The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface and method
The invention belongs to end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine technical field, particularly relate to a kind of Real-time and Dynamic and see
Survey end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine and the method for frictional interface.
End-surface twisting friction refers to that Contact Pair contact interface is around loading direction generation reciprocating rotary under certain loads
The relative motion turned, frictional interface is with surface-to-surface form bump contact and bigger relative motion (position, angle occurs
Move amplitude and be generally 0-30 °), in the reciprocating rotary part such as engineering machinery being widely present in transportation
Polymer plane slip pivoting support, auto trailer turn to rotary disk and the cartridge etc. of train bogie.End
Face twisting friction is in place of being different from fretting wear that eroded area is greatly and more serious, and abrasion mechanism is more multiple
Miscellaneous.Use for laboratory has ring-block formula, pin-disc type, fine motion in the testing machine principal mode of research sliding friction
Wear form etc..
Under different operating modes, real time dynamic measurement coefficient of friction and wear extent are to evaluate the tribology of material comprehensively continuously
The important channel of performance.Usually, we can only be to finish test under setting cycle, takes out sample observation
Its wear morphology or by the Analysis of Friction Coefficient T-θ curve of real time record, analyzes rubbing under setting cycle
Wipe and learn performance.Especially, minority testing machine is also adopted by site measurement of wearing and tearing, but destroys the company of friction process
Continuous property, it is impossible to the small state of wear that Real-time and Dynamic observation occurs.Fine motion based on small area of contact is seen in real time
Survey testing machine, due to small Observable interfacial area and inflexible Observable space, and end cannot be observed
The real time kinematics of the abrasive dust between the contact interface of face, there is certain office in the end-surface twisting test to bump contact
Sex-limited.To this end, invent the twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface, for end
Face twisting fretting wear has great importance.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the embodiment of the present invention is to provide the end-surface twisting friction of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface
Abrasion tester and method, it is intended to solve the abrasion in site measurement that minority testing machine uses, but destroy friction
The seriality of process, it is impossible to the small state of wear that Real-time and Dynamic observation occurs.Based on small area of contact micro-
Dynamic real-time monitored testing machine, due to small Observable interfacial area and inflexible Observable space, and nothing
The real time kinematics of the abrasive dust between method observation end contact interface, tests existence to the end-surface twisting of bump contact
Certain circumscribed problem.
Embodiment of the present invention implementation method: a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine, its
It is characterised by: include pressure loading device, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device, adjusting means.Institute
The pressure loading device stated includes the lever dolly being located on base, lever with lever dolly as fulcrum, sets
Counterweight in balance pivot side and scale pan, it is connected to the fixed block of lever opposite side；Described revolution is put down
Platform includes motor, is installed on the shaft encoder of motor shaft tail end, worm and worm wheel；Frictional interface is observed
Device include being perpendicular to frictional interface high-speed camera, be threadedly connected to fixed block vertically regulate rod member,
Rod member upper end is provided with pressure transducer and torque sensor, lower clamp, lower sample, and upper sample is arranged on solid
Upper fixture due to revolving dial；Base is connected by four root posts with upper fagging；Adjusting means includes can be left
The studs of right regulation, the most vertically regulate rod member, can before and after the lever dolly having base grooving of regulation
And ensure the horizon rule of lever horizontal positioned.
Polymer P TFE is installed between described lever and lever dolly, reduces friction, increase wearability and
Limit swinging of lever；Described studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member can enter accordingly
Row plays the left and right of sample, adjusts front and back, up and down, it is achieved to heart position adjustments；Described studs can be left
Right regulation lever, makes sample to eccentric position, carries out rotational slide friction-wear test；Described revolution is put down
The internal orifice dimension of platform is Φ 90mm, and the high-speed camera head installing space being fixed on free angle support is big, and can
Frictional interface is observed with small sighting distance by endoporus.
