato seed planting technology, become current very important problem.
Summary of the invention
The object of invention is for the deficiencies in the prior art, and a kind of potato culture in early spring method is provided, and improves output and the quality of potato.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme:
Potato culture in early spring technology, comprises the following steps:
(1) kind is selected
The Potato Cultivars that selection adaptation is wide, disease resistance is strong, commodity is good, puts into Chinese herbal medicine fluid by potato seed and soaks 10-15min;
(2) potato seed is processed
Start mid-January good qualified potato seed to carry out warm seeds, keep 15-20 ℃, through 20-30d potato seed, grow bud point, warm seeds finish to get final product stripping and slicing, and stripping and slicing monolithic weight is 20-25g, near eye edge, potato piece is cut into triangle, and every ensures 1-2 eye, while switching to disease potato seed, will reject, cutting knife will be with cutting another piece after 10-20% alcohol disinfecting again, otherwise can cause the propagation of disease;
(3) classification vernalization
Stripping and slicing is according to the magnitude classification of bud point, respectively in cold bed vernalization, and the wide 1-1.5m of cold bed, long 8-10m, humidity keeps 65-70%, and temperature keeps 20-25 ℃, through 20-25d, when kind of the long 3-6cm of bud, can sow;
(4) planting site is selected
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, and the sand paper soil that physicochemical character is good, more than content of organic matter 19.5g/kg, more than alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content 75mg/kg, more than available phosphorus contents 52mg/kg, more than quick-acting potassium content 110mg/kg, PH=6-6.5, soil total salt content is higher than 0.35%, as far as possible not with the solanaceous crops continuous cropping such as tomato, eggplant, green pepper in order to avoid mutually propagate disease;
(5) wholely with fertilising
Should every mu of organic fertilizer 2500-3000kg before soil deeptillage, Modified Urea 10-15kg, diammonium phosphate 20-30kg, potassium sulfate 8-10kg, bacterium slag 400-500kg, paulownia sawdust 300-400kg, evenly be spread on and in ground, plough deeply 25-30cm, during sowing, guarantee that soil moisture is sufficient, the bad moisture creating of watering in advance of soil moisture content, wherein, described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: to the nano-sized carbon that adds 1-2% in urea, the wintergreen of 3-4%, the aluminium hydroxide of 4-5%, the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, again granulation obtains Modified Urea again,
(6) seeding and seedling raising
By 1-1.5m row spacing, make the high ridge of high 15-20cm, every ridge cultivation 2-3 is capable, spacing in the rows 15-20cm, March sowing time early and middle ten days, plant 5600-6800 strain for every mu, the eye angle modulation program request that makes progress during sowing, after finishing, ridging is done ridge, ridge face width 50-55cm, the high 15-20cm in ridge immediately, disposable earthing is not less than 10-12cm, with rake, the soil block rake on the face of ridge is thin, spray Acetochlor or other weed killer herbicide prevent weed growth, build subsequently mulch film, with wide 1 the ridge face of plastic mulching of 80-90cm, and cover tightly fenestra with wet soil;
(7) field management
(a) rupture of membranes is put seedling
Before 9 o'clock every mornings of seeding stage, carried out field examination, rupture of membranes, with anti-scald seedling, if table soil is dry, should water in time in time, in order to avoid affect, emerge,
(b) topdress and water
The fore-and-aft observing soil of emerging, the timely moisturizing of humidity deficit, 8-10d left and right Nitrogen Top Dressing after emerging, promote seedling tiller, execute Modified Urea 20-30kg or carbon ammonium 50-100kg for every mu, after the person of seed deeplying and cover shallowlying waters, with seedling growth, carry out cultivation and banking, whole growing process can not lack of water, while watering, note overflowing ridge top, before results, 5-7d stops watering
(c) change control
In squaring period, extract in time bud, the field to excessive growth trend, every mu with 10-15% paclobutrazol 20-25g, is watered 40-50kg spraying, controls excessive growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest
When onset peak period, the Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300-400 times of water for a time every spray in 6-7 days, connects and sprays 3-4 time,
Described Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 10-15 part root of Beijing euphorbia, 8-10 part rhizoma nardostachyos, 8-10 part seven snippings, 10-12 part radix sophorae, 8-10 part wilson passionflower herb, 8-10 part babylon weeping willow root-bark add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
(9) gather
Treat that potato is ripe, carry out recovery process, gather and preferably select fine day to carry out the morning, used tool will clean, health, pollution-free.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part stem pith of the rice-paper plant, 10-15 part fruit of Rangoon creeper, 20-30 part banksia rose, 15-20 part Celastrus angulatus, 10-15 part cashew nut, 10-20 part vomiting nut, 20-30 part Sheep's-parsley, 10-20 part derris root are made through steps such as pulverizing, soak, filter, be concentrated.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention, by adopting Chinese herbal medicine fluid seed soaking, Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent prevention to spray, can greatly reduce the damage by disease and insect of potato, has purified the growing environment of potato, has reduced the use of chemical pesticide, has protected ecotope.The potato product lover that the present invention plants out, safety nuisance free.The advantages such as cultivation method of the present invention is simple, has cost low, and yield is high, convenient management, are applicable to extensive cultivation.
