CN102944512B - The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface and method - Google Patents

The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102944512B
CN102944512B CN201210448675.3A CN201210448675A CN102944512B CN 102944512 B CN102944512 B CN 102944512B CN 201210448675 A CN201210448675 A CN 201210448675A CN 102944512 B CN102944512 B CN 102944512B
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China
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friction
sample
twisting
lever
wear
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CN201210448675.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102944512A (en
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王世博
滕兵
潘力
李倩
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中国矿业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine and the test method of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface, including pressure applying means, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device, adjusting means.Described pressure applying means includes lever, lever dolly, counterweight;Revolving dial includes motor, shaft encoder, Worm and worm-wheel gearing;Frictional interface observation device includes high-speed camera, moment of torsion and pressure transducer;Adjusting means includes horizon rule and vertically adjustable rod member.By lever, counterweight, lower sample is carried out axially loaded, revolving dial drives upper sample back and forth to twist, high speed microscope camera observation wear interface, by twisting frictional wear experiment under the different outer loads of simulation such as swing weight-adding, change twisting frequency, obtain the coefficient of friction in friction process, wear morphology, the real time kinematics of abrasive dust, evaluate the transparent material friction and wear behavior in whole process, its simple in construction, easy to operate, reproducible.

Description

The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine technical field, particularly relate to a kind of Real-time and Dynamic and see Survey end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine and the method for frictional interface.
Background technology
End-surface twisting friction refers to that Contact Pair contact interface is around loading direction generation reciprocating rotary under certain loads The relative motion turned, frictional interface is with surface-to-surface form bump contact and bigger relative motion (position, angle occurs Move amplitude and be generally 0-30 °), in the reciprocating rotary part such as engineering machinery being widely present in transportation Polymer plane slip pivoting support, auto trailer turn to rotary disk and the cartridge etc. of train bogie.End Face twisting friction is in place of being different from fretting wear that eroded area is greatly and more serious, and abrasion mechanism is more multiple Miscellaneous.Use for laboratory has ring-block formula, pin-disc type, fine motion in the testing machine principal mode of research sliding friction Wear form etc..
Under different operating modes, real time dynamic measurement coefficient of friction and wear extent are to evaluate the tribology of material comprehensively continuously The important channel of performance.Usually, we can only be to finish test under setting cycle, takes out sample observation Its wear morphology or by the Analysis of Friction Coefficient T-θ curve of real time record, analyzes rubbing under setting cycle Wipe and learn performance.Especially, minority testing machine is also adopted by site measurement of wearing and tearing, but destroys the company of friction process Continuous property, it is impossible to the small state of wear that Real-time and Dynamic observation occurs.Fine motion based on small area of contact is seen in real time Survey testing machine, due to small Observable interfacial area and inflexible Observable space, and end cannot be observed The real time kinematics of the abrasive dust between the contact interface of face, there is certain office in the end-surface twisting test to bump contact Sex-limited.To this end, invent the twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface, for end Face twisting fretting wear has great importance.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the embodiment of the present invention is to provide the end-surface twisting friction of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface Abrasion tester and method, it is intended to solve the abrasion in site measurement that minority testing machine uses, but destroy friction The seriality of process, it is impossible to the small state of wear that Real-time and Dynamic observation occurs.Based on small area of contact micro- Dynamic real-time monitored testing machine, due to small Observable interfacial area and inflexible Observable space, and nothing The real time kinematics of the abrasive dust between method observation end contact interface, tests existence to the end-surface twisting of bump contact Certain circumscribed problem.