Another object of the present invention is to the end-surface twisting friction-wear test side providing a kind of Real-time and Dynamic to observe
Method, comprises the following steps:
A. by upper transparent plate, downside pin sample, fastened by screw is at upper fixture and lower clamp respectively, and upper fixture is with high-precision
Close revolving dial is screwed, and installs high-speed camera, is allowed to be right against frictional interface, regulates and regard
Away from, open light source, the photographic head frictional interface shooting to illuminating；
B. regulate studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member make the vertical center line of lower sample with high-precision
Close revolving dial rotary shaft overlaps to the heart.Also the vertical center line that can make lower sample revolves with high-accuracy revolving dial
Rotating shaft eccentric arm R, carries out rotational slide frictional wear experiment.By pressure sensor data acquisition controlling
System controls the loading of counterweight, and regulates horizon rule and make upper and lower sample both ends of the surface horizontal close contact；
C. according to requirement of experiment, the lower sample swing weight-adding of tight interface is reached setting value load p, pressure
The signal of different pressures is exported by sensor in real time, connects computer display pressure value P through usb data capture card,
Back and forth twist frequency n by what data acquisition control system arranged the rotating speed r of motor and upper sample simultaneously
(time t), reciprocal twisting amplitude θ；
D. start motor by shaft coupling drive worm screw rotate, turbine through 250: 1 big retarding than after rotation
And driving the upper fixture being fixed on plane of rotation, upper sample twists therewith, is formed at the interface of upper and lower sample
End-surface twisting fretting wear；
E., while upper and lower sample generation end-surface twisting rubs, it is located at the torque sensor below lower clamp
Measure friction torque T in real timef, and deliver to usb data capture card, drawn by data acquisition control system and rub
Wipe coefficient value f and the friction torque-angular displacement curve being plotted under ordinance load and rotating speed；High-speed camera
The wear morphology of Real-time and Dynamic observation transparent material frictional interface and abrasive dust motion on interface, and preserve dynamic
Draw or picture.Therefore normal pressure, twisting amplitude and the frequency shadow to twisting interface friction abrasional behavior can be investigated
Ring and observe real-time dynamicly the wear process of frictional interface.
One, the present invention can pass through real-time swing weight-adding, arranges different twisting frequency, twisting angular amplitude etc.
Simulate different working conditions；Power source part uses motor and 2048 bobbin encoders, it is simple to control
Twisting frequency and collection twisting angular displacement；Revolving dial uses the Worm Wheel System of the big speed ratio of 250: 1
Mechanism, rotating accuracy is high, operates steadily, noiseless；Static torque and pressure transducer is used to measure friction
Moment of torsion and normal pressure, friction torque and contact pressure are measured accurately；The mode of lever-loading is easy to testing machine
Processing and operation, and be prone to carry out rotational slide and the friction-wear test of two kinds of motor patterns of end-surface twisting.
The present invention twisting fretting wear problem to reducing in engineering, improves performance and the life-span of engineering tool, has ten
Divide important meaning.
Two, for end-surface twisting frictional wear experiment, it is possible to achieve Real-time and Dynamic observes the whole of frictional interface
In wear morphology and the abrasive dust motion between interface of zones of different the most in the same time in region, record each and follow
Interface topography feature under ring number of times, in conjunction with normal pressure P measured in real time, torque T and angular displacement amplitude θ,
Analyze they and abrasion the contacting of generating process, it is thus possible to after testing end-surface twisting there be different eroded areas
Different abrasion mechanisms is reasonably explained and is verified.
Polymer composites PTFE is installed between above-mentioned lever and lever dolly, increases wearability, subtract
Little friction is on the impact of counterweight loading force and swinging of restriction lever.
Above-mentioned studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member can carry out accordingly lower sample left and right,
Front and back, upper and lower three directions adjust, it is achieved to freely regulating of heart position.
Above-mentioned studs can left and right adjusting lever, make lower sample to eccentric position, carry out rotational slide and rub
Wipe wear test.
The internal orifice dimension of above-mentioned revolving dial is Φ 90mm, and high-speed camera installing space is big and can pass through endoporus
Observe frictional interface with small sighting distance, be suitable for dissimilar high speed microscope camera.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine structure master of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface
Fig. 2 is that the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine structure of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface is bowed
Fig. 3 a, b are the end-surface twisting fretting wear of the frictional interface the most in the same time of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation
Fig. 4 a, b are the motion of the abrasive dust of the frictional interface the most in the same time of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation.
Fig. 5 is the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine system frame of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface
In figure: 1-base, 2-lever dolly, 3-lever, 4-counterweight, 5-scale pan, 6-horizon rule, 7-
Studs, 8-fixed block, 9-high-speed camera head, 10-light source, 11-vertically regulates rod member, and 12-pressure passes
Sensor, 13-torque sensor, 14-lower clamp, sample under 15-, the upper sample of 16-, the upper fixture of 17-, 18-
Column, the upper fagging of 19-, 20-free angle support, 21 polymer P TFE, 22-seat grooving, 23-walks
Enter motor, 24-shaft coupling, 25-worm screw, 26-worm gear, 27-frame linking, 28-shaft encoder.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to make the purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing 1 to
5 and embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that concrete reality described herein
Execute example only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.
