CN102914745A - Method for evaluating performance states of automotive power batteries - Google Patents

Method for evaluating performance states of automotive power batteries Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102914745A
CN102914745A CN2012102290692A CN201210229069A CN102914745A CN 102914745 A CN102914745 A CN 102914745A CN 2012102290692 A CN2012102290692 A CN 2012102290692A CN 201210229069 A CN201210229069 A CN 201210229069A CN 102914745 A CN102914745 A CN 102914745A
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battery
parameter
voltage
discharge
expression
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CN2012102290692A
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张彦琴
郭凯
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北京工业大学
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of batteries, and particularly relates to a method for evaluating performance states of automotive power batteries. Through performing second-order equivalent circuit modeling on automotive power batteries (including lead-acid batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, fuel batteries, super batteries and the like), the performance states of the batteries (a state of charge (SOC) and a state of health (SOH)) are transformed to parameters of an equivalent circuit model. An impulse charging-discharging experiment result of each automotive power battery is handled by using a second-order exponential damping fitting method in Origin software, so that the parameters of equivalent resistance and equivalent capacitance in the power batteries are obtained. A database of the power battery model parameters and the battery performance states is established as the basis of evaluating the performance states of the batteries in an operating process of an automobile, so that the power management can be optimized, problems can be found timely, and accidents are avoided.

Description

The assessment method of Vehicular dynamic battery performance state

Technical field

The present invention relates to the battery technology field, particularly relate to the evaluation of Vehicular dynamic battery performance state.

Background technology

Along with the mankind continue the extensive natural resources such as coal, oil and natural gas that use, cause energy crisis and environmental problem to become increasingly conspicuous, become the key factor of restriction human social development.For automobile industry, the development new-energy automobile has been trend of the times.Compare with orthodox car, electric automobile has larger advantage in the fuel consumption and emission economy.Automobile industry is changed by traditional oil-burning machine epoch towards the motorized epoch, and country also classifies new-energy automobile as one of seven large industries that present stage gives priority to, and proposes to strengthen government's support dynamics such as property tax is financial.

The core of electric automobile is electrokinetic cell, can have for the electrokinetic cell that electric automobile is selected at present: lead-acid battery, Ni-MH battery, lithium ion battery, fuel cell and superbattery (the novel energy-storing device that has simultaneously secondary cell and ultracapacitor advantage) etc.For electric automobile, electrokinetic cell performance quality directly affects dynamic property and the continual mileage of electric automobile.In the electric automobile during traveling process, grasp in real time electrokinetic cell performance state (state-of-charge SOC and health status SOH) and be conducive to optimize battery management, pinpoint the problems early, avoid the generation of accident.

Yet, can only collect the essential informations such as electric current, voltage and temperature in the electric automobile actual travel process, these information can not directly reflect the performance state that battery is current.Studies show that in a large number, introducing equivalent-circuit model can well address this problem.Equivalent-circuit model is described the operating characteristic of battery with basic circuit elements forming circuits such as electric capacity, resistance.Not only model parameter has good sign effect to the performance state of battery, and can by the performance state of battery model in conjunction with the mathematical algorithm preestimating battery, have higher accuracy.

Summary of the invention

The assessment method that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of electrokinetic cell performance state.

The method replaces electrokinetic cell with equivalent-circuit model, this model is comprised of a resistance and two R-C modules, as shown in Figure 1.Wherein, R bBe the Ohmage of battery, mainly represent the resistance of inside battery electrolytic solution; Two R-C modules mainly represent the polarization reaction of battery, R 1And R 2The polarization resistance of expression battery, C 1And C 2The polarization capacity of expression battery.Then utilize pulse to discharge and recharge experiment, determine the size of each parameter in the model.Because model parameter has inseparable relation with the battery performance state, model parameter and battery performance state after determining are set up corresponding relation, thereby can evaluate by the battery model parameter performance state of battery.

1, the determining of model parameter in the pulse charge process

Electrokinetic cell is to the response process of a circulation in the constant-current pulse charging process as shown in Figure 2: U 0The open-circuit voltage of expression battery; U bThe terminal voltage of expression battery; I bThe indicating impulse electric current, number expression charging of "-" of front; U ABBe pulse current I bThe voltage drop of=0 o'clock battery terminal voltage.

