CN102955004A - Subway tunnel segment service performance detection method based on wave velocity determination - Google Patents

Subway tunnel segment service performance detection method based on wave velocity determination Download PDF

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CN102955004A
CN102955004A CN2012104247061A CN201210424706A CN102955004A CN 102955004 A CN102955004 A CN 102955004A CN 2012104247061 A CN2012104247061 A CN 2012104247061A CN 201210424706 A CN201210424706 A CN 201210424706A CN 102955004 A CN102955004 A CN 102955004A
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wave
velocity
formula
frequency
mode
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CN102955004B (en
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谢雄耀
周彪
王庆国
冯雷
刘洪波
郁宏杰
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Tongji University
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a subway tunnel segment service performance detection method based on wave velocity determination. According to the method, on the basis of hollow tubular structure modality dispersion analysis based on a thin-walled shell theory, propagation laws and propagation velocities of various elastic waves in a tubular structure are determined; a wired testing system is adopted or a wired testing system is matched with an internet-of-things technology to reasonably set an acceleration and a velocity sensor; and vibration signals are dynamically collected through specific hammer and other pulse wave excitation manners, and frequency phase characteristics of the signals are determined through HHT (Hilbert-Huang transformation) and other signal post-treatment manners so as to extract wave velocities of specific bending waves and compression waves to determine a structure service performance between various detection points.

Description

A kind of subway tunnel section of jurisdiction military service method for testing performance based on wave velocity measurement
Technical field
The present invention is applicable to the hollow tubular structures health detection such as subway tunnel, underground pipeline, comes decision structure military service performance by test velocity of wave and bullet mould, is specifically related to a kind of subway tunnel section of jurisdiction military service method for testing performance based on wave velocity measurement.
Background technology
In recent years, the urban rail transit in China construction is in the stage of develop rapidly, according to the data of house and the announcement of town and country construction section, by 2009,15 cities such as Beijing, Shanghai approximately have 50 rail lines to build, and construction scale occupies first of the world, and the operation mileage reaches 1154km; By 2015,22 cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou were with newly-built 79 rail lines, and mileage 2260km is always runed in 8820.03 hundred million yuan of gross investments, and scale will rank first in the world.Building up and putting into effect along with track traffic, lifeline as the city, within phase designed life in 100 years, the health of its structure (comprising tunnel and bridge concrete structure) is on active service most important for the city normal operation, more and more is subject to the extensive concern of society.
Urban rail transit in China construction development is fast but historical short, and people are inadequate to the seriousness attention degree of structural health military service problem.The residing environment sensitive of urban track traffic structure, the train operation very high density, service condition is harsh, and weak link can appear in structural elements junction and member thereof self under the factor long terms such as constructional deficiency, material degradation, in case structural failure is difficult for or is non-exchange, thereby the urban track traffic structural health is on active service proposed high requirement.Urban track traffic structural health military service problem after putting into effect has at present begun to appear.
Thereby detect very important to the duty status of structure, that adopted only can detect point such as detection methods such as reisilometers in the past, efficient is extremely low, be not suitable for the detection of large scale structure, thereby lot of domestic and international scholar and technician plan to merge the military service condition that the subjects research and development health monitoring systems such as civil structure and information (microelectronic sensor, wireless Ad Hoc sensor network) are judged structure.Utilize sensor to extract the information such as therefrom analytical structure damage of information, structure duty status such as vibration.
Thereby this measuring technology adopts artificial excitation's pulsating wave with this background, the propagation velocity of wave of network collection vibration information analysing elastic ripple in structure that utilizes sensor to form, thereby definite structure duty status.This invention can detect the integral body bullet mould between two measuring points, thereby can determine the structure duty status in the certain area, thereby can improve detection efficiency.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of subway tunnel section of jurisdiction military service method for testing performance based on wave velocity measurement.
