CN102898252B - Organic fertilizer, preparation method thereof and method for controlling soil-borne diseases and insect pests - Google Patents

Organic fertilizer, preparation method thereof and method for controlling soil-borne diseases and insect pests Download PDF

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CN102898252B
CN102898252B CN201210359660.XA CN201210359660A CN102898252B CN 102898252 B CN102898252 B CN 102898252B CN 201210359660 A CN201210359660 A CN 201210359660A CN 102898252 B CN102898252 B CN 102898252B
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tea
fertilizer
dried
powder
component
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CN102898252A (en
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张志祥
徐汉虹
周游
张宁
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South China Agricultural University
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South China Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention relates to an organic fertilizer, preparation method thereof and a method for controlling soil-borne diseases and insect pests. The organic fertilizer comprises a first component and a second component, and is prepared by evenly mixing the first component and the second component at the mass ratio of 1:(1-900), wherein the first component is trichloroisocyanuric acid and/or chloroisobromine cyanuric acid, and the second component is tea seed oil cake dry powder. The organic fertilizer provided by the invention can be used for overcoming the defect that the insecticidal effect is reduced or fertilizer efficiency release is slow since the tea seed oil cake dry powder is directly used for a farmland system or is used for the farmland system after being composted, so that the soil fertility is remarkably improved, and the crop yield is greatly increased; and meanwhile, the insecticidal effect and the sterilizing effect are remarkable.