Embodiment of the present invention implementation method: a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine, its It is characterised by: include pressure loading device, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device, adjusting means.Institute The pressure loading device stated includes the lever dolly being located on base, lever with lever dolly as fulcrum, sets Counterweight in balance pivot side and scale pan, it is connected to the fixed block of lever opposite side;Described revolution is put down Platform includes motor, is installed on the shaft encoder of motor shaft tail end, worm and worm wheel;Frictional interface is observed Device include being perpendicular to frictional interface high-speed camera, be threadedly connected to fixed block vertically regulate rod member, Rod member upper end is provided with pressure transducer and torque sensor, lower clamp, lower sample, and upper sample is arranged on solid Upper fixture due to revolving dial;Base is connected by four root posts with upper fagging;Adjusting means includes can be left The studs of right regulation, the most vertically regulate rod member, can before and after the lever dolly having base grooving of regulation And ensure the horizon rule of lever horizontal positioned.
Polymer P TFE is installed between described lever and lever dolly, reduces friction, increase wearability and Limit swinging of lever;Described studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member can enter accordingly Row plays the left and right of sample, adjusts front and back, up and down, it is achieved to heart position adjustments;Described studs can be left Right regulation lever, makes sample to eccentric position, carries out rotational slide friction-wear test;Described revolution is put down The internal orifice dimension of platform is Φ 90mm, and the high-speed camera head installing space being fixed on free angle support is big, and can Frictional interface is observed with small sighting distance by endoporus.
Another object of the present invention is to the end-surface twisting friction-wear test side providing a kind of Real-time and Dynamic to observe Method, comprises the following steps:
A. by upper transparent plate, downside pin sample, fastened by screw is at upper fixture and lower clamp respectively, and upper fixture is with high-precision Close revolving dial is screwed, and installs high-speed camera, is allowed to be right against frictional interface, regulates and regard Away from, open light source, the photographic head frictional interface shooting to illuminating;
B. regulate studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member make the vertical center line of lower sample with high-precision Close revolving dial rotary shaft overlaps to the heart.Also the vertical center line that can make lower sample revolves with high-accuracy revolving dial Rotating shaft eccentric arm R, carries out rotational slide frictional wear experiment.By pressure sensor data acquisition controlling System controls the loading of counterweight, and regulates horizon rule and make upper and lower sample both ends of the surface horizontal close contact;
C. according to requirement of experiment, the lower sample swing weight-adding of tight interface is reached setting value load p, pressure The signal of different pressures is exported by sensor in real time, connects computer display pressure value P through usb data capture card, Back and forth twist frequency n by what data acquisition control system arranged the rotating speed r of motor and upper sample simultaneously (time t), reciprocal twisting amplitude θ;
D. start motor by shaft coupling drive worm screw rotate, turbine through 250: 1 big retarding than after rotation And driving the upper fixture being fixed on plane of rotation, upper sample twists therewith, is formed at the interface of upper and lower sample End-surface twisting fretting wear;
E., while upper and lower sample generation end-surface twisting rubs, it is located at the torque sensor below lower clamp Measure friction torque T in real timef, and deliver to usb data capture card, drawn by data acquisition control system and rub Wipe coefficient value f and the friction torque-angular displacement curve being plotted under ordinance load and rotating speed;High-speed camera The wear morphology of Real-time and Dynamic observation transparent material frictional interface and abrasive dust motion on interface, and preserve dynamic Draw or picture.Therefore normal pressure, twisting amplitude and the frequency shadow to twisting interface friction abrasional behavior can be investigated Ring and observe real-time dynamicly the wear process of frictional interface.
Beneficial effect:
One, the present invention can pass through real-time swing weight-adding, arranges different twisting frequency, twisting angular amplitude etc. Simulate different working conditions;Power source part uses motor and 2048 bobbin encoders, it is simple to control Twisting frequency and collection twisting angular displacement;Revolving dial uses the Worm Wheel System of the big speed ratio of 250: 1 Mechanism, rotating accuracy is high, operates steadily, noiseless;Static torque and pressure transducer is used to measure friction Moment of torsion and normal pressure, friction torque and contact pressure are measured accurately;The mode of lever-loading is easy to testing machine Processing and operation, and be prone to carry out rotational slide and the friction-wear test of two kinds of motor patterns of end-surface twisting. The present invention twisting fretting wear problem to reducing in engineering, improves performance and the life-span of engineering tool, has ten Divide important meaning.
