CN102918263A - Wind turbine blades with dimples - Google Patents

Wind turbine blades with dimples Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102918263A
CN102918263A CN 201180026692 CN201180026692A CN102918263A CN 102918263 A CN102918263 A CN 102918263A CN 201180026692 CN201180026692 CN 201180026692 CN 201180026692 A CN201180026692 A CN 201180026692A CN 102918263 A CN102918263 A CN 102918263A
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Prior art keywords
wind
turbine
blade
maximizing
blades
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CN 201180026692
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Chinese (zh)
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塞奥佐罗斯·图拉斯
埃曼努埃尔·米哈利斯
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塞奥佐罗斯·图拉斯
埃曼努埃尔·米哈利斯
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/0608Rotors characterised by their form
    • F03D1/0633Rotors characterised by their form of the blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/30Characteristics of rotor blades, i.e. of any element transforming dynamic fluid energy to or from rotational energy and being attached to a rotor
    • F05B2240/32Characteristics of rotor blades, i.e. of any element transforming dynamic fluid energy to or from rotational energy and being attached to a rotor with roughened surfaces
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/20Geometry three-dimensional
    • F05B2250/24Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal
    • F05B2250/241Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal spherical
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/20Geometry three-dimensional
    • F05B2250/28Geometry three-dimensional patterned
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/721Blades or rotors

Abstract

Wind turbine blades (2) which are characterised from being equipped with dimples (3) of hemispherical or polygonal shape as many as possible of them and as much as closer one another arranged in rows and alternately between them alongside blade's whole surface. Applying this dimple arrangement technique on blade's surface, a drastic management of specific aerodynamic phenomena contributing to the most possible wind laminar flow and steady blade rotation maximizing quality, reliability, economically and noiseless wind turbine operation which because of diffusion at a significant degree of the two side pressure difference, a speedier rotation is succeeded (more rounds per minute) finally maximizing electric energy production.

Description

具有凹槽的风力涡轮机叶片 A wind turbine blade groove

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种应用于布置在风力涡轮机塔上的转子上的水平轴风力涡轮机叶片的技术。 [0001] The present invention relates to a technique horizontal axis wind turbine blade is applied on a rotor for a wind turbine disposed on a tower.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 这种类型的具有叶片的风力涡轮机是已知的,其由利用玻璃加强的轻塑料、铝、薄的木制层等已知的材料制成。 Made of [0002] this type of wind turbine having a blade is known, which is reinforced by using a glass of the light plastic, aluminum, a thin layer of wood and the like known materials. 叶片的背面相比于正面更弯曲一些。 The back of the blade is curved more positive compared to the number. 除了对风力涡轮机的性能具有关键影响的长度之外,诸如宽度、厚度以及重量之类的其他因素也会对特征在于空气动力学设计上的需求与耐久性之间的平衡的转动的最大化具有影响。 In addition to the length of the critical impact on the performance of the wind turbine, such as width, thickness, weight and other factors and the like will also maximize wherein rotation of the balance between the needs of the aerodynamic design and durability having influences.

