CN102931687A - Power adjustment method for hybrid energy storage photovoltaic power station - Google Patents

Power adjustment method for hybrid energy storage photovoltaic power station Download PDF

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CN102931687A
CN102931687A CN2012103862167A CN201210386216A CN102931687A CN 102931687 A CN102931687 A CN 102931687A CN 2012103862167 A CN2012103862167 A CN 2012103862167A CN 201210386216 A CN201210386216 A CN 201210386216A CN 102931687 A CN102931687 A CN 102931687A
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energy storage
control
power
mixed energy
lithium battery
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CN2012103862167A
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CN102931687B (en
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张建成
鲍雪娜
王银明
张改利
梁廷婷
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华北电力大学(保定)
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers

Abstract

The invention discloses a power adjustment method for a hybrid energy storage photovoltaic power station. In the operating process of the photovoltaic power station, voltage of a direct current bus of the photovoltaic power station and voltages of a super capacitor group and a lithium battery group which are connected with the direct current bus respectively through two bidirectional direct current/direct current (DC/DC) controllers are detected in real time, active power output of a photovoltaic power supply is detected in real time, and meanwhile power output values of the super capacitor group and the lithium battery group for fulfilling an electric energy quality adjustment and control aim of the photovoltaic power station or finishing a scheduling task are quickly calculated; and running states of the two bidirectional DC/DC controllers are controlled according to a calculation result, and thus a charging process and a discharging process of the super capacitor group and the lithium battery group can be controlled. By the method, the advantage of high energy density of a lithium battery and the advantages of long circulation service life and high power density of a super capacitor are given a full play, the problems of low electric energy quality and difficulty in participation in power grid scheduling which are caused by grid-connected running of the photovoltaic power station can be solved; and popularization and application of the photovoltaic power station are facilitated.

Description

A kind of power regulating method of hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant
Technical field
When the present invention relates to a kind of mixed energy storage system that ultracapacitor and ferric phosphate lithium cell are consisted of and being applied to large Capacity Optical photovoltaic generating system, the control method of photovoltaic plant active power of output, belong to technical field of power generation.
Background technology
The MW class photovoltaic generating system is called again photovoltaic plant, and it is different from existing low capacity photovoltaic generating system, and photovoltaic plant adopts the mode that is incorporated into the power networks usually.Owing to being subjected to the impact of the natural causes such as intensity of illumination and temperature, meritorious the exerting oneself of photo-voltaic power supply has than great fluctuation process in the power station, so direct grid-connected operation can produce a series of problem, as cause that operation of power networks is unstable, power supply quality is poor, participate in dispatching of power netwoks difficulty etc.The effective measures that address the above problem add energy storage device exactly in photovoltaic plant, if energy storage device is functional and control method is proper, can improve the power supply quality of power supply of photovoltaic plant, can make again photovoltaic plant can participate in neatly dispatching of power netwoks, strengthen operation of power networks stability.
At present, the existing mixed energy storage system that ultracapacitor and the storage battery of passive parallel-connection structure are consisted of is used for the Research Literature of low profile photovoltaic electricity generation system.Because battery cycle life is short, frequent high-power low capacity discharges and recharges the useful life that can greatly shorten storage battery, speed is fast, power density is large and ultracapacitor has extended cycle life, discharges and recharges, this passive parallel-connection structure utilizes ultracapacitor to the storage battery regulating and controlling of charging, can be so that the charging current of storage battery be milder, to prolong the useful life of storage battery.But under this frame mode, the battery discharging process can not get effective control, can not realize the fine adjustment to ultracapacitor and storage battery power output.The mixed energy storage system of mentioning in the document considers to realize regulation and control to the photovoltaic plant quality of power supply from structure, and the photovoltaic plant of can not realizing networking participates in the task of dispatching of power netwoks.
