CN102879429B - Testing system for gas explosion characteristic size effect - Google Patents

Testing system for gas explosion characteristic size effect Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102879429B
CN102879429B CN201210382546.9A CN201210382546A CN102879429B CN 102879429 B CN102879429 B CN 102879429B CN 201210382546 A CN201210382546 A CN 201210382546A CN 102879429 B CN102879429 B CN 102879429B
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China
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gas
pipeline
container
hydrostatic column
place
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CN201210382546.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102879429A (en
Inventor
王志荣
崔益清
张煜
蒋军成
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南京工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a testing system for a gas explosion characteristic size effect and relates to a testing system which studies on the gas explosion characteristic size effect. The device comprises a gas distribution device, an ignition device, an explosion device, a data collecting and processing device and a high-speed digital camera, wherein the gas distribution device comprises a combustible gas source, a distribution gas source and a gas distribution tank; the ignition device comprises a igniter, and the igniter is installed on the explosion device; the data collecting and processing device comprises a pressure sensor, a flame propagation rate sensor, a temperature sensor, a signal amplification circuit, a data collecting circuit and a computer, and the pressure sensor, the flame propagation rate sensor and the temperature sensor are installed on a spherical container, a cylindrical container and a pipeline; the explosion device is installed between the gas distribution device and the data collecting and processing device, and the explosion device comprises the spherical container, the cylindrical container and the pipeline; and the high-speed digital camera is used for shooting flames during explosion of the combustible gas inside the containers and the pipeline, and an output end of the high-speed digital camera is connected with the computer.

Description

The test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect
Technical field
The test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect of the present invention relates to a kind of test macro of learning gas blast characteristics size effect, test macro of the present invention can change the shape of container and pipeline, size and types of attachment different each other, form different explosive releases, with air distributing device, data acquisition and treating apparatus connect, by being arranged on the pressure transducer on explosive release, temperature sensor, rate of flame propagation sensor and high-speed digital photography machine, record the gas burst characteristic parameter data of each feature locations on container and pipeline: explosion pressure, blast temperature, rate of flame propagation and flame image, carry out system by the characteristic parameter data recorded experiment analyze all sidedly and add up, dynamic characteristics such as the reflection of turbulent flow in learning gas blast process, jet flame, blast wave and energy variation and gas flows, relation between blast wave and explosive flame, investigative analysis physical dimension changes the size effect caused, disclose physical dimension influencing mechanism that gas burst is propagated, while can also provide basic data for gas burst Strength co-mputation chart under drawing various condition.The present invention also can provide theory support and important evidence for gas venting of dust explosion, antiknock safe design and explosion safety protection in engineering.
Background technology
In industrial processes, the situation that spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline are used singly or in combination is very general, if runaway reaction or container, pipeline existing defects, the accidents such as meeting initiation fire blast, cause personnel's property loss.But in different process process, the shape of container, size, physical dimension when reactor connects from pipeline is often also different, and the hazard level of accident also can be therefore different.In engineering, the phenomenon of change is called the size effect of gas burst characteristic with the size of container, shape and version change for gas or Characteristics of Dust Explosion.
Foreign scholar Bartknecht is by analyzing abundant experimental results, propose blast cube root law, disclose the rule of inflammable gas when closed container implode between maximum pressure raise and explosive container volume, but blast cube root law cannot be predicted maximum explosion pressure, and this formula is only applicable to single closed container, unpredictable especially to the gas burst characteristic in labyrinth container.Although Chinese scholars is for also having related to the version of container and pipeline and the length variations of pipeline in the research of gas or Characteristics of Dust Explosion to the impact of blast characteristics, but they are mainly from ignition location, ignition energy, gas or dust concentration, gas quick-fried source character, the aspects such as blast process rule and barrier are considered, research for size effect mainly concentrates on single container or simple pipeline, and for pipeline one termination container, the experimental data of the complication systems such as pipe ends connecting container is few, lack systematicness, analysis and summary cannot go out the qualitative, quantitative rule of gas burst size effect.Chinese scholars research discuss wall effect, pressure accumulated effect or corner-turning effect, be also all fundamentally affected by the structure of container or pipeline and size.Current existing achievement in research experiment condition varies, and lacks systematicness, cannot carry out statistical study to experimental data.The container that usual use simulated experiment data or traditional theory computation model instruct or pipeline antiknock and venting of dust explosion safe design, have ignored container or the different impact brought of line size change.
Therefore, need to develop a set of can the test macro of systematic study gas burst size effect, carry out experiment and the theoretical research of gas explosion process under various structure and size condition, disclose the rule of gas burst size effect, gas burst intensity is predicted, have important theory value and practical significance for this type of disastrous accident of prevention and corntrol effectively, achievement in research will for industrial container or pipeline be datonation-inhibition, flame proof and put out the safety technique such as quick-fried and provide foundation.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to systematically to study the blast characteristics of inflammable gas and the size effect of blast characteristics under series of structure dimensions condition for existing flammable gas explosion characteristic test device, and result of study not extensive, the problem solving actual condition problem cannot be applied to, a kind of test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect is provided, be a kind of can the test macro of system learning gas blast characteristics size effect all sidedly.