The subway tunnel section of jurisdiction military service method for testing performance based on wave velocity measurement that the present invention proposes, concrete steps are as follows:
(1) calculates tunnel structure frequency dispersion and response characteristic according to design data
Running tunnel between two stations is an overlength linear structure, is a unlimited hollow tubular structures of extending with its approximately equivalent, and is theoretical according to mechanical characteristic and the thin-wall case of the space tubular structure of unlimited extension, its radial displacement response u, tangential direction displacement response v, the length travel response wObtain by finding the solution following formula (1) ~ formula (3):
(1)
(2)
(3)
Wherein: q x , q y , q z Be respectively hollow tubular structures load point place radially, tangent line and longitudinal direction load, formula (1) is balance equation along the longitudinal direction, formula (2) is along application point tangential direction balance equation, formula (3) is application point radial direction balance equation; aFor the housing center of circle to wall thickness mid point distance, hBe pipe thickness, For on the circumference apart from the radian of application point, tThe expression response moment, E, With Be respectively the housing elastic modulus, density of material and Poisson ratio.
Following formula is carried out two-dimension fourier transform, can try to achieve unlimited extensional shell calamity frequency-wavenumber domain inner equilibrium equation expression formula, and be expressed as matrix form:
(4)
Wherein in specific hoop wave number nUnder the condition, , , Be respectively u, v, wExpression formula in frequency-wavenumber domain, , , For corresponding to load in load q x , q y , q z Expression formula in frequency-wavenumber domain is such as the edge xDirective effect one impulsive load, its expression formula be as the formula (5):
(5)
[A] is according to the definite matrix of coefficients of formula (1-3).According to formula (4), can try to achieve the displacement response in the thin-wall case frequency-wavenumber domain.Then try to achieve the displacement response by inverse-Fourier transform u, v, w
(1.1) determine that each Elastic Wave Velocity is with the frequency change value
Ask for corresponding to transversal section hoop wave number by the determinant of finding the solution matrix of coefficients [A] in the formula (4) nEach rank mode, wherein nTwo dispersion curves of=0 correspondence correspond respectively to shearing wave and the wave of compression mode along the tunnel longitudinal propagation, n=1 corresponding dispersion curve is corresponding to along tunnel longitudinal bending ripple (disturbing Qu Bo) mode, nCorrespond respectively to tunnel cross section plane inner bending mode attitude greater than 2.Obtain various Elastic Wave Velocities with the changing value of frequency by calculating above-mentioned dispersion curve slope.
(1.2) judge velocity of wave by phase differential between measuring point under the different mode of excitation
When a certain section radially and vertically acts on a pulse excitation respectively respectively in the tunnel, because the vibrating elastic ripple kind that excites and velocity of propagation are different, thereby in a certain distance of distance load action section L zPlace's response condition there are differences.Wherein phase characteristic is an important indicator of research structure body vibration characteristics, can reflect from the variation of phase place structure point out the variation of all kinds of vibration wave velocity of propagation of process.Theoretical according to the mode frequency dispersion, apart from application point L zPlace and application point place phase differential Can increase gradually with frequency, its computing formula is:
(6)
Wherein: Be design factor, get 0.5 when calculating crooked and shearing wave, get 1 when calculating wave of compression, For with the phase differential at application point place, Be difference on the frequency, c n( f) be corresponding elasticity velocity of wave propagation, be the tangent slope of a certain dispersion curve from dispersion curve.Can measure by the phase differential of test point-to-point transmission the velocity of wave of corresponding vibration ripple in the structure according to following formula.
Determine test spacing and measurement direction
(2.1) measurement direction is determined
Owing to tunnel in the actual operation tunnel is embedded in the soil body, the soil body can be propagated vibration wave and exert an influence simultaneously, and while different mode of excitation institute propagation law is also variant.Can by coupling one hollow tubular soil model, adopt the two-tube model of Cambridge University to calculate its Phase Changing.Find after deliberation when the effect radial impulse encourages, the radial direction global response comprise longitudinal bending ripple first step mode and nEach rank plain bending mode greater than 2.Thereby when the effect radial load, comprise multiple elastic wave and the flexural wave velocity of propagation becomes nonlinearities change with frequency apart from the load point place, thereby only in the narrow and small frequency band that plain bending mode begins and flexural wave velocity of propagation and frequency are linear, test, difficulty is obtained the effectively information such as vibration wave velocity of propagation.
