CN102866064A - Tube bulging forming limit test device and method under bi-directional pressurization condition - Google Patents

Tube bulging forming limit test device and method under bi-directional pressurization condition Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102866064A
CN102866064A CN2012103670858A CN201210367085A CN102866064A CN 102866064 A CN102866064 A CN 102866064A CN 2012103670858 A CN2012103670858 A CN 2012103670858A CN 201210367085 A CN201210367085 A CN 201210367085A CN 102866064 A CN102866064 A CN 102866064A
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drift
sample
pipe
patrix
counterdie
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CN2012103670858A
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徐永超
苑世剑
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The invention relates to a tube bulging forming limit test device and a tube bulging forming limit test method under the bi-directional pressurization condition, and particularly relates to a tube bulging forming limit test device and a tube bulging forming limit test method. Aiming at the problems that the bulging forming limit is hard to test in the coexistence status of plane stress and normal stress of a tube, the tube bulging forming limit test device and the tube bulging forming limit test method are provided. The tube bulging forming limit test device comprises an upper die (1) of fluid medium, a lower die (4) of the fluid medium, a left plunger chip (5) and a right plunger chip (3). The tube bulging forming limit test method comprises the steps of placing tube samples, applying mold clamping force, injecting the fluid medium into the upper die (1) and a tube blank (2), and controlling the pressure of inner chambers of the upper die (1) and the tube blank (2) to carry out pressurized deformation. The tube bulging forming limit test device and the tube bulging forming limit test method disclosed by the invention can not only measure the tube bulging forming limit, but also can assess the influence of the normal stress to the tube bulging forming limit.