The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of the Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface of the present invention, mainly by pressure
Charger, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device, adjusting means.Described pressure loading device bag
Including the lever dolly 2 being located on base 1, the lever 3 with lever dolly as fulcrum, lever dolly 2 lower end is opened
Have screwed hole to expand groove 22, be located at the counterweight 4 of balance pivot side and the scale pan 5 of the counterweight that is screwed,
The fixed block 7 that lever opposite side connects with studs 6；Described revolving dial is threadedly connected to fagging
On 19, it includes being directly anchored to the motor 8 of revolving dial, being installed on motor shaft tail by frame linking 27
The shaft encoder 28 of end, worm screw 25 connect the output shaft of motor, and worm gear 26 endoporus is fixed on the axis of rolling
The outer ring held, worm gear 26 external tooth and worm screw 25 join auxiliary driving；Described frictional interface observation device includes solid
Being scheduled on the high-speed camera 9 of free angle support 20, light source 10 is directly overlapped on photographic head 9 front end, light
Line reflects in photographic head shooting at frictional interface through upper sample 16 (transparent material), is threadedly connected to fix
The vertically regulation rod member 11 of block 8, rod member 11 upper end be provided with pressure transducer 12 and torque sensor 13,
Threaded lower clamp 14 on torque sensor 13, lower sample 15 is installed on lower clamp 14, upper sample 16
It is arranged on the upper fixture 17 being fixed on revolving dial；Base 1 is connected by four root posts 18 with upper fagging 19,
Screw threads for fastening；Described adjusting means includes the studs 7 for left and right adjusting lever, the most vertically adjusts
Pole part 11, can before and after regulation the lever dolly 2 having base grooving 22 and be horizontally arranged at lever 3
On horizon rule 6.
The end-surface twisting friction wear test method of the Real-time and Dynamic observation of the present invention, uses motor 23
By shaft coupling 24, worm gear 26-worm screw 25 transmission, drive revolving dial and upper fixture 17 reciprocating rotation,
Normal pressure is applied mode by lever 3 and sample carries out axial pressure, high-speed camera 9 existing Real-time and Dynamic observation
The whole region of frictional interface, records the interface topography feature under each cycle-index, pressure transducer 12
Measuring normal pressure, friction torque measured by torque sensor 13, delivers to data acquisition control system together, passes through
Data acquisition control system analysis draws coefficient of friction and Real-time and Dynamic change under setting load and rotating speed
Coefficient of friction and moment of torsion-angular displacement curve, and the fortune that the wear morphology of any time and abrasive dust are between interface
Dynamic.Wherein: pressure transducer 13 load measurement scope is 0-500N, the measurement scope of torque sensor 17
For 0-5N m.Specifically comprise the following steps that
A. lever 3 is rotated counterclockwise, by upper and lower sample 16,15 fastened by screw respectively at upper fixture 17 and
Lower clamp 14, such as upper and lower test specimen radius R=20mm, 5mm, and installs and fixes high-speed camera 9, make
Be right against frictional interface, regulate sighting distance and amplification, open, regulate light source and make friction surface imaging；
B. lever 3, regulation studs 7, base grooving 22, vertically regulation rod member 11 are rotated clockwise
Regulate 16,15 pairs of hearts of upper and lower sample, control weight by pressure transducer 12 data acquisition control system
The loading of code 4, makes 16,15 liang of opposing end surfaces of upper and lower test specimen be in close contact；
C. according to requirement of experiment, lower sample 15 swing weight-adding 4 of tight interface is reached setting value load p,
Such as P=200N, the signal of different pressures is exported by pressure transducer 12 in real time, connects electricity through data collecting card
Brain display load value P, empirically requires the twisting time of rotating speed r and the upper sample 16 arranging motor 23
Number n (time t), reciprocal twisting amplitude θ；
D. starting motor 23 drives worm screw 25 to rotate, worm screw 25 and worm gear 26 with 250: 1 transmission
Ratio transmission, turbine 26 drives the upper fixture 17 being fixed on plane of rotation, and upper sample 16 twists therewith, lower examination
Sample 15 is then fixed on lever and keeps static, so forms twisting at the interface of upper and lower sample 16,15 and rubs
Scouring is damaged；
E. friction torque T measured in real time by torque sensor 13f, drawn by data collecting card, programming conversion
Friction co-efficient value f, rubbed coefficient formulas:
Draw friction co-efficient value f of sample；In formula: Tf-friction torque；P-normal pressure；Sample half under R-
Footpath；Real-time angular displacement amplitude is measured, the friction system being plotted under ordinance load and rotating speed by shaft encoder
Number and friction torque-angular displacement curve；The abrasion of high-speed camera Real-time and Dynamic observation transparent material frictional interface
The motion on interface of pattern and abrasive dust, and preserve animation or picture.
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all at this
Any amendment, equivalent and the improvement etc. made within bright spirit and principle, should be included in the present invention
Protection domain within.