Ferric phosphate lithium cell has larger advantage than conventional accumulators at aspect of performance, and its energy storage density is large, do not have memory effect, also is being greatly improved aspect the charge and discharge cycles number of times.Therefore, the mixed energy storage system of ferric phosphate lithium cell and ultracapacitor composition is connected on the dc bus of photovoltaic plant by the delivery of electrical energy controller respectively, in addition corresponding " flexibility " energy-storage system regulating strategy is highly suitable for power output frequent fluctuation, load change at random, participates in the extremely difficult networking photovoltaic plant of dispatching of power netwoks.At present that is that all right is ripe for the control method of this class mixed energy storage system in the photovoltaic plant running, causes the advantage of mixed energy storage system to give full play to, and has greatly limited the promotion and application at home of photovoltaic plant technology.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome prior art defective, provide a kind of and can improve the photovoltaic plant power supply quality of power supply and make photovoltaic plant can participate in the power regulating method of the hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant of dispatching of power netwoks.
The alleged problem of the present invention realizes with following technical proposals:
A kind of power regulating method of hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant, described method detects in real time its DC bus-bar voltage and the bank of super capacitors that links to each other with dc bus by two two-way DC/DC controllers respectively and the voltage of lithium battery group in the photovoltaic plant running, detecting in real time the meritorious of photo-voltaic power supply exerts oneself, calculate fast simultaneously the value of exerting oneself that reaches photovoltaic plant quality of power supply goal of regulation and control or finish the required bank of super capacitors of scheduler task and lithium battery group, and according to the running status of two two-way DC/DC controllers of result of calculation control, thereby realize control to bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group charge and discharge process.
The power regulating method of above-mentioned hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant, it carries out according to following steps:
A. in the photovoltaic plant running, detect in real time the voltage of bank of super capacitors, lithium battery group and dc bus, detect in real time the meritorious of photo-voltaic power supply and exert oneself, but and the operational mode that requires to determine the mixed energy storage system that consisted of by bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group according to dispatching of power netwoks be quality of power supply regulation and control model or scheduling method initiatively;
B. the mixed energy storage system value of exerting oneself is definite:
If 1. the operational mode of dispatching of power netwoks requirement mixed energy storage system is quality of power supply regulation and control model, that the control goal-setting is stable for the high-quality that guarantees DC bus powered system; Judge at first whether DC bus-bar voltage satisfies quality of power supply standard-required, if satisfy quality of power supply standard-required, then the original state of a control of mixed energy storage system is constant; If do not satisfy quality of power supply standard-required, control law is divided into two kinds: if DC bus-bar voltage is lower than standard min, namely be lower than 95% of rated voltage, then mixed energy storage system carried out Generation Control; If DC bus-bar voltage is higher than standard max, namely be higher than 105% of rated voltage, then to the mixed energy storage system control of charging; The generated output of mixed energy storage system and charge power flow through two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II, its size and Orientation of exerting oneself depends on the control method of power electronic device in two-way DC/DC controller I and the II;
If the dc bus working voltage is U D, rated voltage is U N, the impedance of dc bus terminal shortcircuit is X, then mixed energy storage system output power ratio control is:
If the output power ratio control be on the occasion of, represent mixed energy storage system is carried out Generation Control; If the output power ratio control is negative value, expression is to the mixed energy storage system control of charging;
If 2. but the operational mode of dispatching of power netwoks requirement mixed energy storage system is the active scheduling method, then will control goal-setting is to satisfy the photovoltaic power station power generation power planning that dispatching of power netwoks department issues, and require be put into back burner to the high-quality of DC bus-bar voltage this moment; In the photovoltaic plant running, according to the exert oneself ruuning situation of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group in situation, photovoltaic power station power generation plan power, the mixed energy storage system of the photo-voltaic power supply that detects in real time, calculate fast the mixed energy storage system control strategy, and regulate accordingly; The output power ratio control of mixed energy storage system is:
(P C+P B)=P D-P V?,
The control law of energy-storage system is: work as P V<P DThe time, control mixed energy storage system generator operation; Work as P V=P DThe time, control mixed energy storage system standby operation; Work as P VP DThe time, control mixed energy storage system charge operation;
C. under every kind of operational mode, result of calculation according to the mixed energy storage system value of exerting oneself, controlled in real time the running status that discharges and recharges of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group by two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II, realize that mixed energy storage system is to the regulation and control of photovoltaic plant running status;
D. under every kind of operational mode, the control of mixed energy storage system is adopted the mode of " the ultracapacitor energy storage unit preferentially charges, preferential discharge ", to reduce the number of times that discharges and recharges of lithium battery, improve the length of service of whole energy-storage system.