Gas burst characteristic dimension effect test macro of the present invention takes following technical scheme to realize:
Gas burst characteristic dimension effect test macro comprise air distributing device, portfire, explosive release, data acquisition and treating apparatus and high-speed digital photography machine.
Described air distributing device comprises inflammable gas source of the gas, distribution source of the gas and distribution tank, and the input end of distribution tank is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively, another road of distribution tank export with explosive release input port be connected.
Described portfire comprises lighter, and lighter is arranged on explosive release, and described lighter adopts spark ignition.According to the difference of lighter installation site, the igniting of diverse location can be realized; According to the difference entering container depth, the wall igniting of container or pipeline and the igniting of centerfire two kinds of forms can be realized.
Described data acquisition processing device comprises the pressure transducer be arranged on described spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor and signal amplification circuit, data acquisition circuit, computing machine, pressure transducer, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor are connected with the input end of signal amplifier, the output terminal of signal amplifier is connected with the input end of data acquisition unit, and the output terminal of data acquisition unit is connected with computing machine.
Described explosive release is arranged between air distributing device and data acquisition processing device, and explosive release comprises spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline.Spherical container, all freely can be docked by flange between hydrostatic column and pipeline.
Described high-speed digital photography machine is for taking flame during flammable gas explosion in container and pipeline, and high-speed digital photography machine camera lens is just to the viewing section needing monitoring location, and high-speed digital photography machine output terminal is connected with computing machine.
Described spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline all have sizes specification, for carrying out inflammable gas in different size or the container of shape or the Research on Size Effect of ducted blast characteristics.
Described explosive release various piece by changing container, the geomery of pipeline and mutual syndeton, carry out connections combination easily, from the size effect that structure and geomery two aspect learning gas are exploded.
Described spherical container volume is 11L-1m 3, be respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.
Described hydrostatic column is respectively 2:1 and 1:1 two kinds according to the length-diameter ratio ratio of internal diameter (length with).Length-diameter ratio is the hydrostatic column volume of 2:1 is 11L-1m 3, preferred volume is respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.The length-diameter ratio ratio of internal diameter (length with) for the hydrostatic column volume of 1:1 be 11L-1m 3, preferred volume is respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.
Described pipeline is divided into circular pipe and square pipe two kinds by interior cross section.The pipeline of often kind of cross sectional shape has 5 kinds of different sectional dimensions, and often kind of size pipeline all has 5 joints, the long 2m of every length of tubing.Circular pipe diameter of section is 30mm-180mm, and preferred cross-sections diameter is respectively 30mm, 60mm, 100mm, 140mm and 180mm; The square pipe cross section length of side is 23.6mm-141.3mm, and the preferred cross-sections length of side is respectively 23.6mm, 47.1mm, 78.5mm, 109.9mm and 141.3mm.
All there is high strength Perspex section at the specific position place of described container and pipeline, for flame image during high-speed digital photography machine shooting gas burst.Spherical container has 4 place's viewing sections, lays respectively in the middle of spherical container horizontal largest contours position, vertically conduit and horizontal largest contours position, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Hydrostatic column has 5 place's viewing sections, lay respectively at the upper, middle and lower part of hydrostatic column main body, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Pipeline has 3 place's viewing sections, lay respectively at pipeline left, center, right.
Container and pipeline are equipped with lighter interface, sensor interface, air inlet/outlet.Spherical container has 1 place's lighter interface; Hydrostatic column has 3 place's lighter interfaces, lays respectively at upper, middle and lower 3 place of container; Every length of tubing there are 3 place's lighter interfaces, lay respectively at left, center, right 3 place of pipeline.Many places lighter interface can be implemented in container or the igniting of pipeline diverse location, the size effect impact that research ignition location produces gas burst characteristic.Sensor comprises pressure transducer, temperature sensor and rate of flame propagation sensor.The feature locations of container and pipeline is evenly equipped with sensor interface, can realize monitoring the systematicness of explosive release feature locations place flammable gas explosion characteristic.Feature locations comprises: extraction catheter and container combination place, spherical container shoulder, the horizontal largest contours place of spherical container, hydrostatic column shoulder, hydrostatic column upper and lower, pipeline left, center, right three part, pipe ends closure fange center.Air inlet/outlet is used for the circulation of the flammable premixed gas of charge and discharge, container or blowing pipeline and premixed gas, and the circulation pattern adopting bottom in and top out or a left side to enter the right side to go out, ensures that inflammable gas mixes.
Adopt below spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline and stablize steelframe support, and universal wheel is installed, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.
Bridge piece is corresponding with the pipeline of above-mentioned shape and size to be used, and angle of bend is 45 °-150 °, is respectively 45 °, 60 °, 90 °, 120 ° and 150 °.Bridge piece can realize the mutual connection angle of the parts such as container, pipeline, and between convenient structure such as research container and container, pipeline and pipeline, container and pipeline etc., angle changes the size effect that causes to the impact of gas burst characteristic.