Two, for end-surface twisting frictional wear experiment, it is possible to achieve Real-time and Dynamic observes the whole of frictional interface In wear morphology and the abrasive dust motion between interface of zones of different the most in the same time in region, record each and follow Interface topography feature under ring number of times, in conjunction with normal pressure P measured in real time, torque T and angular displacement amplitude θ, Analyze they and abrasion the contacting of generating process, it is thus possible to after testing end-surface twisting there be different eroded areas Different abrasion mechanisms is reasonably explained and is verified.
Polymer composites PTFE is installed between above-mentioned lever and lever dolly, increases wearability, subtract Little friction is on the impact of counterweight loading force and swinging of restriction lever.
Above-mentioned studs, base grooving, vertically regulation rod member can carry out accordingly lower sample left and right, Front and back, upper and lower three directions adjust, it is achieved to freely regulating of heart position.
Above-mentioned studs can left and right adjusting lever, make lower sample to eccentric position, carry out rotational slide and rub Wipe wear test.
The internal orifice dimension of above-mentioned revolving dial is Φ 90mm, and high-speed camera installing space is big and can pass through endoporus Observe frictional interface with small sighting distance, be suitable for dissimilar high speed microscope camera.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine structure master of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface View.
Fig. 2 is that the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine structure of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface is bowed View.
Fig. 3 a, b are the end-surface twisting fretting wear of the frictional interface the most in the same time of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation Pattern.
Fig. 4 a, b are the motion of the abrasive dust of the frictional interface the most in the same time of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation.
Fig. 5 is the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine system frame of Real-time and Dynamic of the present invention observation frictional interface Figure.
In figure: 1-base, 2-lever dolly, 3-lever, 4-counterweight, 5-scale pan, 6-horizon rule, 7- Studs, 8-fixed block, 9-high-speed camera head, 10-light source, 11-vertically regulates rod member, and 12-pressure passes Sensor, 13-torque sensor, 14-lower clamp, sample under 15-, the upper sample of 16-, the upper fixture of 17-, 18- Column, the upper fagging of 19-, 20-free angle support, 21 polymer P TFE, 22-seat grooving, 23-walks Enter motor, 24-shaft coupling, 25-worm screw, 26-worm gear, 27-frame linking, 28-shaft encoder.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to make the purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing 1 to 5 and embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that concrete reality described herein Execute example only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.
The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of the Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface of the present invention, mainly by pressure Charger, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device, adjusting means.Described pressure loading device bag Including the lever dolly 2 being located on base 1, the lever 3 with lever dolly as fulcrum, lever dolly 2 lower end is opened Have screwed hole to expand groove 22, be located at the counterweight 4 of balance pivot side and the scale pan 5 of the counterweight that is screwed, The fixed block 7 that lever opposite side connects with studs 6;Described revolving dial is threadedly connected to fagging On 19, it includes being directly anchored to the motor 8 of revolving dial, being installed on motor shaft tail by frame linking 27 The shaft encoder 28 of end, worm screw 25 connect the output shaft of motor, and worm gear 26 endoporus is fixed on the axis of rolling The outer ring held, worm gear 26 external tooth and worm screw 25 join auxiliary driving;Described frictional interface observation device includes solid Being scheduled on the high-speed camera 9 of free angle support 20, light source 10 is directly overlapped on photographic head 9 front end, light Line reflects in photographic head shooting at frictional interface through upper sample 16 (transparent material), is threadedly connected to fix The vertically regulation rod member 11 of block 8, rod member 11 upper end be provided with pressure transducer 12 and torque sensor 13, Threaded lower clamp 14 on torque sensor 13, lower sample 15 is installed on lower clamp 14, upper sample 16 It is arranged on the upper fixture 17 being fixed on revolving dial;Base 1 is connected by four root posts 18 with upper fagging 19, Screw threads for fastening;Described adjusting means includes the studs 7 for left and right adjusting lever, the most vertically adjusts Pole part 11, can before and after regulation the lever dolly 2 having base grooving 22 and be horizontally arranged at lever 3 On horizon rule 6.