[0003] 风力涡轮机叶片以特定的方式设计和制造,布置在转子上,以最大程度地利用使叶片转动的经过其中的风能。 [0003] a wind turbine blade design and manufacturing in a particular manner, are arranged on the rotor, in order to maximize the use of the rotation of the blades through which the wind. 通过叶片在轴上的转动,由发电机将动能(转动能)转化为电能。 By the blade on a rotating shaft of the generator by the kinetic energy (rotational energy) into electrical energy. 通过仅受风带来的压力团和阵风的影响而引发和进行这些叶片的旋转。 And it caused the blades to rotate only by the influence of pressure groups and bring wind gusts of subject. 根据实施的比例,可以将转速判定为负面的(经济上无收益的或危险的)或正面的(合适且有用的)。 The proportion of the embodiment, the rotation speed may be determined as negative (no economic benefits or dangerous) or front (suitable and useful). 在空气分子向旋转叶片的正面碰撞的过程中,风速下降,导致叶片正面压力升高,背面压力降低,由此产生了漩涡和涡流。 In the process of air molecules to the front collision of the rotating blades, the wind speed drops, leading to increased pressure front blade, the back pressure is reduced, thereby creating eddies and vortices. 当叶片以足够高的速度旋转时,会在叶片背面产生显著的漩涡和涡流,从而造成对旋转有不利影响的压力差(非均匀分布),进而妨碍风力涡轮机的正常操作和性能。 When the blade is rotated at a sufficiently high speed, it generates significant swirls and vortices in the back of the blade, resulting in adversely affecting the rotation of the pressure difference (non-uniform distribution), and thereby preventing normal operation and performance of the wind turbine. 最初,叶片从正面接受风的空气动力学压力,并导致叶片旋转。 Initially, the aerodynamic blade receiving wind pressure from the front, and cause the blades to rotate. 之后,正是由于主要表现在叶片背面的所产生的压力差的作用,产生了不利的空气动力学现象(漩涡和涡流),从而导致了转动减速以及其他不利于理想旋转的复杂情况。 After that, precisely because mainly the pressure difference generated by the back of the blade, had a negative aerodynamic phenomenon (swirl and eddy current), resulting in a deceleration rotation and other complex cases is not conducive to the ideal rotation. 因此,这些后果包括对风力涡轮机运行的不利影响,无法使其性能最大化。 Therefore, these consequences include adverse effects on the operation of the wind turbine, not to maximize its performance. 风撞击叶片产生的湍流越大,则从叶片向风传输的能量也就越大,反之亦然。 The larger the wind strikes blades turbulence generated, transmitted from the blade to the wind energy greater, and vice versa. 叶片与风之间的这种能量相互作用是空气动力学阻力。 This energy interaction between the blade and wind aerodynamic drag. 更具体地,其包括水平方向的风阻(阻力)以及竖直方向的或动态的风上升力(升力)。 More specifically, it includes a horizontal drag (resistance) and the vertical direction of the wind or dynamic upward force (lift). 水平方向的风阻(阻力)与风向相反地作用,从而降低叶片的旋转速率,导致压力差。 Drag (resistance) in the horizontal direction and the direction opposite effect, thereby reducing the rate of rotation of the blade, resulting in a pressure difference. 力(表现为阻力形式或压力阻力)从具有较大压力的区域(叶片正面)指向具有较小压力的区域(叶片背面)。 Region (blade back surface) force (expressed as a resistance in the form of pressure or resistance) from a region (blade front surface) having a greater pressure point having a small pressure.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明的优点为,将半球形的凹槽以特定的顺序布置在风力涡轮机的叶片上,这是一种直接借鉴于布置在高尔夫球上的半球形或多边形(如六边形)凹槽的技术。 [0004] The advantages of the present invention is that the semi-spherical recess is arranged in a particular order on the blade of a wind turbine, which is a direct reference to a hemispherical or polygonal arrangement on a golf ball (e.g., hexagonal) technology groove. 这一技术充分利用了空气动力学现象,风最初在叶片正面撞击叶片,穿过叶片,最后从叶片内流出。 This technology takes advantage of the aerodynamic phenomenon, wind vane initially hit the front blade, leaf through, and out through the inner blade. 本发明最大程度地管理这一过程,并在这些位置形成合适且可控的层流空气流,使叶片旋转得更稳定,从而提供了高质量、可靠、经济且安静的风力涡轮机运转。 The present invention is to maximize the management process, and the formation of a suitable and controllable flow of air layer flow at these locations, more stable rotation of the blade, thereby providing a high quality, reliable, economical and quiet operation of the wind turbine.

[0005] 将高尔夫球中的凹槽布置技术等同地应用于风力涡轮机叶片表面,是为了重现最可能的层流空气流的形成,并最终以最有效的方式管理所伴随的进入叶片的和流出叶片的风。 [0005] The golf ball dimple arrangement technique is equally applicable to a wind turbine blade surface, is formed in order to reproduce the best possible air flow is a laminar flow, and ultimately the most efficient way to manage the blade and into the accompanying out of the wind blade. 从而以可能的最大限度减小叶片两侧间的压力差。 Thereby possible to minimize the pressure difference between both sides of the blade.