Described portfire, this portfire is high-energy electronic igniter (model: XDH-6L), and ignition energy is 6J, and this device speed of ignition is fast, easy to operate.By the burning torch of customized different length, can be implemented in container or pipeline center's igniting and wall and light a fire.
Described high-speed digital photography machine, the highest resolution@capture rate of this high-speed digital photography machine image acquisition device (model: Phantom V7.3): 800 × 600@6688 frame/second; The highest capture rate@resolution: 190476 frames //@32 × 8; The minimum exposure time: 2 μ s; Pixel count: 480000; Communication interface: gigabit Ethernet; Sensitivity (ISO-12232 SAT): 4800(black and white); 1200(is colored); Camera lens: Nikon AF Zoom 80-200mm f/2.8D ED; Software triggers; Frame synchronization: independent FSYNC BNC synchronous port, supports internal clock source, external clock reference, IRIG-8 timing code and phase shift IRIG-B.
Data acquisition processing device, this data collector forms primarily of the pressure transducer be arranged in described explosive release, temperature sensor, rate of flame propagation sensor, signal amplification circuit, data acquisition circuit and computing machine, pressure transducer, temperature sensor are connected with the input end of signal amplification circuit with rate of flame propagation sensor, the output terminal of signal amplification circuit is connected with the input end of data acquisition circuit, and the output terminal of data acquisition circuit is connected with computing machine.Take explosive release implode flame flow field picture by high-speed digital photography machine, the output terminal of high-speed digital photography machine is connected with computing machine simultaneously.
The input end of described distribution tank is connected with the output terminal of distributing instrument (model can be GH-1), and the input end of distributing instrument is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively.
Described distribution source of the gas is pure air.Described inflammable gas source of the gas adopts methane, propane, ethene and liquefied gas etc.
Described each device, except interior shape, size difference, external connections all freely can be connected by standard flange.
Test macro of the present invention can change the shape of container and pipeline, size and types of attachment different each other, form different explosive releases, be connected with air distributing device, data acquisition and treating apparatus, by being arranged on pressure transducer, temperature sensor, rate of flame propagation sensor and the high-speed digital photography machine on explosive release, record the gas burst characteristic parameter data of each feature locations on container and pipeline: explosion pressure, blast temperature, rate of flame propagation and flame image; Carry out system by the characteristic parameter data recorded experiment analyze all sidedly and add up, dynamic characteristics such as the reflection of turbulent flow in learning gas blast process, jet flame, blast wave and energy variation and gas flows, relation between blast wave and explosive flame, investigative analysis physical dimension changes the size effect caused, disclose physical dimension influencing mechanism that gas burst is propagated, while can also provide basic data for gas burst Strength co-mputation chart under drawing various condition.The present invention also can provide theory support and important evidence for gas venting of dust explosion, antiknock safe design and explosion safety protection in engineering.
the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The experimental provision clear in structure of gas burst characteristic dimension effect of the present invention is reasonable, systematicness is strong, and easy to operate, powerful, automaticity is high.
1, present invention comprises a series of geometric configuration, the container of size and pipeline, container and pipeline can be combined into different structures, ignition location distribution comprehensively, comprehensive and reasonable arranged by sensor, the blast characteristics of inflammable gas under different structure and size condition and propagation law can be studied, obtain comprehensive experimental data.
2, the present invention may be used for studying inflammable gas dynamic characteristic such as turbulent flow in blast process, jet flame, blast wave reflection and energy variation and gas flows, relation between blast wave and explosive flame in container, pipeline.
3, the present invention can for disclose that physical dimension change causes size effect influencing mechanism that gas burst is propagated and provide enough basic theory data under drawing various construction geometry condition gas burst Strength co-mputation chart system.
4, the present invention can be widely used in Chemical Manufacture flammable gas explosion risk analysis under typical sizes parameter influence, for venting of dust explosion, the antiknock safe design of reaction vessel and pipeline, prevent the generation of particularly serious explosion accident, bring significant social and economic effects.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below with reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is further illustrated:
Fig. 1 is system architecture schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is gas distributing system schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is data acquisition and the analytic system schematic diagram of proving installation of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is explosive release spherical container of the present invention and pipeline connection diagram.
Fig. 5 is hydrostatic column structural front view of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is hydrostatic column structure left view of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is spherical container structural front view of the present invention.
Fig. 8 is the sensing station schematic diagram of spherical container of the present invention.
Fig. 9 is pipeline configuration schematic diagram of the present invention.
Figure 10 is the sensing station schematic diagram of circular pipe of the present invention.
Figure 11 is the sensing station schematic diagram of square pipe of the present invention.
Embodiment
With reference to accompanying drawing 1 ~ 11, gas burst characteristic dimension effect test macro comprise air distributing device, portfire, explosive release, data acquisition and treating apparatus and high-speed digital photography machine.
Described air distributing device comprises inflammable gas source of the gas, distribution source of the gas and distribution tank, and the input end of distribution tank is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively, another road of distribution tank export with explosive release input port be connected.