The end-surface twisting friction wear test method of the Real-time and Dynamic observation of the present invention, uses motor 23 By shaft coupling 24, worm gear 26-worm screw 25 transmission, drive revolving dial and upper fixture 17 reciprocating rotation, Normal pressure is applied mode by lever 3 and sample carries out axial pressure, high-speed camera 9 existing Real-time and Dynamic observation The whole region of frictional interface, records the interface topography feature under each cycle-index, pressure transducer 12 Measuring normal pressure, friction torque measured by torque sensor 13, delivers to data acquisition control system together, passes through Data acquisition control system analysis draws coefficient of friction and Real-time and Dynamic change under setting load and rotating speed Coefficient of friction and moment of torsion-angular displacement curve, and the fortune that the wear morphology of any time and abrasive dust are between interface Dynamic.Wherein: pressure transducer 13 load measurement scope is 0-500N, the measurement scope of torque sensor 17 For 0-5N m.Specifically comprise the following steps that
A. lever 3 is rotated counterclockwise, by upper and lower sample 16,15 fastened by screw respectively at upper fixture 17 and Lower clamp 14, such as upper and lower test specimen radius R=20mm, 5mm, and installs and fixes high-speed camera 9, make Be right against frictional interface, regulate sighting distance and amplification, open, regulate light source and make friction surface imaging;
B. lever 3, regulation studs 7, base grooving 22, vertically regulation rod member 11 are rotated clockwise Regulate 16,15 pairs of hearts of upper and lower sample, control weight by pressure transducer 12 data acquisition control system The loading of code 4, makes 16,15 liang of opposing end surfaces of upper and lower test specimen be in close contact;
C. according to requirement of experiment, lower sample 15 swing weight-adding 4 of tight interface is reached setting value load p, Such as P=200N, the signal of different pressures is exported by pressure transducer 12 in real time, connects electricity through data collecting card Brain display load value P, empirically requires the twisting time of rotating speed r and the upper sample 16 arranging motor 23 Number n (time t), reciprocal twisting amplitude θ;
D. starting motor 23 drives worm screw 25 to rotate, worm screw 25 and worm gear 26 with 250: 1 transmission Ratio transmission, turbine 26 drives the upper fixture 17 being fixed on plane of rotation, and upper sample 16 twists therewith, lower examination Sample 15 is then fixed on lever and keeps static, so forms twisting at the interface of upper and lower sample 16,15 and rubs Scouring is damaged;
E. friction torque T measured in real time by torque sensor 13f, drawn by data collecting card, programming conversion Friction co-efficient value f, rubbed coefficient formulas:
f = 3 T f 2 pp R 3 = 3 T f 2 PR
Draw friction co-efficient value f of sample;In formula: Tf-friction torque;P-normal pressure;Sample half under R- Footpath;Real-time angular displacement amplitude is measured, the friction system being plotted under ordinance load and rotating speed by shaft encoder Number and friction torque-angular displacement curve;The abrasion of high-speed camera Real-time and Dynamic observation transparent material frictional interface The motion on interface of pattern and abrasive dust, and preserve animation or picture.
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all at this Any amendment, equivalent and the improvement etc. made within bright spirit and principle, should be included in the present invention Protection domain within.