Embodiment
Embodiment
Potato culture in early spring technology, comprises the following steps:
(1) kind is selected
The Potato Cultivars that selection adaptation is wide, disease resistance is strong, commodity is good, puts into Chinese herbal medicine fluid by potato seed and soaks 15min;
(2) potato seed is processed
Start mid-January good qualified potato seed to carry out warm seeds, keep 20 ℃, through 30d potato seed, grow bud point, warm seeds finish to get final product stripping and slicing, and stripping and slicing monolithic weight is 20-25g, near eye edge, potato piece is cut into triangle, and every ensures 2 eyes, while switching to disease potato seed, will reject, cutting knife will be with cutting another piece after 15% alcohol disinfecting again, otherwise can cause the propagation of disease;
(3) classification vernalization
Stripping and slicing is according to the magnitude classification of bud point, respectively in cold bed vernalization, and the wide 1.2m of cold bed, long 10m, humidity keeps 70%, and temperature keeps 25 ℃, through 25d, when kind of the long 5cm of bud, can sow;
(4) planting site is selected
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, and the sand paper soil that physicochemical character is good, more than content of organic matter 19.5g/kg, more than alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content 75mg/kg, more than available phosphorus contents 52mg/kg, more than quick-acting potassium content 110mg/kg, PH=6.2, soil total salt content is higher than 0.35%, as far as possible not with the solanaceous crops continuous cropping such as tomato, eggplant, green pepper in order to avoid mutually propagate disease;
(5) wholely with fertilising
Should every mu before soil deeptillage organic fertilizer 3000kg, Modified Urea 5kg, diammonium phosphate 30kg, potassium sulfate 0kg, bacterium slag 500kg, paulownia sawdust 3400kg, evenly be spread on and in ground, plough deeply 28cm, during sowing, guarantee that soil moisture is sufficient, the bad moisture creating of watering in advance of soil moisture content, wherein, described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: in urea, add 1% nano-sized carbon, 3% wintergreen, 5% aluminium hydroxide, 2% Silane coupling agent KH550,0.2% sldium lauryl sulfate, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again;
(6) seeding and seedling raising
By 1.2m row spacing, make the high ridge of high 18cm, every ridge plants 3 row, spacing in the rows 15cm, March sowing time, early and middle ten days, planted 6500 strains for every mu, the eye angle modulation program request that makes progress during sowing, after finishing, ridging is done ridge, ridge face width 50cm, the high 15cm in ridge immediately, disposable earthing is not less than 10cm, with rake, the soil block rake on the face of ridge is thin, spray Acetochlor or other weed killer herbicide prevent weed growth, build subsequently mulch film, with wide 1 the ridge face of plastic mulching of 85cm, and cover tightly fenestra with wet soil;
(7) field management
(a) rupture of membranes is put seedling
Before 9 o'clock every mornings of seeding stage, carried out field examination, rupture of membranes, with anti-scald seedling, if table soil is dry, should water in time in time, in order to avoid affect, emerge,
(b) topdress and water
The fore-and-aft observing soil of emerging, the timely moisturizing of humidity deficit, 8-10d left and right Nitrogen Top Dressing after emerging, promote seedling tiller, execute Modified Urea 30kg or carbon ammonium 80kg for every mu, after the person of seed deeplying and cover shallowlying waters, with seedling growth, carry out cultivation and banking, whole growing process can not lack of water, while watering, note overflowing ridge top, before results, 7d stops watering
(c) change control
In squaring period, extract in time bud, the field to excessive growth trend, every mu of use 15% paclobutrazol 25g, is watered 50kg spraying, controls excessive growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest
When onset peak period, the Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 400 times of water for a time every spray in 7 days, connects and sprays 4 times,
Described Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 15 parts of roots of Beijing euphorbia, 8 parts of rhizoma nardostachyos, 10 part of seven snippings, 12 parts of radix sophoraes, 8 parts of wilson passionflower herbs, 8 parts of babylon weeping willow root-barks add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
(9) gather
Treat that potato is ripe, carry out recovery process, gather and preferably select fine day to carry out the morning, used tool will clean, health, pollution-free.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 18 portions of stem piths of the rice-paper plant, 12 parts of fruits of Rangoon creeper, 24 parts of banksia rose, 18 parts of Celastrus angulatus, 15 portions of cashew nuts, 16 parts of vomiting nuts, 25 portions of Sheep's-parsleys, 15 parts of derris roots are made through steps such as pulverizing, soak, filter, be concentrated.