Described portfire comprises lighter, and lighter is arranged on explosive release, and described lighter adopts spark ignition.According to the difference of lighter installation site, the igniting of diverse location can be realized; According to the difference entering container depth, the wall igniting of container or pipeline and the igniting of centerfire two kinds of forms can be realized.
Described data acquisition processing device comprises pressure transducer, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor, signal amplification circuit, data acquisition circuit and the computing machine composition be arranged on described spherical container 1, hydrostatic column 2 and pipeline 3, pressure transducer, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor are connected with the input end of signal amplifier, the output terminal of signal amplifier is connected with the input end of data acquisition unit, and the output terminal of data acquisition unit is connected with computing machine.
Described explosive release is arranged between air distributing device and data acquisition processing device, and explosive release comprises spherical container 1, hydrostatic column 2 and pipeline 3.Spherical container 1, all freely can be docked by flange 4 between hydrostatic column 2 and pipeline 3.
Described high-speed digital photography machine is for taking flame during flammable gas explosion in container and pipeline, and its camera lens is just to the viewing section needing monitoring location, and output terminal is connected with computing machine.
Described spherical container volume is 11L-1m 3, be respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.
Described hydrostatic column is respectively 2:1 and 1:1 two kinds according to the length-diameter ratio ratio of internal diameter (length with).Length-diameter ratio is the hydrostatic column volume of 2:1 is 11L-1m 3, preferred volume is respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.The length-diameter ratio ratio of internal diameter (length with) for the hydrostatic column volume of 1:1 be 11L-1m 3, preferred volume is respectively: 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.
Described pipeline is divided into circular pipe and square pipe two kinds by interior cross section.The pipeline of often kind of cross sectional shape has 5 kinds of different sectional dimensions, and often kind of size pipeline all has 5 joints, the long 2m of every length of tubing.Circular pipe diameter of section is 30mm-180mm, and preferred cross-sections diameter is respectively 30mm, 60mm, 100mm, 140mm and 180mm; The square pipe cross section length of side is 23.6mm-141.3mm, and the preferred cross-sections length of side is respectively 23.6mm, 47.1mm, 78.5mm, 109.9mm and 141.3mm.
All there is high strength Perspex section at the specific position place of described container and pipeline, for flame image during high-speed digital photography machine shooting gas burst.Spherical container 1 has 4 place viewing section 1-3, lays respectively in the middle of spherical container horizontal largest contours position, vertically conduit and horizontal largest contours position, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Hydrostatic column 2 has 5 place viewing section 2-3, lay respectively at the upper, middle and lower part of hydrostatic column main body, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Pipeline 3 has 3 place viewing section 3-3, lay respectively at pipeline left, center, right.
Container and pipeline are equipped with lighter interface, sensor interface, air inlet/outlet.Spherical container has 1 place lighter interface 1-4; Hydrostatic column has 3 place lighter interface 2-4, lays respectively at upper, middle and lower 3 place of container; Every length of tubing there are 3 place lighter interface 3-4, lay respectively at left, center, right 3 place of pipeline.Many places lighter interface can be implemented in container or the igniting of pipeline diverse location, the size effect impact that research ignition location produces gas burst characteristic.Sensor comprises pressure transducer, temperature sensor and rate of flame propagation sensor.The feature locations of container and pipeline is evenly equipped with sensor interface, can realize monitoring the systematicness of explosive release feature locations place flammable gas explosion characteristic.Feature locations comprises: extraction catheter and container combination place, spherical container shoulder, the horizontal largest contours place of spherical container, hydrostatic column shoulder, hydrostatic column upper and lower, pipeline left, center, right three part, pipe ends closure fange center.Air inlet/outlet is used for the circulation of the flammable premixed gas of charge and discharge, container or blowing pipeline and premixed gas, and the circulation pattern adopting bottom in and top out or a left side to enter the right side to go out, ensures that inflammable gas mixes.
With reference to accompanying drawing 2, described air distributing device comprises inflammable gas source of the gas, distribution source of the gas, distribution tank, solenoid valve 1, solenoid valve 29, solenoid valve 3 12, solenoid valve 4 16, flowmeter 10, cooling gas check valve 11, constant-current controller 13, pressure switch 14, stop valve 1, stop valve 2 15 and vacuum pump.Described distribution source of the gas is pure air.Described inflammable gas source of the gas adopts methane, propane, ethene and liquefied gas etc.Inflammable gas source of the gas, distribution source of the gas is respectively by pipeline, solenoid valve 1, solenoid valve 29, flowmeter 10, cooling gas check valve 11 is connected with solenoid valve 3 12, through constant-current controller 13 after mixing, pressure switch 14 controls, the further distribution mixing of distribution tank is sent into by pipeline, open stop valve 2 15, start vacuum pump, explosive release spherical container, hydrostatic column, ducted air aspirates through vacuum pump, exhaust, make explosive release form negative pressure state in container, close stop valve 2 15, open stop valve 1, control Controlled by Programmable Controller by pulpit and open solenoid valve 4 16, inflammable gas and air gas mixture in distribution tank, enter explosive release in container, it is made to reach set pressure, Controlled by Programmable Controller shut electromagnetic valve 4 16 is controlled by pulpit, close stop valve 1, explosive release can enter next step igniting Exploding test program.Described constant-current controller 13 adopts commercially available constant-current controller.Described pressure switch 14 adopts commercially available pressure switch.