The present invention utilizes two two-way DC/DC controllers that bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group are discharged and recharged control, makes mixed energy storage system can participate in neatly the photovoltaic plant adjustment of exerting oneself, realize the photovoltaic plant running status fast, accurately regulation and control.Described method can be given full play to the advantage that the lithium battery energy density is large and ultracapacitor cycle life is high, power density is large, the poor technical barrier with participating in the scheduling difficulty of the power supply quality of power supply when having solved well the photovoltaic electric station grid connection operation is for applying of photovoltaic plant paved road.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is system configuration schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the circuit diagram of two-way DC/DC controller;
But Fig. 3 is the theory diagram of active scheduling method.
Each symbolic representation is among the figure: P V, photo-voltaic power supply is meritorious exerts oneself P B, the lithium battery group is meritorious exerts oneself P C, bank of super capacitors is meritorious exerts oneself P D, the plan that is handed down to photovoltaic plant of dispatching of power netwoks department exerts oneself U D, DC bus-bar voltage, MPPT controller, maximal power tracing controlling apparatus, L, inductance, C, electric capacity, D1, D2, diode, Q1, Q2, igbt, U1, low-pressure side voltage, U2, high side voltage.
Embodiment
Mixed energy storage system structure in the photovoltaic plant of the present invention is referring to Fig. 1, and it comprises bank of super capacitors, lithium battery group, two-way DC/DC controller I, two-way DC/DC controller II, status monitoring and controller in consisting of.Described two-way DC/DC controller I and II can be made of many groups of circuit parallel connections as shown in Figure 2, maximum transmission power two-way DC/DC controller I and that the joint group number is organized translation circuit by capacity and the list of bank of super capacitors decides, and the also joint group number of two-way DC/DC controller II is decided by capacity and single maximum transmission power of organizing translation circuit of lithium battery group.The low-pressure side access bank of super capacitors of two-way DC/DC controller I, the low-pressure side access lithium battery group of two-way DC/DC controller II, both high-pressure side access photovoltaic plant dc buss.
Bidirectional electric energy controller I, II can run on power generation mode, and the power delivery that bank of super capacitors or lithium battery group are stored also can run on charge mode to dc bus, and remaining photovoltaic electric energy is stored in bank of super capacitors or the lithium battery group.By regulating the operating state of corresponding bidirectional electric energy transmission control circuit, can realize the energy management to energy-storage system, independently control etc. such as the timesharing that ultracapacitor and lithium battery group discharge and recharge, bank of super capacitors just can be different from the operating voltage range of lithium battery group like this, so that both have larger flexibility in capacity configuration, series parallel structure and operational mode.Utilize the unsteady flow effect of two-way DC/DC control circuit, transmission current can be limited in the confidence band, greatly improve stability and the reliability of system's operation, can also suppress the variation of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group terminal voltage simultaneously to the impact of the photovoltaic plant power supply quality of power supply.
Status monitoring and controller mainly comprise data acquisition, analytical calculation and trigger control unit, and system's runtime data collecting unit detects the voltage of bank of super capacitors, lithium battery group and dc bus in real time, the power output (P of Real-time Collection MPPT controller V).The analytical calculation unit calculates the value of exerting oneself that reaches photovoltaic plant quality of power supply goal of regulation and control or finish the required bank of super capacitors of scheduler task and lithium battery group fast.Trigger control unit is regulated the running status of two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II in real time, when the needs energy-storage system releases energy to electrical network, turn-offs Q2, and Q1 is carried out pulse-width modulation (PWM) control; When photo-voltaic power supply charges to energy-storage system, turn-off Q1, Q2 is carried out PWM control.U2 in the control procedure〉U1, PWM control can adopt PI closed-loop adjustment method to adjust on off operating mode and the PWM duty ratio of Q1 and Q2, realizes the charge and discharge power adjustments to ultracapacitor or lithium battery energy storage battery unit.The MPPT controller is photo-voltaic power supply maximal power tracing controller among Fig. 1, and it is responsible for maximum generation power delivery with photo-voltaic power supply to dc bus, automatically reduces the value of exerting oneself of photo-voltaic power supply when receiving " abandoning light " instruction.