[0006] 本发明所述的风力涡轮机叶片是成功的,因为它能产生可能的最快速叶片旋转(每分钟的旋转圈数更多),使电能产量达到最大。 [0006] The wind turbine blade according to the present invention is successful because it produces the most rapid possible rotation of the blade (the number of revolutions per minute more), so that the maximum power output. 通过在叶片的正反两面应用这种凹槽布置技术,加强了对风的管理,同时使收益最大化,且更系统地减小了容易出现的漩涡和涡流,以最有效的方式减小了水平风阻(阻力)对叶片背面的负面影响,减小了压力。 By both sides of the blades used in this dimple arrangement technique, strengthen the management of the wind, while maximizing revenue, and more systematically reduce the swirl and eddy prone, in the most effective way to reduce the horizontal wind resistance (drag) the negative impact on the back of blades reduced pressure. 通过应用这一特殊凹槽布置技术,风力涡轮机叶片进行最高速转速、最有效地管理撞击并流入叶片中的风,并且可以平衡在叶片背面产生的漩涡和涡流,进而使升力达到最大。 By the application of this technology a special groove arrangement, a wind turbine blade Highest rotation speed, and to best manage the impact of the air flowing into the blade and can balance the swirl vanes and eddy current generated on the back surface, thereby enabling the maximum lift. 换言之,在相同的风力负载被传递到风力涡轮机的情况下,会产生更多的电能,这正与高尔夫球上的情况类似,而这是由已经应用并被证明很成功的凹槽布置技术带来的。 In other words, at the same wind load is transmitted to the wind turbine will produce more power, which is similar to the case of the positive golf ball, and which is evidenced by the application has been very successful with grooves disposed art come. 这种凹槽被应用在高尔夫球的表面,或者是半球形、或者是多边形的凹槽,尽可能多且彼此尽可能靠近地布置成排且相互交替,以完全地覆盖球体表面且使平整的表面最小化。 Such grooves are applied on the surface of a golf ball, or hemispherical, or polygonal recess, as much as possible and as close as possible to each other and are alternately arranged in a row, so as to completely cover the surface of the sphere, and that the flat minimizing the surface. 在球手使用球杆以相同的力度击打球体时,这种高尔夫球运动的距离要显著高于表面平整的老式高尔夫球所运动的距离。 When the club golfers hit the ball with the same intensity, from which golf significantly higher than from the flat surface of the golf ball movement old. 因此,在特定的风力作用于风力涡轮机叶片表面的情况下,当应用了如高尔夫球中那样的相同布局的特定凹槽布置技术时,叶片的旋转将最终达到最大。 Thus, in the case of certain wind acting on the wind turbine blade surface, when the groove is applied as a particular arrangement of golf as in the same arrangement, the rotation of the blade will eventually reach the maximum. 根据本发明的风力涡轮机叶片的特征在于,其表面应用了如高尔夫球那样的凹槽布置技术。 The wind turbine blade according to the present invention is characterized in that it applied to the surface of the recess is disposed such as golf technology. 凹槽可以完全覆盖叶片的表面,或者也可以仅仅覆盖背面,以仅使其能够有效地对抗阻力现象。 Groove may completely cover the surface of the blade, or may cover only the back surface, in order to enable it to be effective against only the resistance phenomenon.