With reference to accompanying drawing 4, 7, 8, described explosive release spherical container 1 be provided with air intake opening 1-1, gas outlet 1-2, lighter interface 1-4, pressure sensor interface 1-6, rate of flame propagation sensor interface 1-8, temperature sensor interface 1-7, air intake opening 1-1 is connected with air distributing device by stop valve, lighter interface 1-4 is provided with lighter, in pressure sensor interface 1-6, pressure transducer is installed, in rate of flame propagation sensor interface 1-8, rate of flame propagation sensor is installed, in temperature sensor interface 1-7, temperature sensor is installed, spherical container 1 is freely docked with pipeline 3 by flange 4.Pipeline 3 is provided with air intake opening 3-1, gas outlet 3-2, pressure sensor interface 1-6, rate of flame propagation sensor interface 1-7, temperature sensor interface 1-7, pressure sensor interface 1-6 is provided with pressure transducer, rate of flame propagation sensor interface 1-8 is provided with rate of flame propagation sensor, and temperature sensor interface 1-7 is provided with temperature sensor.Gas circulator 7 air intake opening is connected with the gas outlet 1-2 of spherical container 1, and gas circulator 7 air intake opening is connected with the air intake opening 3-1 of pipeline 3, for before ignition by be contained in explosive release spherical container 1 even with the gas and vapor permeation in pipeline 3.Spherical container 1 is provided with viewing section 1-3, pipeline 3 is provided with viewing section 3-3.Spherical container 1 and pipeline 3 are arranged on stable steelframe 5 respectively and support, and in stable steelframe 5 bottom, universal wheel 6 are housed, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.Described spherical container 1 is provided with tensimeter 1-5, can indicate pressure in spherical container 1.
With reference to accompanying drawing 5, 6, described explosive release hydrostatic column 2 be provided with air intake opening 2-1, gas outlet 2-2, lighter interface 2-4, pressure sensor interface 2-6, rate of flame propagation sensor interface 2-8, temperature sensor interface 2-7, air intake opening 2-1 is connected with air distributing device by stop valve, lighter interface 2-4 is provided with lighter, in pressure sensor interface 2-6, pressure transducer is installed, in rate of flame propagation sensor interface 2-8, rate of flame propagation sensor is installed, in temperature sensor interface 2-7, temperature sensor is installed, hydrostatic column 2 freely docks with pipeline 3 by flange 4.Hydrostatic column 2 is provided with viewing section 2-3.Hydrostatic column 2 is arranged on stable steelframe 5 and supports, and in stable steelframe 5 bottom, universal wheel 6 is housed, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.Described hydrostatic column 2 is provided with tensimeter 2-5, can indicate pressure in hydrostatic column 2.
With reference to accompanying drawing 4, 9, 10, 11, described explosive release pipeline 3 be provided with air intake opening 3-1, gas outlet 3-2, lighter interface 3-4, pressure sensor interface 3-5, rate of flame propagation sensor interface 3-7, temperature sensor interface 3-6, air intake opening 3-1 is connected with air distributing device by stop valve, lighter interface 3-4 is provided with lighter, in pressure sensor interface 3-5, pressure transducer is installed, in rate of flame propagation sensor interface 3-7, rate of flame propagation sensor is installed, in temperature sensor interface 3-6, temperature sensor is installed, pipeline 3 freely docks with hydrostatic column 2 or spherical container 1 by flange 4.Pipeline 3 is provided with viewing section 3-3.Pipeline 3 is arranged on stable steelframe 5 and supports, and in stable steelframe 5 bottom, universal wheel 6 is housed, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.Described pipeline 3 can adopt circular pipe (see accompanying drawing 10) or square pipe (see accompanying drawing 11).
Adopt below spherical container 1, hydrostatic column 2 and pipeline 3 and stablize steelframe 5 and support, and universal wheel 6 is installed, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.
Bridge piece is corresponding with the pipeline of above-mentioned shape and size to be used, and angle of bend is 45 °-150 °, is respectively 45 °, 60 °, 90 °, 120 ° and 150 °.Bridge piece can realize the mutual connection angle of the parts such as container, pipeline, and between convenient structure such as research container and container, pipeline and pipeline, container and pipeline etc., angle changes the size effect that causes to the impact of gas burst characteristic.
Described portfire, this portfire is high-energy electronic igniter (model: XDH-6L), and ignition energy is 6J, and this device speed of ignition is fast, easy to operate.By the burning torch of customized different length, can be implemented in container or pipeline center's igniting and wall and light a fire.