Description

Fertilizer and preparation method thereof and a kind of method of preventing and treating soil-borne disease insect pest
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of fertilizer, relate in particular to a kind of fertilizer with pesticide-germicide function.
Background technology
Soil-borne disease insect pest, particularly soil-borne disease are the important factors that affects agriculture production always.The pathogenic bacteria of soil-borne disease, taking fungi as main, also has bacterium, virus type pathogenic bacterium, and soil is the good propagation medium of soil-borne pathogen.In production, more than the 100 kind of pathogenic bacteria of the vegetables such as harm melon and fruit beans is everlasting in soil or survives the winter in soil by invalid body.Therefore, agriculture production must be paid attention to soil disinfection sterilization.But, in agriculture production due to the reason such as continuous cropping, improper fertilization, cause soil-borne disease in greenhouse, booth and large Tanaka generally occur, endanger seriously.Continuous cropping causes the breeding year after year in soil of some pathogenic bacteria, accumulation in a large number, forms sick soil, every year morbidity.Gently here wither, withered and yellow, heavy rotten, rotten seedling, cause crop yield reduction and quality to decline.Meanwhile, use in a large number and do not macerate ripe domestic birds and animals ight soil as chicken and duck excrement and pig cow dung etc., will stimulate sickle-like bacteria, Verticillium and rhizoctonia growth in soil-borne disease bacterium, increase the weight of the generation of soil-borne disease.
The soil insect that dwells takes food the part of a crop which is beneath the ground (seed, root, stem) and the subaerial tender stem of underground part, has disguised strong, the feature such as kind is many, distribution is wide, cause harm heavily, is the important subterranean pest-insect of economy, food crop and horticulture and flower etc.The insect that dwells usually causes that plant growth is bad and even directly causes crop death soil.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid (molecular formula: C 3n 3o 3cl 3; Fusing point: 247-251 DEG C) and chlorobromide isocyanuric acid (molecular formula: C 3hO 3n 3clBr; Physical behavior: white powder, soluble in water.) be strong oxidizer and chlorizating agent, there is efficient, wide spectrum, safer disinfection, bacterium, virus, fungi, gemma etc. are had to killing action, coccidian oocyst is also had to certain killing effect, there is certain insecticidal action simultaneously.Agriculturally can be used as crop seeds sterilizing agent, crop disease control agent, agricultural land soil sterilizing agent and fruit type vegetable preservation agent, all have good effect and sterilization and disinfection effect at aspects such as sericulture, livestock industry, culture fishery, health and epidemic prevention, tap water, swimming pools.
The withered puce particle that is of tea is Seed of Camellia oleifera remaining residue after oil expression.It is higher and have the general name of the class plant that cultivating economic is worth that oil tea is often referred to fat content in Camellia Plants, with oil palm, Fructus oleae europaeae and coconut and claim the world 4 large woody oil tree species, mainly contain more than 10 of common oil tea (Camellia oliefera), Yunnan camellia (C.retioulata), Zhejiang safflower oil tea (C.ehekangoleosa), piece county oil tea (C.yuhsiensis), fruitlet oil tea (C.meioearpa), Camellia Vietnamensis (C.vietnamensis) and Japanese red camellias (C.japoniea) etc. and plant.Be distributed in China Yangtze valley and areas to the south, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Japanese etc. have a small amount of cultivation.
The withered fertilizer of can working as of tea uses, again can antibacterial desinsection.Withered fatty 6.82%, the crude protein 13.03% of tea, robust fibre 12.50%, tea saponin 24.06%, carbohydrate 33.90% and 10.68% other compositions, containing N 1.99%, P 0.54%, K 2.33%, can promote oil tea young sprout to increase by 25% left and right in tea oil tree root withered tea spreading manuer in holes.Tea is withered effective to the subterranean pest-insect such as cutworm, chafer, better to rice blast, banded sclerotial blight, sclerotinia rot of colza texts.Tea is withered can also be applied to the field such as pore forming material, animal-feed.
But, withered during as insecticidal organic fertilizer with tea, there is some problems.If by its fermentation maturity, may active insecticidal components major part degrade, although improved fertilizer efficiency, can significantly reduce insecticidal activity; If be directly used in farmland system, active insecticidal components and nutritive ingredient discharge slowly, can not effectively kill soil and pass insect and increase soil fertility.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide that a kind of fertilizer efficiency is high, the significant fertilizer of insecticidal effect.This fertilizer has overcome toxic effect decay or fertilizer efficiency that dried-up tea powder is caused during for farmland system directly or after becoming thoroughly decomposed and has discharged defect slowly.
The present invention solve another technical problem be to provide a kind of by fertilizer for preventing and treating the application of soil-borne disease insect pest.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A kind of fertilizer, comprises the first component and the second component, and the mass ratio of the first component and the second component is 1:1 ~ 900, and wherein, the first component is trichloroisocyanuric acid and/or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, and the second component is the dried-up powder of tea.
The mass ratio of described the first component and the second component is 1:50 ~ 500, is preferably 1:100 ~ 300.
The present invention also provides a kind of method of preventing and treating soil-borne disease insect pest, and the method is that above-mentioned fertilizer is imposed on to the farmland system with soil-borne disease insect pest.
The preparation method of above-mentioned fertilizer, comprises the following steps:
1) prepare the dried-up powder of tea, dry in the shade or dry withered tea, then pulverize evenly, obtain the dried-up powder of tea;
2) trichloroisocyanuric acid and/or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid in mass ratio: dried-up powder=1:1 ~ 900 of tea, by trichloroisocyanuric acid and/or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid slowly and admix in multiple times on a small quantity step 1) in the dried-up powder of tea of gained.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, fertilizer of the present invention can significantly improve soil fertility, increases considerably crop yield.