Open-circuit voltage U in the electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model 0Can be by the terminal voltage U of battery after the complete obiteration of measurement transient effect bObtain:

U 0=U b(t)t→∞?????????????????????????(1-1)

Can find out from accompanying drawing 2, as charging current I bThe moment of vanishing, the terminal voltage U of battery bA part of U can descend rapidly AB(seeing voltage curve AB section in the accompanying drawing 2).This is because after charging current reduces to rapidly zero, the capacitor C in the model in two R-C modules 1And C 2Continuation is to resistance R 1And R 2Power supply, and original Ohmage R bOn impressed voltage but along with the cut-off of charging disappears immediately, thereby make the measuring junction voltage drop of battery.Magnitude of voltage U by this part decline ABWith charging current I bCan calculate model parameter R b:

R b=U AB/I b?????????????????????????????(1-2)

The response process of two R-C modules satisfies following formula shown in voltage curve BC in the accompanying drawing 2:

U b ( t ) = U 0 - R 1 · I b · e - t / τ 1 - R 2 · I b · e - t / τ 2 , t > t 0 - - - ( 1 - 3 )

In the formula, τ 1, τ 2Be the polarization time constant, on the numerical value, τ 1=R 1C 1, τ 2=R 2C 2

Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulse charge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, choose fitting formula and be:

y=A 1·exp(-x/t 1)+A 2·exp(-x/t 2)+y 0????(1-4)

In the formula, A 1, A 2Be fitting coefficient, t 1, t 2Be time constant.

Obtain fitting result as shown in Figure 3, the corresponding relation of parameter is as follows in the parameter among the figure in the fitting parameter tabulation and the formula (1-3):

y 0=U 0????????????????????????????????(1-5)

A 1=R 1(I b); Thereby R 1=| A 1/ I b| (1-6)

A 2=R 2(I b); Thereby R 2=| A 2/ I b| (1-7)

t 11Again because of τ 1=R 1C 1So, C 11/ R 1(1-8)

t 22Again because of τ 2=R 2C 2So, C 22/ R 2(1-9)

Since then, in the electrokinetic cell pulse charge process, the parameter in the equivalent-circuit model is all calculated and is finished.

2, the determining of model parameter in the process of pulse discharge

Definite method of model parameter and pulse charge process are similar in the process of pulse discharge., ad hocly decide under the discharge condition in order to distinguish the model parameter value in the charge and discharge process at this, model parameter value is respectively: R b', R 1', C 1', R 2', C 2'.Wherein, R b' be the Ohmage of battery, the resistance of expression inside battery electrolytic solution; Two R-C modules, the polarization reaction of expression battery, R 1' and R 2' the expression battery polarization resistance, C 1' and C 2' the expression battery polarization capacity; The response process of electrokinetic cell paired pulses discharge is as shown in Figure 4: U 0The open-circuit voltage of expression battery; U bThe terminal voltage of expression battery; I bThe indicating impulse discharge current; U ABBe pulse current I bThe voltage difference of=0 o'clock battery terminal voltage.

Open-circuit voltage U in the electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model 0Can be by the terminal voltage U of battery after the complete obiteration of measurement transient effect bObtain:

U 0=U b(t)t→∞????????????????????????????(1-10)

Can find out from accompanying drawing 4, as discharge current I bThe moment of vanishing, the terminal voltage U of battery bA part of U can rise rapidly AB(seeing voltage curve AB section in the accompanying drawing 4).This is because after discharge current reduces to rapidly zero, the capacitor C in the model in two R-C modules 1' and C 2' continue to resistance R 1' and R 2' power supply, and original Ohmage R b' on impressed voltage but along with the cut-off of discharge disappears immediately, thereby the measuring junction voltage of battery is risen.Magnitude of voltage U by this part rising ABWith discharge current I bCan calculate model parameter R b':

R b'=U AB/I b???????????????????????????????(1-11)

The response process of two R-C modules satisfies following formula shown in voltage curve BC in the accompanying drawing 2:

U b ( t ) = U 0 + R 1 ′ · I b · e - t / τ 1 + R 2 ′ · I b · e - t / τ 2 , t > t 0 - - - ( 1 - 12 )

In the formula, τ 1, τ 2Be the polarization time constant, on the numerical value, τ 1=R 1' C 1', τ 2=R 2' C 2'.

Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulsed discharge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, choose fitting formula and be:

y=A 1·exp(-x/t 1)+A 2·exp(-x/t 2)+y 0???????(1-13)

In the formula, A 1, A 2Be fitting coefficient, t 1, t 2Be time constant.

Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulsed discharge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, obtain fitting result as shown in Figure 5, the corresponding relation of parameter is as follows in the parameter among the figure in the fitting parameter tabulation and the formula (1-12):

y 0=U 0????????????????????????????????????(1-14)

A 1=R 1' I bThereby R 1'=| A 1/ I b| (1-15)

A 2=R 2' I bThereby R 2'=| A 2/ I b| (1-16)

t 11Again because of τ 1=R 1' C 1', so C 1'=τ 1/ R 1' (1-17)

t 22Again because of τ 2=R 2' C 2', so C 2'=τ 2/ R 2' (1-18)

Since then, in the electrokinetic cell process of pulse discharge, the parameter in the equivalent-circuit model is all calculated and is finished.