Utilize the potato product that potato product that above-mentioned complex art is produced plants with conventional method to compare, there is following advantage:

Claims (1)

1. potato culture in an early spring method, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1) kind is selected
The Potato Cultivars that selection adaptation is wide, disease resistance is strong, commodity is good, puts into Chinese herbal medicine fluid by potato seed and soaks 10-15min;
(2) potato seed is processed
Start mid-January good qualified potato seed to carry out warm seeds, keep 15-20 ℃, through 20-30d potato seed, grow bud point, warm seeds finish to get final product stripping and slicing, and stripping and slicing monolithic weight is 20-25g, near eye edge, potato piece is cut into triangle, and every ensures 1-2 eye, while switching to disease potato seed, will reject, cutting knife will be with cutting another piece after 10-20% alcohol disinfecting again, otherwise can cause the propagation of disease;
(3) classification vernalization
Stripping and slicing is according to the magnitude classification of bud point, respectively in cold bed vernalization, and the wide 1-1.5m of cold bed, long 8-10m, humidity keeps 65-70%, and temperature keeps 20-25 ℃, through 20-25d, when kind of the long 3-6cm of bud, can sow;
(4) planting site is selected
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, and the sand paper soil that physicochemical character is good, more than content of organic matter 19.5g/kg, more than alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content 75mg/kg, more than available phosphorus contents 52mg/kg, more than quick-acting potassium content 110mg/kg, PH=6-6.5, soil total salt content is higher than 0.35%, not with tomato, eggplant, green pepper solanaceous crops continuous cropping in order to avoid mutually propagate disease;
(5) wholely with fertilising
Should every mu of organic fertilizer 2500-3000kg before soil deeptillage, Modified Urea 10-15kg, diammonium phosphate 20-30kg, potassium sulfate 8-10kg, bacterium slag 400-500kg, paulownia sawdust 300-400kg, evenly be spread on and in ground, plough deeply 25-30cm, during sowing, guarantee that soil moisture is sufficient, the bad moisture creating of watering in advance of soil moisture content, wherein, described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: to the nano-sized carbon that adds 1-2% in urea, the wintergreen of 3-4%, the aluminium hydroxide of 4-5%, the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, again granulation obtains Modified Urea again,
(6) seeding and seedling raising
By 1-1.5m row spacing, make the high ridge of high 15-20cm, every ridge cultivation 2-3 is capable, spacing in the rows 15-20cm, March sowing time early and middle ten days, plant 5600-6800 strain for every mu, the eye angle modulation program request that makes progress during sowing, after finishing, ridging is done ridge, ridge face width 50-55cm, the high 15-20cm in ridge immediately, disposable earthing is not less than 10-12cm, with rake, the soil block rake on the face of ridge is thin, spray Acetochlor or other weed killer herbicide prevent weed growth, build subsequently mulch film, with wide 1 the ridge face of plastic mulching of 80-90cm, and cover tightly fenestra with wet soil;
(7) field management
(a) rupture of membranes is put seedling
Before 9 o'clock every mornings of seeding stage, carried out field examination, rupture of membranes, with anti-scald seedling, if table soil is dry, should water in time in time, in order to avoid affect, emerge,
(b) topdress and water
The fore-and-aft observing soil of emerging, the timely moisturizing of humidity deficit, 8-10d left and right Nitrogen Top Dressing after emerging, promote seedling tiller, execute Modified Urea 20-30kg or carbon ammonium 50-100kg for every mu, after the person of seed deeplying and cover shallowlying waters, with seedling growth, carry out cultivation and banking, whole growing process can not lack of water, while watering, note overflowing ridge top, before results, 5-7d stops watering
(c) change control
In squaring period, extract in time bud, the field to excessive growth trend, every mu with 10-15% paclobutrazol 20-25g, is watered 40-50kg spraying, controls excessive growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest
When onset peak period, the Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300-400 times of water for a time every spray in 6-7 days, connects and sprays 3-4 time,
Described Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 10-15 part root of Beijing euphorbia, 8-10 part rhizoma nardostachyos, 8-10 part seven snippings, 10-12 part radix sophorae, 8-10 part wilson passionflower herb, 8-10 part babylon weeping willow root-bark add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
(9) gather
Treat that potato is ripe, carry out recovery process, gather and select fine day to carry out the morning, used tool will clean, health, pollution-free;
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part stem pith of the rice-paper plant, 10-15 part fruit of Rangoon creeper, 20-30 part banksia rose, 15-20 part Celastrus angulatus, 10-15 part cashew nut, 10-20 part vomiting nut, 20-30 part Sheep's-parsley, 10-20 part derris root are through pulverizing, immersion, filtration, concentration step and make.
CN201210380474.4A 2012-10-10 2012-10-10 Early-spring high-yield potato cultivation method CN102986338B (en)

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CN104956910A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-10-07 李翔 High-quality and high-efficiency cultivation method of potatoes in winter and summer
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CN108812137A (en) * 2018-04-10 2018-11-16 竹溪众创农村电商孵化器有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of purple soil beans
CN109169089A (en) * 2018-07-18 2019-01-11 宣城恒通机械设备有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of High Yield Potato amount
CN110199811A (en) * 2019-07-03 2019-09-06 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of implantation methods promoting late autumn in winter High Yield Potato

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