Described fertilizer is imposed on after the system of farmland, active oxygen and hypochlorous acid that trichloroisocyanuric acid and chlorobromide isocyanuric acid degraded form are all strong oxidizers, can the dried-up powder of oxidative degradation tea, make it discharge rapidly nutritive ingredient and insecticidal constituent, thereby play the object of quick increase soil fertility.Can find out equally from testing data, full nitrogen, organic matter and tea saponin content in soil increase sharply after fertilising, after fertilising, within the 3rd day, reach peak value, and use separately trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, or while using separately the dried-up powder of tea, in soil, the content of full nitrogen, organic matter and tea saponin almost remains unchanged, and content is starkly lower than the content after application of organic fertilizers, in table 3.The present invention can significantly promote the volume increase good harvest of farm crop, and as shown in table 4, the highest stimulation ratio reaches 21.40%.
2, fertilizer of the present invention has significant Pesticidal and sterilizing effect.
As mentioned above, after application of organic fertilizers, the dried-up powder of tea is under the active oxygen and hypochlorous effect of trichloroisocyanuric acid and chlorobromide isocyanuric acid degraded formation, discharge rapidly nutritive ingredient and insecticidal constituent, wherein, active oxygen and hypochlorous acid all belong to strong oxidizer, have the function of good sterilising effect and the native insect that dwells of poisoning, simultaneously, the tea saponin that the dried-up powder of tea is decomposed to form also has desinsection, sterilization effect widely, and active oxygen and hypochlorous acid and tea saponin coupling, played the effect of potentiating pesticidal.
3, described fertilizer degraded is thorough, non-residual toxicity.
The fertilizer that imposes on farmland system can thoroughly be degraded under the effect of trichloroisocyanuric acid and chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, non-residual toxicity.
Specific embodiments
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, technical solution of the present invention is described in further detail.
Implement 1
1:1 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:1 of tea.
Its preparation method comprises the following steps:
(1) prepare the dried-up powder of tea
Seed of Camellia oleifera remaining residue after oil expression dried or dried in the shade, then dry under 50 DEG C of conditions, then pulverizing, obtaining the dried-up powder of tea.
(2) trichloroisocyanuric acid in mass ratio: the dried-up powder=1:1 of tea, by trichloroisocyanuric acid respectively slowly and admix in multiple times on a small quantity in the dried-up powder of tea of step (1) gained, finally makes fertilizer.
(3) packing and storing
The fertilizer of having prepared plastic bag sealing package storage, should slowly reduce pressure and extract air in bag when encapsulation.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea, its preparation method is identical with above-mentioned steps.
Embodiment 2
1:5 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:5 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 3
1:20 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:20 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 4
1:50 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:50 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 5
1:100 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:100 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 6
1:300 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:300 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 7
1:500 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:500 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Embodiment 8
1:900 prepares the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea in mass ratio, and this fertilizer each component ratio is:
Trichloroisocyanuric acid: the dried-up powder=1:900 of tea.
Its preparation method is identical with embodiment 1, just changes each component ratio, is not repeated.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid in the present embodiment is replaced to chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and make the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.
Using method of the present invention is:
When operation, put on plastic glove, directly fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields in farmland system, or mix in multiple times on a small quantity with sandy soil, wood chip or other dispersion medium that can spread fertilizer over the fields, then spread fertilizer over the fields in farmland system.The mass ratio of the dispersion medium such as fertilizer of the present invention and sandy soil is preferably 1:10 ~ 500.
Test the dried-up powder fertilizer of 1 trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea preventing soil-borne disease insect pest
Control effect test
Fertilizer as test is the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea and the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea of different proportioning ratios.
Testing sequence: choose and exist certain or the harmful farm crop field of certain several garden to test.Wherein the efficiency test of wireworm and black cutworm larvae is to carry out same place, same time, the efficiency test of all the other insect mole crickets, grub, Phyllotreta striolata larva, tomato root-knot eelworm and banana root knot nematode in different location and/or different time carry out; The efficiency test of eggplant verticillium wilt, cucumber fusarium axysporum, Fusarium solani in different location and/or different time carry out.While carrying out several gardens evil of certain or certain efficiency test, 19Ge community is set respectively, each community is not less than 30m 2, wherein 3 is check plot.In the consumptions of 50,000 grams/acre, dried-up trichloroisocyanuric acid+the tea of different proportioning ratios powder fertilizer is directly spread fertilizer over the fields respectively in 8 different districts wherein, dried-up chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+the tea of different proportioning ratios powder fertilizer is directly spread fertilizer over the fields respectively in other 8 different districts, use separately respectively trichloroisocyanuric acid, chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, the dried-up powder of tea in 3 check plots by the consumptions of 50,000 grams/acre.
Adopt the conventional test of pesticide effectiveness, the prevention effect of observing afterwards mole cricket, wireworm, grub, black cutworm larvae, Phyllotreta striolata larva, tomato root-knot eelworm, banana root knot nematode, eggplant verticillium wilt, cucumber fusarium axysporum, Fusarium solani at one day and three days respectively, wherein, table 1 is the data statistics situation of fertilising after 1 day, and table 2 is the data statistics situation of fertilising after 3 days.
The statistical method of prevention effect of the present invention is as follows:
Soil is passed to insect, and at the 1st day and the 3rd day that uses after this fertilizer, investigation records fertilizer was processed certain Mortality of insect of community and check plot respectively, thereby calculates the prevention effect to this kind of insect.