[0007] 一种简单的在风力涡轮机叶片上体现这种特殊凹槽布置技术的方式根据本发明·通过使用尽可能多(凹槽的数量与所覆盖的表面成比例)的半球形或多边形(如六边形)凹槽而实现,这些凹槽尽可能彼此紧密地布置成排且相互交替,产生相切的形式,覆盖整个叶片的正反两面,从而最大程度地利用并管理了风在正面的正面撞击期间以及风朝向背面运动期间发生的空气动力学现象,使得升力最大化,同时消除了不利的阻滞压力(阻力)。 [0007] A simple manifestation of this particular embodiment the recess is arranged in the art wind turbine blade according to the present invention, by using as much · (number of grooves is proportional to the surface covered) hemispherical or polygonal ( the hexagonal) achieved recess, these grooves are arranged as closely to each other in rows and alternately generating tangential form, covering both sides of the entire blade, so that maximum advantage of the wind on the front and manage during a frontal collision, and the aerodynamic phenomena occurring during movement of the wind toward the back, so that the lift is maximized while eliminating adverse retard pressure (resistance).

[0008] 通过将这种相对低廉的凹槽布置技术应用在已有的叶片表面上以及通过构建这种新型的叶片,显著改善了制造成本与能量产出的效益之比,并且,通过向风力涡轮机同时提供更经济、可控且有益的操作,还实现了更安静且通常更少故障的运行。 [0008] By this relatively inexpensive technology grooves disposed on the existing surface of the blade and by constructing the new blade, significantly improves the efficiency of the manufacturing cost and the ratio of the energy output, and by a wind turbines while providing a more economical, controllable and beneficial operation, but also to achieve a quieter and generally less trouble-free operation.

[0009] 根据本发明的凹槽布置技术,允许在风力涡轮机叶片的表面上尽可能多地布置半球形或多边形凹槽,这些凹槽以彼此尽可能靠近的方式布置成排且相互交替,产生相切的形式,以使层流空气流及空气管理最大化,以降低正面阻力,因而使升力达到最大,使摩擦力达到最小,这是因为接下来的空气团的空气分子将会与捕获在这些凹槽中的之前的空气分子相接触,而不是直接接触叶片的有不利影响的平整表面或材料。 [0009] The techniques of this disclosure groove arrangement, to allow as much as possible the hemispherical or polygonal recess disposed on a surface of the wind turbine blade, the grooves in a manner as close to each other and alternately arranged in a row, generating tangential form, so that laminar air flow and an air flow management maximized to reduce the resistance of the front, thus the lift reaches the maximum, minimum frictional force, because the air molecules next to the air mass will capture adversely affect these grooves before contact with air molecules, rather than in direct contact with the blade flat surface or material.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0010] 图I示出了三个风力涡轮机叶片的主视图。 [0010] FIG I shows a front view of a three blade wind turbine.

[0011] 图2示出了叶片放大后的主视图。 [0011] FIG. 2 shows a front enlarged view of the blade.

[0012] 图3示出了三个风力涡轮机叶片的后视图。 [0012] FIG. 3 shows a rear view of the three wind turbine blades.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0013] 参照附图描述在风力涡轮机叶片表面上应用凹槽布置技术的方法。 [0013] Referring to the drawings art method described arrangement grooves applied on the surface of a wind turbine blade. 风力涡轮机由转子⑴、叶片⑵、半球形凹槽(3)以及风力涡轮机塔⑷构成。 ⑴ by the wind turbine rotor blades ⑵, hemispherical recesses (3) and a wind turbine tower ⑷ configuration. 凹槽根据叶片的表面尺寸以最高的数量并以理想的有效尺寸成排地布置在叶片的表面上,尽可能地彼此靠近且相互交替,产生相切的形式。 The surface dimensions of the blade groove with the highest number of effective size and is preferably disposed in rows on the surface of the blade, as close as possible to each other and alternately generating tangential form.