And when effect during longitudinal force, response only comprise wave of compression and n=1 corresponding longitudinal bending ripple second mode.Before the second-order mode of flexural vibration occurred, namely frequency was less than before the second-order longitudinal bending mode cutoff frequency, the phase place even variation, thereby can test the phase differential that obtains between two measuring points, thus calculate accurately the propagation velocity of wave.
Thereby, longitudinally (being the tunnel bearing of trend) when applying impulsive load vibratory response in the certain frequency scope, only comprise single mode, thereby phase place vary stable is more suitable for and definite Elastic Wave Velocity.Radially excite and in narrow and small frequency band range, to obtain the flexural wave velocity of wave.
(2.2) the measuring point arrangement pitch is determined
According to formula (6) distance when between two measuring points L zLarger phase place changes More responsive to the velocity of wave variation, but when actual measurement, consider the requirement of power hammer impulse source frequency range and attenuation of elastic wave and section of jurisdiction sensing range, two measuring point distances L zShould be taken as 20-30m.
Site layout project and data acquisition
According to determined measuring point arrangement pitch and measuring point measurement direction in the abovementioned steps (2), in the tunnel wall hand hole, arrange acceleration or speed pickup, short-term is measured and is adopted glue to fix, and long-term the measurement goes to be screwed.Transmission mode can adopt wired or wireless mode, by power hammer excitation pulse ripple, uses digital signal acquiring systematic collection vibration signal.
Signal post-processing and calculating phase place are determined velocity of wave
In actual measurement, owing to comprising noise, utilize HHT conversion removal noise and carry out modal separation, carry out based on this Cross Spectra Analysis between measuring point, obtain the phase differential between two measuring points, then calculate testing elastic wave-wave speed according to formula (6).
By velocity of wave again inverse structural parameters and judgement military service performance
By extracting the velocity of wave of above-mentioned relevant elastic wave, and according to the parameters such as bullet mould of formula (4) inverse structure, thereby judge its structure military service performance.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) can calculate more accurately the propagation velocity of wave under each frequency of all kinds of elastic waves in the hollow tubular structures such as tunnel based on theory of thin shell, thereby for determining that by measuring velocity of wave Structural Test of Tunnel Segments military service condition provides theoretical assurance.
(2) by the method can be in real time, dynamically and the overall military service performance between Efficient Evaluation two measuring points, only can carry out spot measurement and can not make assessment to the tunnel overall performance thereby break away from conventional art.
(3) this technology can combine by following technology of Internet of things, thereby provides a kind of technical guarantee in real time tunnel structure Gernral Check-up.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 tunnel military service Performance Detection implementing procedure figure;
The free tunnel of Fig. 2 dispersion curve figure;
Fig. 3 is that dynamic load applies and the relevant response schematic diagram;
The phase place of Fig. 4 vibratory response (V) changes (Fy=1);
Fig. 5 vibratory response (U) phase place changes (Fz=1);
Fig. 6 method of testing measuring point arrangenent diagram.
Embodiment
Further specify by reference to the accompanying drawings the present invention below by embodiment.
Be depicted as the invention process process flow diagram such as Fig. 1, at first calculate tunnel structure frequency dispersion and response characteristic by structure design of tunnel parameter and soil parameters, thereby determine that phase place changes under each elastic wave propagation velocity of wave and the different shooting conditionss; Determine thus sensor arrangement form and arrangement pitch; As guidance, utilize acceleration and speed pickup system to carry out signals collecting; Then collection signal is carried out aftertreatment and calculates phase differential; Determine structural parameters by inverse at last, thereby determine structure military service performance.