The present invention assigns to the generation schedule of photovoltaic plant the optimal control of exerting oneself of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group for the requirement of the photovoltaic plant quality of power supply and electrical network according to user or electrical network, and this control method is carried out according to following steps:
A. data acquisition unit detects the operating state of dc bus, bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group in real time, detect in real time the meritorious of photo-voltaic power supply and exert oneself, require real-time judge to go out to be applicable to the mixed energy storage system operational mode that the photovoltaic plant running status is adjusted in conjunction with dispatching of power netwoks.
If b. operational mode is quality of power supply regulation and control model, analytical calculation unit in status monitoring and the controller is according to the situation of change of DC bus-bar voltage and the running status of energy-storage system, calculate fast that photo-voltaic power supply is exerted oneself and electric power between imbalance power, make energy-storage system and discharge and recharge control strategy.Trigger control unit is then adjusted the running status of two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II in real time, relies on discharging and recharging of mixed energy storage system to reach the purpose that improves the DC bus-bar voltage quality.
If c. but operational mode is the active scheduling method, the exert oneself running status of situation and mixed energy storage system of photovoltaic power station power generation power planning, the photo-voltaic power supply that status monitoring and controller issue according to dispatching of power netwoks department, calculate photovoltaic plant and finish the required photovoltaic array of scheduler task, ultracapacitor and the lithium battery plan for adjustment of exerting oneself, and control in real time.System's operation logic is referring to Fig. 3.
D. under every kind of operational mode, control according to the principle of ultracapacitor energy storage unit " preferential charging, preferential discharge ".Operation result according to the analytical calculation unit, trigger control unit is controlled the running status of power electronic device Q1, Q2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2 in real time in status monitoring and the controller, regulate power delivery direction and size in two-way DC/DC controller I and the two-way DC/DC controller II, realize the flexible control of ultracapacitor energy storage unit and lithium battery energy storage battery unit operational mode.
E. in the mixed energy storage system charging control process, if bank of super capacitors and the lithium battery group of configuration have all reached maximum energy storage capacity, be ultracapacitor energy storage unit side voltage reach maximum operating voltage, when lithium battery energy storage battery unit state-of-charge (SOC) reaches its maximum, if photo-voltaic power supply still has unnecessary photovoltaic electric energy, bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group will no longer absorb electric energy, status monitoring among Fig. 1 and controller send " abandoning light " instruction to the MPPT controller, reduce exerting oneself of photo-voltaic power supply.
F. in discharge process, if bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group have all reached minimum energy storage capacity, be that ultracapacitor energy storage unit side voltage reaches minimum operating voltage and lithium battery energy storage battery unit state-of-charge (SOC) when reaching its minimum value, when still there is power shortage in photovoltaic plant, status monitoring among Fig. 1 and controller send the instruction of " reducing the power that is incorporated into the power networks " to the networking inversion system, force the photovoltaic plant power shortage to reduce.
Because the ultracapacitor power density is large, charge and discharge circulation life is long, and the lithium battery energy density is large, cycle life is relatively short, discharge and recharge condition stricter, the mixed energy storage system of ultracapacitor and lithium battery composition is applied in the photovoltaic plant, when photo-voltaic power supply goes out fluctuation or bearing power fluctuation, by controlling in an orderly manner flexibly the charge and discharge process of each unit of mixed energy storage system and the size of exerting oneself, when guaranteeing that the photovoltaic plant power output satisfies user or the requirement of the electrical network quality of power supply or satisfies the dispatching of power netwoks mission requirements, can optimize the charge and discharge process of lithium battery, control it and discharge and recharge the degree of depth, increase the service life, reduce photovoltaic plant integrated operation cost.