[0014] 如附图所示,在叶片表面仅布置有大小相同的半球形凹槽。 [0014] As shown in the drawings, only the blade surface disposed hemispherical recess have the same size. 然而,这并不排除基于半球形凹槽布置技术布置的仅仅多边形凹槽(如六边形凹槽)的实施方式,这些多边形凹槽尽可能地彼此靠近,布置成排并且相互交替,产生相切的形式,从而在叶片的正反两面都完全覆盖叶片的表面。 However, this does not exclude a polygon-based merely recess (e.g., a hexagonal recess) of the hemispherical indentation arrangement art arrangements embodiment, the polygons grooves as close as possible to each other, and are alternately arranged in a row, generating phase cut form, so that both sides of the blade surface of the blade is completely covered.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. 一种风力涡轮机叶片,在风力涡轮机塔(4)上具有转子(I),所述叶片(2)设置有凹槽(3),其特征在于,所述凹槽(3)仅为半球形或多边形(例如六边形)且布置在所述叶片的表面上,所述凹槽(3)尽可能多且尽可能彼此靠近地布置成排且相互交替,使得所述凹槽(3)彼此相切,在所述叶片的正反两面完全地覆盖所述叶片的表面。 A wind turbine blade, wind turbine having a tower (4) of the rotor (the I), the blade (2) is provided with a groove (3), characterized in that the groove (3) only the hemisphere or polygonal (e.g., hexagonal) and arranged on the surface of the blade, the groove (3) as much as possible and as close as possible to one another in rows and are arranged alternately with each other, such that the groove (3) tangential to each other, completely covering the surface of the blade on both sides of the blade.
  2. 2.如权利要求I所述的设置有半球形或多边形凹槽布置技术的风力涡轮机叶片,其特征在于,所述风力涡轮机叶片的表面被完全覆盖,以对来自叶片正面的移动的风的利用和管理实现最大化,通过利用特定的凹槽布置技术所带来的空气动力学优势,所述风力涡轮机叶片最大程度地发挥性能,同时实现了这些叶片的表面上以及穿过叶片和流出叶片时的最小的摩擦和空气的最大的层流流动,由于这种技术,实际上消除了叶片正反两面之间的压力差,同时阻力的比率被最小化,这种技术的结果在于,尽可能地实现了叶片旋转的最大化(每分钟的转动圈数更多),因而产生更多电能。 As claimed in claim I provided with a hemispherical or polygonal groove arrangement art wind turbine blade to utilize wind moving from the front of the blade, characterized in that the surface of the wind turbine blade is completely covered, and maximize management, by utilizing specific advantages of the aerodynamic arrangement groove technology brings the wind turbine blades to maximize performance, while achieving the upper surface of the blades and the blade passes through the blade and the outflow maximum laminar flow of air and minimum friction, since this technique virtually eliminates the pressure difference between both sides of the blade, while the ratio of the resistance is minimized, the result of this technique is that, as much as possible It maximizes the rotating blade (revolutions per minute more), thus producing more power.
  3. 3.如权利要求I所述的设置有半球形或多边形凹槽布置技术的风力涡轮机叶片,其特征在于,所述凹槽以完全覆盖叶片表面的精密设置来布置,以使对风的管理、空气分子的层流流动以及全部的风的质量扩散实现最大化,所述风力涡轮机叶片能够最大程度地利用和管理因风在叶片正面的正面撞击以及空气分子向叶片背面的转移期间而产生的空气动力学现象,以使升力最大化,同时消除了从叶片背面流出的风的不利的减速压力(阻力)。 3. Set I according hemispherical or polygonal groove arrangement art wind turbine blade as claimed in claim, characterized in that the groove to completely cover the surface of the blade is provided arranged precision, so that the management of the wind, laminar flow and the quality of all the air molecules diffuse maximize wind, the wind turbine blade and can be utilized to manage the maximum extent due to the wind strikes blades and the front frontal air molecules generated during the transfer to the back surface of the blade in the air dynamic phenomena, so that maximize lift, while eliminating the adverse pressure reduction flows from the rear surface of the blade of the wind (resistance).
  4. 4.如权利要求I所述的设置有半球形或多边形凹槽布置技术的风力涡轮机叶片,其特征在于,所述特定的技术能够仅应用于叶片背面的表面,因此所述技术仅仅针对阻力最小化。 4. Set the I hemispherical or polygonal groove arrangement art wind turbine blade as claimed in claim, wherein said specific technique can be applied to the back surface of the blade only, therefore the techniques are only for minimum resistance of.
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