Described high-speed digital photography machine, the highest resolution@capture rate of this high-speed digital photography machine image acquisition device (model: Phantom V7.3): 800 × 600@6688 frame/second; The highest capture rate@resolution: 190476 frames //@32 × 8; The minimum exposure time: 2 μ s; Pixel count: 480000; Communication interface: gigabit Ethernet; Sensitivity (ISO-12232 SAT): 4800(black and white); 1200(is colored); Camera lens: Nikon AF Zoom 80-200mm f/2.8D ED; Software triggers; Frame synchronization: independent FSYNC BNC synchronous port, supports internal clock source, external clock reference, IRIG-8 timing code and phase shift IRIG-B.
Data acquisition processing device, this data collector forms primarily of the pressure transducer be arranged in described explosive release, temperature sensor, rate of flame propagation sensor, signal amplification circuit, data acquisition circuit and computing machine, pressure transducer, temperature sensor are connected with the input end of signal amplification circuit with rate of flame propagation sensor, the output terminal of signal amplification circuit is connected with the input end of data acquisition circuit, and the output terminal of data acquisition circuit is connected with computing machine.Take explosive release implode flame flow field picture by high-speed digital photography machine, the output terminal of high-speed digital photography machine is connected with computing machine simultaneously.
The input end of described distribution tank is connected with the output terminal of distributing instrument (model can be GH-1), and the input end of distributing instrument is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively.
Described distribution source of the gas is pure air.Described inflammable gas source of the gas adopts methane, propane, ethene and liquefied gas etc.
Described each device, except interior shape, size difference, external connections all freely can be connected by standard flange.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and example, the present invention is further illustrated.
Learning gas blast size effect a test macro, it primarily of air distributing device, explosive release, portfire, high-speed digital photography machine and data acquisition processing device composition, as shown in the figure.
Air distributing device (as shown in the figure) wherein comprises distribution tank, the input end of distribution tank is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas (can adopt gas cylinder or directly be connected with gas generating unit) and distribution source of the gas (can be pure air or other inert gas) respectively, in order to accurately control inflammable gas and the combined amount of distribution (air) of joining, a distributing instrument (model can be GH-1) can be installed before the input end of distribution tank, the input end of distributing instrument is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively, also on distribution pipeline, corresponding flowmeter can be installed according to control overflow during concrete enforcement, electric-air valve, the electric control elements such as retaining valve are to improve the automatization level controlled.
Explosive release inlet end be connected with distributing instrument outlet side, inflation terminates rear closedown gas admittance valve, opens air ebullator and flammable premixed gas is mixed.Each sensor access correspondence position, is connected in controller, uses bolt to seal when sensor interface does not use.Container, pipeline use Flange joint each other.
As shown in the figure, it is mainly used in flame profile and the propagation condition of taking inflammable gas explosion time in the container or pipeline of different structure size to high-speed digital photography instrument of the present invention.In use, Phantom control software design is first installed in computing machine, computing machine is connected with high-speed digital photography instrument, open camera lens, start-up routine, show the image that video camera photographs in a computer, by adjustment lens focus, aperture and other parameters, make image meet research requirement.After shooting terminates, shear in control software design, and convert general image and audio-visual broadcast format to, be convenient to viewing and use.
Data collector of the present invention as shown in the figure, it is primarily of the pressure transducer (model can be PT500-503H) be arranged in described gas burst device, temperature sensor (model section is model NANMAC C2-7), rate of flame propagation sensor (adopting phototriode to make), signal amplification circuit (can custom circuit be adopted), data acquisition circuit (custom circuit can be adopted to be realized) and computing machine composition, each sensor is connected with the input end of signal amplification circuit, the output terminal of signal amplification circuit is connected with the input end of data acquisition circuit, the output terminal of data acquisition circuit is connected with computing machine.Data acquisition circuit also can adopt multi-Channels Data Acquisition and data acquisition software to be realized, and data processing and analysis part adopt universal signal analysis software to carry out treatment and analysis to data and signal.Part of data acquisition adopts JV5231 type multi-Channels Data Acquisition synchronous acquisition, and maximum sample rate is 20M, and resolution is 12bit, and trueness error is less than 1.0%.Signal-View universal signal analysis software is adopted to carry out treatment and analysis to data and signal.
It is the experimental system of the size effect of research flammable gas explosion characteristic due to the present invention, therefore the present invention's dismountable of container, pipeline, bend pipe in system by experiment, can complete two-part Research on Size Effect: the gas burst characteristic dimension effect in confined space and the size effect in venting of dust explosion process.The internal diameter change of spherical container is mainly considered in the research of these two aspects, and hydrostatic column length-diameter ratio changes, the container change of adapter, and the length of container adapter, cross-sectional area, shape of cross section are different, and the camber of pipeline is as how factor.
The concrete testing scheme that research geomery change the size effect caused mainly comprises three series: single container or tubing, single container connecting tube is serial, linker is serial, and flammable premixed gas is blasted in the explosive release of each series.
Take in these three kinds of structures by longitudinal comparison list container, container adapter, two containers, the blast characteristics parameter at same feature locations place, the size effect because structure change produces can be studied.
Specific analytical method
By above-mentioned concrete testing scheme, the gas burst characteristic parameter data of diverse location in container and pipeline under different ignition condition can be obtained in different structure size.By the data that systematically analysis design mothod records, disclose size effect to the affecting laws of gas burst characteristic and mechanism.