As Ohmage R b(or R b') relative error when surpassing 20%, think that cell health state is not good.

The present invention has just provided a kind of assessment method of Vehicular dynamic battery performance state, and the method is applicable to multiple electrokinetic cell based on equivalent-circuit model.For dissimilar and electrokinetic cell different manufacturers, under different temperatures and different charge-discharge magnifications, carry out pulse test, utilize mathematical algorithm and match software to obtain the parameters of electrokinetic cell, set up the database of model parameter and battery performance state, as the foundation of judging real vehicle battery performance state.The battery model parameter that this assessment method obtains has higher accuracy, can make the performance state of estimating more accurate in conjunction with the Kalman filtering scheduling algorithm.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is equivalent-circuit model figure

Fig. 2 is electrokinetic cell pulse charge response process

Fig. 3 is electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model charging fitting result

Fig. 4 is electrokinetic cell pulsed discharge response process

Fig. 5 is electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model discharge fitting result

Embodiment

Further illustrate outstanding feature of the present invention below by embodiment, only be to illustrate implementation content of the present invention and be not limited to the present invention.

Embodiment 1

Under 5 ℃, 15 ℃, the 25 ℃ ambient temperature conditions, the same lead-acid battery has been carried out respectively the pulse charge experiment of the pulsed discharge experiment of 0.1C, 0.3C, 1.0C multiplying power and 0.1C, 0.3C multiplying power.Afterwards, utilize equivalent-circuit model to carry out Fitting Analysis, obtain the battery model parameter of lead-acid battery under different temperatures, different pulse charge-discharge magnification.Set up the database of lead-acid battery model parameter and battery performance state, partial data is as shown in table 1.

Table 1 lead-acid battery 1.0C multiplying power pulsed discharge experimental cell model parameter and state-of-charge SOC database

Embodiment 2

Under 5 ℃, 15 ℃, the 20 ℃ ambient temperature conditions, the pulse of the same lithium ion battery having been carried out respectively 0.2C, 0.3C, 0.4C multiplying power discharges and recharges experiment.Afterwards, utilize the second order equivalent-circuit model to carry out Fitting Analysis, obtain the battery model parameter of lithium ion battery under different temperatures, different pulse charge-discharge magnification.Set up the database of lithium ion battery model parameter and battery performance state, partial data is as shown in table 2.

Table 2 lithium ion battery 0.2C multiplying power pulse charge experimental cell model parameter and state-of-charge SOC database

In the real vehicle operational process, utilize least square method or Kalman filtering algorithm can obtain real-time battery model parameter, by with ECU in the database contrast of storing can evaluate the performance state of battery.Ohmage R b(or R b') particularly important to the evaluation effect of the health status of battery, through experimental verification: as Ohmage R b(or R b') relative error when surpassing 20%, can think that cell health state is not good, should further detect or directly change.

Through the great many of experiments illness that has not attacked the vital organs of the human body, the accuracy of judgement reaches more than 80% at least.

Claims (1)