Such as Fig. 2, take the Shanghai Underground running tunnel as example, its every ring is made of six sections of jurisdiction, and the section of jurisdiction is prefabricated.The tunnel internal diameter is 2.75m, external diameter 3.1m, and concrete bullet mould is taken as 3500MPa, and Poisson ratio is 0.25, and density is 2500kg/m 3According to above-mentioned parameter, suppose that running tunnel longitudinally infinitely extends, then corresponding to transversal section hoop wave number n, in frequency separation [0Hz, 200Hz] scope, be distributed with multiple mode of oscillation.Wherein nTwo dispersion curves of=0 correspondence correspond respectively to along the shearing wave (dash line) of tunnel longitudinal propagation and wave of compression mode (dotted line), n=1 corresponding dispersion curve is corresponding to along tunnel longitudinal bending ripple (disturbing Qu Bo) mode, n=2 ~ 5 correspond respectively to a dispersion curve, and these curves are all corresponding to tunnel cross section plane inner bending mode attitude.From figure, can draw the propagation velocity of wave in the structure in the dispersion curve, from dimensional analysis as can be known, the slope of dispersion curve is propagated velocity of wave for it, thereby the shear-wave velocity that can obtain the propagation of Shanghai Underground tunnel structure in the example by slope calculations is 2370m/s, the wave of compression velocity of wave is 3700 m/s, is approximately equal to 1810 m/s in the longitudinal bending wave-wave speed 20-100Hz scope.Thereby in the reality test, can by excite different pulsating waves, can obtain by inverse the parameters such as bullet mould of structure by the velocity of wave that extracts above-mentioned waveform correlation, thereby judge its structure military service performance.
As shown in Figure 3, when on a certain section in endless tunnel edge respectively yTo with zTo acting on respectively a pulse excitation F yAnd F zThe time, by at distance load action section L zPut Z on another section at place 2( L z, θ=0) and Z 4The point ( L z, θ=π) phase differential there are differences.
As shown in Figure 4, adopt the two-tube model of Cambridge University can calculate the tunnel and be embedded in response in the soil body, as effect y during to load, in the 0-200Hz scope, y direction global response V will include the response of most mode, comprise the flexural wave first step mode and nThe plane mode on=2-5 rank.Thereby its phase characteristic and complexity thereof, only can in the 100Hz scope, determine the velocity of wave of flexural wave, its phase differential is 31Hz as shown in Figure 4, obtaining its velocity of wave according to the phase difference calculating formula is 1820m/s.Meet the flexural wave velocity of wave.
As shown in Figure 5, and as effect z during to acting force, response comprise wave of compression and n=1 corresponding longitudinal bending ripple second mode.As shown in Figure 5, before the second-order mode of flexural vibration occurs, be that frequency is during less than 127.5Hz, the phase place even variation, can calculate its phase differential is 123.5Hz, thereby can draw the fast 3700m/s of being of vibration removing wave-wave, its value is consistent with the wave of compression velocity of wave, thereby can affirm that U comprises wave of compression in response.If test U can calculate the propagation velocity of wave comparatively accurately to response under this operating mode simultaneously.
More responsive to the velocity of wave variation according to formula (6) distance phase place far away when between two measuring points, but when actual measurement, the requirement of the attenuation of elastic wave of consideration and section of jurisdiction sensing range, two measuring points distance should be taken as 20-40m.
As shown in Figure 6, by above-mentioned range finding linear arrangement acceleration or speed pickup, the tunnel test should be selected between the 20-40m, arranges that at certain distance bilateral transducer is used for signal and checks and model analysis.Tunnel test should be not less than 200Hz with the sensor test frequency band, and transmission mode can adopt and wirelessly also can adopt wired form.Sensor and concrete should closely be fixed.By power hammer longitudinally (tunnel bearing of trend) carry out hammering excitation pulse vibration wave, in practical operation, in hand hole, carry out along the longitudinal direction hammering.The vibration signal that sensor is gathered carries out the post-treatment procedures such as noise remove, thereby makes the result more accurate.Aftertreatment adopts the HHT conversion to carry out empirical mode decomposition, intercepts the vibration signal identical with power hammer vibration source frequency band, then carries out phase analysis and determines that according to formula (6) the vibration velocity of wave then calculates the bullet mould according to formula (1)-(4), thereby determine the section of jurisdiction condition.