During analytical calculation gas burst characteristic parameter data, mainly comprise the procedure parameter in explosion wave communication process and characteristic parameter.
(1) procedure parameter
explosion pressure p-the time trelation, according to the real time data that the sensor at each feature locations place obtains, the time dependent conditional curve of same position explosion pressure can be drawn, also can draw the explosion pressure curve at synchronization diverse location place simultaneously, disclose explosion pressure communication process.
rate of pressure rise -the time trelation; By data analysis software origin and Matlab couple p- tdata analysis, can calculate the time dependent curve of rate of pressure rise, discloses the rule of rate of pressure rise change.
blast temperature t-the time trelation, according to the real time data that the sensor at each feature locations place obtains, the time dependent conditional curve of same position temperature can be drawn, also can draw the temperature curve at synchronization diverse location place simultaneously, disclose explosion time temperature propagation process.
temperature rate-of-rise the relation of-time t, by data analysis software origin and Matlab couple t- tdata analysis, can calculate the time dependent curve of temperature rate-of-rise, reflects the rule that temperature rate-of-rise changes.
Flame propagation velocity v.The data gathered by feature locations flame sensor and analysis software origin and Matlab, analytical calculation can go out flame propagation condition, and the flame situation of change of same position.
(2) characteristic parameter
maximum explosion pressure p max, by the analysis to procedure parameter, the position of maximum explosion pressure maximal value in the maximum explosion pressure of same position, same structure can be analyzed easily, disclose the maximum explosion pressure and position that bear in container or pipeline.
maximum explosion pressure climbing speed , by the analysis to procedure parameter, maximum explosion pressure climbing speed can be drawn.
maximum blast temperature t max, by the analysis to procedure parameter, the position of maximum blast temperature maximal value in the maximum blast temperature of same position, same structure can be analyzed easily, disclose the maximum blast temperature and position of bearing in container or pipeline.
maximum blast temperature climbing speed , by the analysis to procedure parameter, maximum explosion pressure climbing speed can be drawn.
Additionally by analysis pressure history, turbulent flow in explosion wave communication process, jet flame, blast wave reflection and the dynamic characteristic such as energy variation can be disclosed and gas flows, relation between blast wave and explosive flame.
The present invention is except can except the size effect of systematic study flammable gas explosion characteristic, if with other experiment test instruments with the use of, can also be used for studying the Flow Field outside characteristic of inflammable gas when container, pipe explosion, thus realize the systematic study of gas burst size effect, Flow Field outside characteristic, and by increasing venting of dust explosion sheet, the venting of dust explosion characteristic of container, pipeline can be studied, for the venting of dust explosion of container, pipeline, anti-explosion design provide infrastest condition, accumulation experimental data.
Experimental implementation process of the present invention is: (1) first experimentally needs, determine explosive release version, size, select suitable container, pipeline to carry out combining and burning torch; (2) assemble explosive release and experimental apparatus according to Fig. 1, the air distributing device that has been linked and packed, explosive release, and data acquisition processing device, arrange high-speed digital photography seat in the plane and put, check the circuit of various parts, and guarantee to connect good, testing fixture impermeability; (3) preparing certain density flammable premixed gas body by distributing instrument is stored in distribution tank; (4) starting vacuum pump makes explosive release be evacuated to negative pressure-0.006MPa, opens solenoid valve, in explosive container, slowly carry flammable premixed gas body, pressure transducer in container and pipeline starts to receive pressure signal, experimentally pressure condition, starts supercharge pump, and setup pressure value; (5) personnel that clear up are to safety zone, leave standstill experimental provision, flammable premixed gas body is mixed, igniting blasting gas subsequently, by the coherent signal of explosion pressure sensor, temperature sensor and rate of flame propagation sensor test gas burst characteristic, high-speed digital photography machine shooting explosion time flame conditions, and by signal transmission to data collecting instrument, carry out the collection of data, process and analysis.
Explosive release of the present invention feature be the structure of container, pipeline, intensifier ring and bend pipe and size system comprehensive, can systematically realize inflammable gas container, pipeline and container and pipeline composition connection container in explode, for learning gas blast the main aspect of size effect influence factor.Structure comprehensive system of the present invention, operability is good, automaticity is high, solve a difficult problem for inflammable gas size effect systematic study, for disclose that physical dimension change causes size effect influencing mechanism that gas burst is propagated and the various construction geometry condition of drafting under gas burst Strength co-mputation chart system enough basic theory data are provided.
The part that the present invention does not relate to prior art that maybe can adopt all same as the prior art is realized.