For soil-borne disease, control time is that field starts to occur the 1st day and the 3rd day after diseased plant.Investigation records fertilizer is processed diseased plant number, the dead strain number of community and check plot or the plant number of obviously withering respectively, thereby calculates the prevention effect to this kind of disease.
This test is in the time of statistic data, for using the contrast community of the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea and the community of using separately trichloroisocyanuric acid, only add up the prevention effect of mole cricket, wireworm, grub, black cutworm larvae, eggplant verticillium wilt, for the contrast community of using the community of the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea and using separately chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, only add up the prevention effect of Phyllotreta striolata larva, tomato root-knot eelworm, banana root knot nematode, cucumber fusarium axysporum, Fusarium solani.For the contrast community of using separately the dried-up powder of tea, the prevention effect of statistics mole cricket, wireworm, grub, black cutworm larvae, Phyllotreta striolata larva, tomato root-knot eelworm, banana root knot nematode, eggplant verticillium wilt, cucumber fusarium axysporum, Fusarium solani.
The dried-up powder organic fertilizer application of table 1 trichloroisocyanuric acid or the chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea 1 day prevention effect testing data to soil-borne disease insect pest
Note: in table 1, A is trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, B is the dried-up powder of tea.
The dried-up powder organic fertilizer application of table 2 trichloroisocyanuric acid or the chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea 3 days prevention effect testing data to soil-borne disease insect pest
Note: A is trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, and B is the dried-up powder of tea.
Through observation shows that, compared with simultaneous test (being A:B=1:0 or 0:1), after using fertilizer of the present invention, there is significant insecticidal effect, in the time that the mass ratio of trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid and the dried-up powder of tea is between 1:50 ~ 900, insecticidal effect is the most remarkable, is preferably 1:300 ~ 500.Need the thing of explanation, test 1 only proves that trichloroisocyanuric acid or the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea have good pesticide-germicide effect, and above-mentioned test is used respectively different fertilizers to different insects or germ and do not formed the restriction to fertilizer function.
Test the manure trial of the dried-up powder fertilizer of 2 trichloroisocyanuric acids+tea
Testing sequence, adopt conventional manure trial, dried-up trichloroisocyanuric acid+the tea of 1:300 proportioning ratio powder fertilizer is directly spread fertilizer over the fields after mixing in farmland system or with sandy soil and spread fertilizer over the fields in farmland system, after fertilising the 0.5th day, the 1st day, the 3rd day, the 5th day, the 7th day and detect under earth's surface the content of full nitrogen, organic matter and tea saponin in every kilogram of soil of 0 ~ 10cm on the 15th day respectively, test-results is in table 3, wherein, the mensuration of tea saponin content adopts liquid chromatography technology, and the mensuration of soil nutrient content adopts nutrient determinator to measure.
The manure trial data of the dried-up powder fertilizer of table 3 trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea
Note: in table 4, A is trichloroisocyanuric acid, B is the dried-up powder of tea.
Test shows, use after fertilizer of the present invention, tea saponin in soil, full nitrogen and organic content ratio are significantly improved when using trichloroisocyanuric acid or use separately the dried-up powder of tea separately, and, within the 3rd day after fertilising, can reach peak value, the degradation speed that has significantly accelerated the dried-up powder of tea, has improved soil fertility.
Test the test of the dried-up powder fertilizer of 4 trichloroisocyanuric acids or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea to increasing crop yield
This tests fertilizer used is the fertilizer that trichloroisocyanuric acid or the dried-up powder of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea are prepared by different ratios, this tests selected farm crop is wild cabbage and tobacco, wherein, wild cabbage is used to the dried-up powder fertilizer of trichloroisocyanuric acid+tea, tobacco is used to the dried-up powder fertilizer of chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea.Specific operation process is, chooses kind of a field that has wild cabbage, and 10Ge community is set, and each community is not less than 30m 2, wherein, 2 communities are check plot, press respectively the consumption application of organic fertilizers of 50,000 grams/acre in each community, use separately the dried-up powder of tea a contrast community, do not use any fertilizer in another contrast community.Fertilization time is after field planting the 7th day.In like manner, identical with wild cabbage to the processing of tobacco.In the time gathering in the crops, individual plant weight, plant height and output the statistics of measuring respectively wild cabbage and tobacco are as follows, and wherein increase of production rate calculates with respect to simultaneous test.
The testing data of the dried-up powder fertilizer of table 4 trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid+tea to increasing crop yield
Note: in table 4, A is trichloroisocyanuric acid or chlorobromide isocyanuric acid, B is the dried-up powder of tea.
Test shows, uses after this fertilizer, and crop yield has had and significantly improves, and in the time that proportioning ratio is 1:500, the increase of production rate of wild cabbage is up to 17.66%, and in the time that proportioning ratio is 1:300, the increase of production rate of tobacco is up to 21.40%.

Claims (2)

1. a fertilizer, is made up of trichloroisocyanuric acid and the dried-up powder of tea, and the mass ratio of trichloroisocyanuric acid and the dried-up powder of tea is 1:900.
2. a preparation method for fertilizer described in claim 1, comprises the following steps:
1) prepare the dried-up powder of tea, dry in the shade or dry withered tea, then pulverize evenly, obtain the dried-up powder of tea;
2) trichloroisocyanuric acid in mass ratio: the dried-up powder=1:900 of tea, by trichloroisocyanuric acid slowly and admix in multiple times on a small quantity step 1) in the dried-up powder of tea of gained.
CN201210359660.XA 2012-09-24 2012-09-24 Organic fertilizer, preparation method thereof and method for controlling soil-borne diseases and insect pests Active CN102898252B (en)

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