This shows, no matter photo-voltaic power supply power output frequent fluctuation or the very strong situation of scheduler task randomness, the mixed energy storage system that ultracapacitor and lithium battery form all can participate in the adjustment of the photovoltaic plant quality of power supply and the adjustment of exerting oneself in real time, effectively improves the operation characteristic of photovoltaic plant.The poor technical barrier with participating in the scheduling difficulty of power supply quality of power supply when this control method can effectively solve the photovoltaic electric station grid connection operation.

Claims (2)

1. the power regulating method of a hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant, it adopts ultracapacitor and lithium battery to consist of the photovoltaic plant mixed energy storage system, it is characterized in that, described method detects in real time its DC bus-bar voltage and the bank of super capacitors that links to each other with dc bus by two two-way DC/DC controllers respectively and the voltage of lithium battery group in the photovoltaic plant running, detecting in real time the meritorious of photo-voltaic power supply exerts oneself, calculate fast simultaneously the value of exerting oneself that reaches photovoltaic plant quality of power supply goal of regulation and control or finish the required bank of super capacitors of scheduler task and lithium battery group, and according to the running status of two two-way DC/DC controllers of result of calculation control, thereby realize control to bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group charge and discharge process.
2. the power regulating method of described hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic plant according to claim 1 is characterized in that, it carries out according to following steps:
A. in the photovoltaic plant running, detect in real time the voltage of bank of super capacitors, lithium battery group and dc bus, detect in real time the meritorious of photo-voltaic power supply and exert oneself, but and the operational mode that requires to determine the mixed energy storage system that consisted of by bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group according to dispatching of power netwoks be quality of power supply regulation and control model or scheduling method initiatively;
B. the mixed energy storage system value of exerting oneself is definite:
If 1. the operational mode of dispatching of power netwoks requirement mixed energy storage system is quality of power supply regulation and control model, that the control goal-setting is stable for the high-quality that guarantees DC bus powered system; Judge at first whether DC bus-bar voltage satisfies quality of power supply standard-required, if satisfy quality of power supply standard-required, then the original state of a control of mixed energy storage system is constant; If do not satisfy quality of power supply standard-required, control law is divided into two kinds: if DC bus-bar voltage is lower than standard min, namely be lower than 95% of rated voltage, then mixed energy storage system carried out Generation Control; If DC bus-bar voltage is higher than standard max, namely be higher than 105% of rated voltage, then to the mixed energy storage system control of charging; The generated output of mixed energy storage system and charge power flow through two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II, its size and Orientation of exerting oneself depends on the control method of power electronic device in two-way DC/DC controller I and the II;
If the dc bus working voltage is U D, rated voltage is U N, the impedance of dc bus terminal shortcircuit is X, then mixed energy storage system output power ratio control is:
If the output power ratio control be on the occasion of, represent mixed energy storage system is carried out Generation Control; If the output power ratio control is negative value, expression is to the mixed energy storage system control of charging;
If 2. but the operational mode of dispatching of power netwoks requirement mixed energy storage system is the active scheduling method, then will control goal-setting is to satisfy the photovoltaic power station power generation power planning that dispatching of power netwoks department issues, and require be put into back burner to the high-quality of DC bus-bar voltage this moment; In the photovoltaic plant running, according to the exert oneself ruuning situation of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group in situation, photovoltaic power station power generation plan power, the mixed energy storage system of the photo-voltaic power supply that detects in real time, calculate fast the mixed energy storage system control strategy, and regulate accordingly; The output power ratio control of mixed energy storage system is:
(P C+P B)=P D-P V?,
The control law of energy-storage system is: work as P V<P DThe time, control mixed energy storage system generator operation; Work as P V=P DThe time, control mixed energy storage system standby operation; Work as P VP DThe time, control mixed energy storage system charge operation;
C. under every kind of operational mode, result of calculation according to the mixed energy storage system value of exerting oneself, controlled in real time the running status that discharges and recharges of bank of super capacitors and lithium battery group by two-way DC/DC controller I and two-way DC/DC controller II, realize that mixed energy storage system is to the regulation and control of photovoltaic plant running status;
D. under every kind of operational mode, the control of mixed energy storage system is adopted the mode of " the ultracapacitor energy storage unit preferentially charges, preferential discharge ".
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