Claims (12)

1. a test macro for gas burst characteristic dimension effect, is characterized in that: comprise air distributing device, portfire, explosive release, data acquisition processing device and high-speed digital photography machine;
Described air distributing device comprises inflammable gas source of the gas, distribution source of the gas and distribution tank, and the input end of distribution tank is connected with inflammable gas source of the gas and distribution source of the gas respectively, another road of distribution tank export with explosive release input port be connected;
Described portfire comprises lighter, and lighter is arranged on explosive release, adopts spark ignition, according to the difference of lighter installation site, can realize the igniting of diverse location; According to the difference entering container depth, the wall igniting of container or pipeline and the igniting of centerfire two kinds of forms can be realized;
Described data acquisition processing device comprises the pressure transducer be arranged on spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor and signal amplification circuit, data acquisition unit, computing machine; Pressure transducer, rate of flame propagation sensor, temperature sensor are connected with the input end of signal amplifier, and the output terminal of signal amplifier is connected with the input end of data acquisition unit, and the output terminal of data acquisition unit is connected with computing machine;
Described explosive release is arranged between air distributing device and data acquisition processing device, and explosive release comprises spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline; Spherical container, all freely can be docked by flange between hydrostatic column and pipeline;
Described high-speed digital photography machine is for taking flame during flammable gas explosion in container and pipeline, and high-speed digital photography machine camera lens is just to the viewing section needing monitoring location, and high-speed digital photography machine output terminal is connected with computing machine;
Described spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline all have sizes specification, for carrying out inflammable gas in different size or the container of shape or the Research on Size Effect of ducted blast characteristics;
Described explosive release various piece by changing container, the geomery of pipeline and mutual syndeton, carry out connections combination easily, from the size effect that structure and geomery two aspect learning gas are exploded;
Container and pipeline are equipped with lighter interface, sensor interface, air inlet/outlet; Spherical container has 1 place's lighter interface; Hydrostatic column has 3 place's lighter interfaces, lays respectively at upper, middle and lower 3 place of container; Every length of tubing there are 3 place's lighter interfaces, lay respectively at left, center, right 3 place of pipeline;
Many places lighter Interface realization is in container or the igniting of pipeline diverse location, and research ignition location affects the size effect that gas burst characteristic produces; Sensor comprises pressure transducer, temperature sensor and rate of flame propagation sensor; The feature locations of container and pipeline is evenly equipped with sensor interface, realizes monitoring the systematicness of explosive release feature locations place flammable gas explosion characteristic; Feature locations comprises: extraction catheter and container combination place, spherical container shoulder, the horizontal largest contours place of spherical container, hydrostatic column shoulder, hydrostatic column upper and lower, pipeline left, center, right three part, pipe ends closure fange center; Air inlet/outlet is used for the circulation of the flammable premixed gas of charge and discharge, container or blowing pipeline and premixed gas, and the circulation pattern adopting bottom in and top out or a left side to enter the right side to go out, ensures that inflammable gas mixes.
2. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described spherical container volume is 11L-1m 3.
3. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: described spherical container volume is 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m 3.
4. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: described hydrostatic column is respectively 2:1 and 1:1 two kinds according to length-diameter ratio; Length-diameter ratio is the hydrostatic column volume of 2:1 is 11L-1m 3; Length-diameter ratio is the hydrostatic column volume of 1:1 is 11L-1m 3.
5. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described hydrostatic column is 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m according to the hydrostatic column volume that length-diameter ratio is 2:1 3.
6. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described hydrostatic column is 11L, 22L, 113L, 550L and 1m according to the hydrostatic column volume that length-diameter ratio is 1:1 3.
7. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described pipeline is divided into circular pipe and square pipe two kinds by interior cross section; The pipeline of often kind of cross sectional shape has 5 kinds of different sectional dimensions, and often kind of size pipeline all has 5 joints, the long 2m of every length of tubing; Circular pipe diameter of section is 30mm-180mm; The square pipe cross section length of side is 23.6mm-141.3mm.
8. the test macro of the gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1 or 7, is characterized in that: circular pipe diameter of section is respectively 30mm, 60mm, 100mm, 140mm and 180mm.
9. the test macro of the gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1 or 7, is characterized in that: the square pipe cross section length of side is respectively 23.6mm, 47.1mm, 78.5mm, 109.9mm and 141.3mm.
10. the test macro of gas burst characteristic dimension effect according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described container and pipeline all have high strength Perspex section, for flame image during high-speed digital photography machine shooting gas burst; Spherical container has 4 place's viewing sections, lays respectively in the middle of spherical container horizontal largest contours position, vertically conduit and horizontal largest contours position, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Hydrostatic column has 5 place's viewing sections, lay respectively at the upper, middle and lower part of hydrostatic column main body, vertical conduit place, horizontal duct place; Pipeline has 3 place's viewing sections, lay respectively at pipeline left, center, right.
The test macro of 11. gas burst characteristic dimension effects according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described air distributing device also comprises solenoid valve one, solenoid valve two, solenoid valve three, solenoid valve four, flowmeter, cooling gas check valve, constant flow control valve, pressure switch, stop valve one, stop valve two and vacuum pump.
The test macro of 12. gas burst characteristic dimension effects according to claim 1, is characterized in that: adopt below spherical container, hydrostatic column and pipeline and stablize steelframe support, and install universal wheel, the mutual combination of convenient container and pipeline.
CN201210382546.9A 2012-10-11 2012-10-11 Testing system for gas explosion characteristic size effect CN102879429B (en)

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