Claims (1)

1. subway tunnel section of jurisdiction military service method for testing performance based on wave velocity measurement is characterized in that concrete steps are as follows:
(1) calculates tunnel structure frequency dispersion and response characteristic according to design data
Running tunnel between two stations is an overlength linear structure, is a unlimited hollow tubular structures of extending with its approximately equivalent, and is theoretical according to mechanical characteristic and the thin-wall case of the space tubular structure of unlimited extension, its radial displacement response u, tangential direction displacement response v, the length travel response wObtain by finding the solution following formula (1) ~ formula (3):
(1)
(2)
(3)
Wherein: q x , q y , q z Be respectively hollow tubular structures load point place radially, tangent line and longitudinal direction load, formula (1) is balance equation along the longitudinal direction, formula (2) is along application point tangential direction balance equation, formula (3) is application point radial direction balance equation; aFor the housing center of circle to wall thickness mid point distance, hBe pipe thickness, For on the circumference apart from the radian of application point, tThe expression response moment, E, With Be respectively the housing elastic modulus, density of material and Poisson ratio;
Following formula is carried out two-dimension fourier transform, can try to achieve unlimited extensional shell calamity frequency-wavenumber domain inner equilibrium equation expression formula, and be expressed as matrix form:
(4)
Wherein in specific hoop wave number nUnder the condition, , , Be respectively u, v, wExpression formula in frequency-wavenumber domain, , , For corresponding to load in load q x , q y , q z Expression formula in frequency-wavenumber domain is such as the edge xDirective effect one impulsive load, its expression formula be as the formula (5):
(5)
[A] is according to the definite matrix of coefficients of formula (1-3); According to formula (4), can try to achieve the displacement response in the thin-wall case frequency-wavenumber domain; Then try to achieve the displacement response by inverse-Fourier transform u, v, w
(1.1) determine that each Elastic Wave Velocity is with the frequency change value
Ask for corresponding to transversal section hoop wave number by the determinant of finding the solution matrix of coefficients [A] in the formula (4) nEach rank mode, wherein nTwo dispersion curves of=0 correspondence correspond respectively to shearing wave and the wave of compression mode along the tunnel longitudinal propagation, n=1 corresponding dispersion curve is corresponding to along tunnel longitudinal bending mode attitude, nCorrespond respectively to tunnel cross section plane inner bending mode attitude greater than 2; Obtain various Elastic Wave Velocities with the changing value of frequency by calculating above-mentioned dispersion curve slope;
(1.2) judge velocity of wave by phase differential between measuring point under the different mode of excitation
When a certain section radially and vertically acts on a pulse excitation respectively respectively in the tunnel, because the vibrating elastic ripple kind that excites and velocity of propagation are different, thereby in a certain distance of distance load action section L zPlace's response condition there are differences; Wherein phase characteristic is an important indicator of research structure body vibration characteristics, can reflect from the variation of phase place structure point out the variation of all kinds of vibration wave velocity of propagation of process; Theoretical according to the mode frequency dispersion, apart from application point L zPlace and application point place phase differential Can increase gradually with frequency, its computing formula is:
(6)
Wherein: Be design factor, get 0.5 when calculating crooked and shearing wave, get 1 when calculating wave of compression, For with the phase differential at application point place, Be difference on the frequency, c n( f) be corresponding elasticity velocity of wave propagation, be the tangent slope of a certain dispersion curve from dispersion curve; Can measure by the phase differential of test point-to-point transmission the velocity of wave of corresponding vibration ripple in the structure according to following formula;
(2) determine test spacing and measurement direction
(2.1) measurement direction is determined