Claims (2)

1. the end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface, it is characterised in that: testing machine includes Pressure loading device, revolving dial, frictional interface observation device and adjusting means;
Described pressure loading device includes being located at the lever dolly (2) on base (1), the lever with lever dolly as fulcrum (3), it is located at the counterweight (4) of balance pivot side and scale pan (5), is connected to the fixed block (8) of lever opposite side;
Described revolving dial includes motor (23), shaft coupling (24), worm screw (25) and worm gear (26), is installed on motor shaft The frame linking (27) of tail end and shaft encoder (28), worm screw (25) connects the output shaft of motor through shaft coupling (24);
Described frictional interface observation device includes high speed microimaging head (9) and the light being fixed on free angle support (20) Source (10), be threadedly connected on fixed block (8) the most vertically regulate rod member (11), the most vertically regulate rod member (11) upper end and depend on Secondary being provided with pressure transducer (12), torque sensor (13), lower clamp (14) and downside pin sample (15), described light source (10) is taken Being connected on the front end of high speed microimaging head (9), described downside pin sample (15) is arranged over installing the upper of transparent plate sample (16) Fixture (17), upper fixture (17) is fixed on revolving dial, and revolving dial is threadedly connected on fagging (19), upper fagging (19) it is fixed on base (1) by four root posts (18);
Described adjusting means include the studs (7) for left and right adjusting, can before and after regulate the base of lever dolly (2) and cut Groove (22) and the horizon rule (6) of guarantee lever horizontal positioned;
Reduction friction is installed between described lever (3) and lever dolly (2), increases the polymer P TFE (21) of wearability;
Described studs (7), base grooving (22), the most vertically regulate rod member (11) downside pin sample can be carried out accordingly (15) left and right, front and back, adjust up and down, it is achieved the regulation to heart position;
Described studs (7) can left and right adjusting lever (3), make downside pin sample (15) to eccentric position, carry out rotational slide Friction-wear test;
Described revolving dial internal orifice dimension is Φ 90mm, high speed microimaging head (9) being fixed on free angle support (20) Installing space is big, and can observe frictional interface by endoporus with small sighting distance.
2. an end-surface twisting friction wear test method for the Real-time and Dynamic observation of testing machine as claimed in claim 1, it is special Levy and be to comprise the following steps:
A. by upper transparent plate sample (16) and downside pin sample (15) fastened by screw respectively on upper fixture (17) and lower clamp (14), Upper fixture (17) is screwed with high-accuracy revolving dial, and installs high speed microimaging head (9), is allowed to just to friction circle Face, regulates sighting distance, opens light source, the photographic head frictional interface shooting to illuminating;
B. regulate studs (7), base grooving (22), the most vertically regulate rod member (11) make downside pin sample (15) vertical in Heart line overlaps with high-accuracy revolving dial rotary shaft to the heart, or makes the vertical center line of downside pin sample revolve with high-accuracy revolving dial Rotating shaft eccentric arm R, carries out rotational slide frictional wear experiment;Counterweight is controlled by pressure sensor data acquisition control system Loading, and regulate horizon rule (6) and make transparent plate sample contact with downside pin sample both ends of the surface horizontal close;
C. according to requirement of experiment, downside pin sample (15) swing weight-adding of tight interface is reached setting value load p, pressure sensing The signal of different pressures is exported by device (12) in real time, connects computer display pressure value P through usb data capture card, simultaneously by number The rotating speed r of motor (23) is set according to acquisition control system and back and forth twists frequency n, reciprocal twisting amplitude θ;
D. start motor (23) by shaft coupling (24) drive worm screw (25) rotate, worm gear (26) through 250: 1 big retarding ratio Rear rotation drive are fixed on the upper fixture (17) of revolving dial, and upper transparent plate sample (16) twists therewith, tries at upper transparent plate The interface of sample and downside pin sample forms end-surface twisting fretting wear;
E., while upper transparent plate sample and downside pin sample generation end-surface twisting rub, it is located at the moment of torsion of lower clamp (14) lower section Friction torque T measured in real time by sensor (13)f, and deliver to usb data capture card, draw friction by data acquisition control system Coefficient value f and the friction torque angular displacement curve being plotted under ordinance load and rotating speed;High speed microimaging head Real-time and Dynamic The wear morphology of observation transparent material frictional interface and abrasive dust motion on interface, and preserve animation or picture, thus characterize The kinetics of end-surface twisting friction and wearing character.
CN201210448675.3A 2012-11-03 2012-11-03 The end-surface twisting friction-wear testing machine of a kind of Real-time and Dynamic observation frictional interface and method CN102944512B (en)

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