1. the assessment method of Vehicular dynamic battery performance state, it is characterized in that: the method replaces electrokinetic cell with equivalent-circuit model, and this model is comprised of a resistance and two R-C modules, wherein, R bBe the Ohmage of battery, the resistance of expression inside battery electrolytic solution; Two R-C modules, the polarization reaction of expression battery, R 1And R 2The polarization resistance of expression battery, C 1And C 2The polarization capacity of expression battery; Then utilize pulse to discharge and recharge experiment, determine the size of each parameter in the model;
1), the determining of model parameter in the pulse charge process
Electrokinetic cell is to U in the response process of a circulation in the constant-current pulse charging process 0The open-circuit voltage of expression battery; U bThe terminal voltage of expression battery; I bThe indicating impulse electric current, number expression charging of "-" of front; U ABBe pulse current I bThe voltage drop of=0 o'clock battery terminal voltage;
Open-circuit voltage U in the electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model 0Terminal voltage U by battery after the complete obiteration of measurement transient effect bObtain:
U 0=U b(t)t→∞???????????????????????(1-1)
As charging current I bThe moment of vanishing, the terminal voltage U of battery bA part of U can descend rapidly ABThis is because after charging current reduces to rapidly zero, the capacitor C in the model in two R-C modules 1And C 2Continuation is to resistance R 1And R 2Power supply, and original Ohmage R bOn impressed voltage but along with the cut-off of charging disappears immediately, thereby make the measuring junction voltage drop of battery; Magnitude of voltage U by this part decline ABWith charging current I bCalculate model parameter R b:
R b=U B/I b????????????????????????????(1-2)
The response process of two R-C modules satisfies following formula:
U b ( t ) = U 0 - R 1 · I b · e - t / τ 1 - R 2 · I b · e - t / τ 2 , t > t 0 - - - ( 1 - 3 )
In the formula, τ 1, τ 2Be the polarization time constant, on the numerical value, τ 1=R 1C 1, τ 2=R 2C 2
Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulse charge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, choose fitting formula and be:
y=A 1·exp(-x/t 1)+A 2·exp(-x/t 2)+y 0??(1-4)
In the formula, A 1, A 2Be fitting coefficient, t 1, t 2Be time constant;
Obtain fitting result, the corresponding relation of parameter is as follows in the parameter in the fitting parameter tabulation and the formula (1-3):
y 0=U 0????????????????????????????????(1-5)
A 1=R 1(I b); Thereby R 1=| A 1/ I b| (1-6)
A 2=R 2(I b); Thereby R 2=| A 2/ I b| (1-7)
t 11Again because of τ 1=R 1C 1So, C=τ 1/ R 1(1-8)
t 22Again because of τ 2=R 2C 2So, C 22/ R 2(1-9)
Since then, in the electrokinetic cell pulse charge process, the parameter in the equivalent-circuit model is all calculated and is finished;
2), the determining of model parameter in the process of pulse discharge
Definite method of model parameter and pulse charge process are similar in the process of pulse discharge; , ad hocly decide under the discharge condition in order to distinguish the model parameter value in the charge and discharge process at this, model parameter value is respectively: R b', R 1', C 1', R 2', C 2', wherein, R b' be the Ohmage of battery, the resistance of expression inside battery electrolytic solution; Two R-C modules, the polarization reaction of expression battery, R 1' and R 2' the expression battery polarization resistance, C 1' and C 2' the expression battery polarization capacity; U 0The open-circuit voltage of expression battery; U bThe terminal voltage of expression battery; I bThe indicating impulse discharge current; U ABBe pulse current I bThe voltage difference of=0 o'clock battery terminal voltage;
Open-circuit voltage U in the electrokinetic cell equivalent-circuit model 0Terminal voltage U by battery after the complete obiteration of measurement transient effect bObtain:
U 0=U b(t)t→∞????????????????????????(1-10)
As discharge current I bThe moment of vanishing, the terminal voltage U of battery bA part of U can rise rapidly ABThis is because after discharge current reduces to rapidly zero, the capacitor C in the model in two R-C modules 1' and C 2' continue to resistance R 1' and R 2' power supply, and original Ohmage R b' on impressed voltage but along with the cut-off of discharge disappears immediately, thereby the measuring junction voltage of battery is risen; Magnitude of voltage U by this part rising ABWith discharge current I bCalculate model parameter R b':
R b'=U AB/I b???????????????????????????(1-11)
The response process of two R-C modules satisfies following formula:
U b ( t ) = U 0 + R 1 ′ · I b · e - t / τ 1 + R 2 ′ · I b · e - t / τ 2 , t > t 0 - - - ( 1 - 12 )
In the formula, τ 1, τ 2Be the polarization time constant, on the numerical value, τ 1=R 1' C 1', τ 2=R 2' C 2'; Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulsed discharge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, choose fitting formula and be:
y=A 1·exp(-x/t 1)+A 2·exp(-x/t 2)+y 0?????????????(1-13)
In the formula, A 1, A 2Be fitting coefficient, t 1, t 2Be time constant;
Utilize Origin software that electrokinetic cell pulsed discharge experimental data is carried out the match of second order exponential damping, obtain fitting result, the corresponding relation of parameter is as follows in the parameter in the fitting parameter tabulation and the formula (1-12):
y 0=U 0????????????????????????????????????????(1-14)
A 1=R 1' I bThereby R 1'=| A 1/ I b| (1-15)
A 2=R 2' I bThereby R 2'=| A 2/ Ib| (1-16)
t 11Again because of τ 1=R 1' C 1', so C 1'=τ 1/ R 1' (1-17)
t 22Again because of τ 2=R 2' C 2', so C 2'=τ 2/ R 2' (1-18)
Since then, in the electrokinetic cell process of pulse discharge, the parameter in the equivalent-circuit model is all calculated and is finished; As Ohmage R bOr R b' relative error when surpassing 20%, think that cell health state is not good.
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CN106597308A (en) * 2016-12-16 2017-04-26 西南交通大学 Power cell residual electricity quantity estimation method
CN106597308B (en) * 2016-12-16 2018-12-25 西南交通大学 A kind of power battery method for estimating remaining capacity
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