Owing to tunnel in the actual operation tunnel is embedded in the soil body, the soil body can be propagated vibration wave and exert an influence simultaneously, and while different mode of excitation institute propagation law is also variant; Can by coupling one hollow tubular soil model, adopt the two-tube model of Cambridge University to calculate its Phase Changing; Find after deliberation when the effect radial impulse encourages, the radial direction global response comprise longitudinal bending ripple first step mode and nEach rank plain bending mode greater than 2; When the effect radial load, comprise multiple elastic wave and the flexural wave velocity of propagation becomes nonlinearities change with frequency apart from the load point place, only test in the narrow and small frequency band that plain bending mode begins and flexural wave velocity of propagation and frequency are linear, difficulty is obtained the effectively information such as vibration wave velocity of propagation;
When effect during longitudinal force, response only comprise wave of compression and n=1 corresponding longitudinal bending ripple second mode; Before the second-order mode of flexural vibration occurred, namely frequency was less than before the second-order longitudinal bending mode cutoff frequency, and the phase place even variation can be tested the phase differential that obtains between two measuring points, thereby calculates accurately the propagation velocity of wave;
Longitudinally be the tunnel bearing of trend when applying impulsive load vibratory response in the certain frequency scope, only comprise single mode, thereby phase place vary stable is fit to and definite Elastic Wave Velocity; Radially excite and in narrow and small frequency band range, to obtain the flexural wave velocity of wave;
(2.2) the measuring point arrangement pitch is determined
According to formula (6) distance when between two measuring points L zLarger phase place changes More responsive to the velocity of wave variation, when actual measurement, consider the requirement of power hammer impulse source frequency range and attenuation of elastic wave and section of jurisdiction sensing range, two measuring point distances L zBe taken as 20-30m;
(3) site layout project and data acquisition
According to determined measuring point arrangement pitch and measuring point measurement direction in the abovementioned steps (2), in the tunnel wall hand hole, arrange acceleration or speed pickup, short-term is measured and is adopted glue to fix, and long-term the measurement goes to be screwed; Transmission mode can adopt wired or wireless mode, by power hammer excitation pulse ripple, uses digital signal acquiring systematic collection vibration signal;
(4) signal post-processing and calculating phase place are determined velocity of wave
In actual measurement, owing to comprising noise, utilize HHT conversion removal noise and carry out modal separation, carry out based on this Cross Spectra Analysis between measuring point, obtain the phase differential between two measuring points, then calculate testing elastic wave-wave speed according to formula (6);
(5) by velocity of wave again inverse structural parameters and judgement military service performance
By extracting the velocity of wave of above-mentioned relevant elastic wave, and according to the bullet mould parameter of formula (4) inverse structure, thereby judge its structure military service performance.
CN201210424706.1A 2012-10-31 2012-10-31 Subway tunnel segment service performance detection method based on wave velocity determination Expired - Fee Related CN102955004B (en)

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CN104634870A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-05-20 同济大学 Tunnel structure damage identification device based on vibration response test
CN105911153A (en) * 2016-04-08 2016-08-31 暨南大学 Signal separating and denoising method and apparatus based on moving window function
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CN104634870A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-05-20 同济大学 Tunnel structure damage identification device based on vibration response test
CN105911153A (en) * 2016-04-08 2016-08-31 暨南大学 Signal separating and denoising method and apparatus based on moving window function
CN105911153B (en) * 2016-04-08 2018-07-13 暨南大学 A kind of Signal separator and denoising method and device based on mobile window function
CN109342757A (en) * 2017-11-02 2019-02-15 西南交通大学 A kind of automatic acquisition device and method of tunnel piercing drilling depth
CN109342757B (en) * 2017-11-02 2019-10-18 西南交通大学 A kind of automatic acquisition device and method of tunnel piercing drilling depth

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