Description

Tube bulge forming limit proving installation and method under a kind of Bidirectional-pressure condition
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of tube bulge forming limit proving installation and method, be specifically related to a kind of device and method of testing tubing expansion forming limit under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions of surfaces externally and internally Bidirectional-pressure.
Background technology
Forming limit is performance index and technological parameter important in the shaping field, has reflected the maximum distortion degree that material can be obtained before plastic instability.At present, for the forming limit of plate stretch unstability, from aspects such as theoretical and experiments many researchs and evaluation method have been proposed.Wherein, the Nakazima test method(s) is method commonly used at present, its essence is hemisphere rigidity punch bulging test.Print roundness mess by method for printing screen at specimen surface, the lubricated hemisphere rigidity punch bulging that carries out that changes between specimen width and test specimen and punch is tested, after sample breaks, grid becomes ellipse by circle, measure the size near the oval grid major and minor axis of breakdown point position, calculate the strain value of major and minor axis, obtain data point, can draw out shaping limit curve FLC.The forming limit value that this test method obtains meets the shaping under the plane stress state near the actual conditions of the common punching press of sheet material in the commercial production.For tubing, also do not estimate the expansion forming algorithmic method of limit from the experiment aspect for tubing specially at present.
In recent years, Hydroforming take fluid as the power transmission medium is with advantages such as its craft flexibility are high, molding is simple, the formation of parts quality is good, paid attention to day by day widely, can be overcome the deficiency of common drawing mode, be particluarly suitable for the large complex parts of in-process shaping deflection one.Double-directional pressurizing hydraulic for external pressurized in the tubing is shaped, blank is under the high pressure fluid effect, blank deformation often is in plane stress and normal stress coexisting state, also can't estimate the expansion forming limit of tubing under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions at present.
Summary of the invention
For the actual conditions that can't estimate at present tubing expansion forming limit under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions, the invention provides tube bulge forming limit proving installation and method under a kind of Bidirectional-pressure condition, a kind of device and method of testing tubing expansion forming limit under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions namely is provided, use the method and device can obtain the expansion forming limit of tubing under different normal stress states, satisfy practical application.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above the technical scheme of taking to be:
Proving installation of the present invention comprises upper die and lower die, right drift and left drift, is used for holding pipe between the upper die and lower die; The xsect of the cavity of described patrix is oval, and the minor axis of oval cross section is long identical with the diameter of pipe, and described patrix is provided with the mould liquid filling orifice that communicates with cavity; The inside surface that described patrix contacts with pipe is semi-cylindrical, and described semi-cylindrical radius-of-curvature is identical with the pipe external diameter; End is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about the patrix inside surface; The inside surface that described counterdie contacts with pipe is the face of cylinder, and the described face of cylinder is used for contacting with pipe, and described face of cylinder radius-of-curvature is identical with the pipe external diameter, and end is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about the counterdie inside surface; Be respectively equipped with right drift and left drift at the two ends of pipe, be provided with the drift liquid filling orifice that communicates with the pipe inner chamber in the right drift, described left drift and right nose of punch all have 15-20 ° tapering, match with left drift and right drift respectively in the two ends of pipe.
Utilize above-mentioned proving installation to carry out the method for tube bulge forming limit test under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions, described method realizes according to following steps:
Step 1, making upper die and lower die, left drift and right drift: cavity inner surface is elliptic cylinder, and the ratio of long axis to short axis of oval cross section is respectively 1,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2 and 2.5, the long 2b of minor axis and pipe diameter Identical, major axis is respectively With The counterdie inside surface is semi-cylindrical, and the counterdie inner surface diameter is identical with the pipe diameter;
Step 2, making metal pipe material sample:
Utilize the rotten mode of galvanic corrosion to make at the outside surface of metal pipe material sample and be a plurality of circles or the square indenture that matrix is arranged, the outside surface that makes the metal pipe material sample be the matrix roundness mess of arranging or the square net shape; Measurement is circular or the diameter d of square indenture or the length of side d of square indenture that matrix is arranged;
Step 3, clamping metal pipe material sample: will be placed on the counterdie with the metal pipe material sample of printing grid, press ram drives the descending contact tubular product sample of patrix, applies mold clamping force; Left drift and right drift apply horizontal force to pipe, and the tapering of left drift, the tapering of right drift make the two ends of pipe that enlarging occur and recline with patrix inside surface and counterdie inside surface;
Step 4, bidirection press load: inject fluid media (medium) in the cavity of tubular product sample inside, apply the bulging pressure P with the inside surface to tubular product sample 1In the cavity of patrix, inject fluid media (medium) and apply normal pressure P with the outside surface to tubular product sample 2And make normal pressure P 2With the bulging pressure P 1Equate;
Step 5: bulging experiment: increase the internal pressure P1 of the cavity of tubular product sample, the distortion of tubular product sample generation bulging is until sample breaks; After breaking, near the roundness mess of arranging the crackle becomes oval grid, and the square net of arranging becomes the rectangle grid; Pressure and the mold clamping force of the cavity of unloading patrix, the inside cavity of tubular product sample, press ram drives the patrix backhaul, and cross cylinder drives left drift and right drift sets back;
Step 6: measure the grid after the distortion on the metal pipe material sample: the metal pipe material sample is unloaded, measure near the transverse length d of rupture location on the metal pipe material sample 1With minor axis length d 2, or near the long edge lengths d of the rectangle rupture location on the measurement metal pipe material sample 1With bond length d 2
Step 7: the breaking strain ε that calculates the metal pipe material sample according to the data before and after the roundness mess distortion that records 1=Ln[d 1-d/d] and ε 2=Ln[d-d 2/ d], can obtain a dependent variable strong point;
The long axis length of the oval cross section of the cavity of change patrix repeats above-mentioned steps, can obtain otherwise limit dependent variable strong point, respectively with ε 1And ε 2Be horizontal ordinate and ordinate, the drawing data point connects the data point that obtains or match, can obtain at a certain normal pressure P 2Tube bulge shaping limit curve under the condition.
The present invention has the following advantages:
1, is difficult to test for tubing expansion forming limit under plane stress and normal stress coexisting state and normal pressure is difficult to evaluation problem to the impact of forming limit, adopt device of the present invention that tubular product sample is carried out plane stress and the lower expansion forming limit curve test of normal stress concurrent conditions, method is simple, be easy to realize, for the mensuration of tube bulge forming limit provides a kind of method.
2, tubular product sample is applied inside and outside normal pressure, can obtain the expansion forming limit curve under the different normal pressure conditions, convenient assessment normal stress is on the impact of tube bulge forming limit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of proving installation of the present invention; Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional view (be the sectional view of elliptic cylinder, 2a is that major axis, 2b are minor axis, and minor axis 2b is identical with the tubular product sample diameter) of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is tubular product sample (pipe) figure that is printed on grid, the pipe diameter 2b equates with minor axis; Fig. 4 is printed on tubular product sample (pipe) figure of square net.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: as shown in Figures 1 to 4, tube bulge forming limit proving installation comprises patrix 1, counterdie 4, right drift 3 and left drift 5 under the described a kind of Bidirectional-pressure condition of present embodiment, is used for holding pipe 2 between patrix 1 and the counterdie 4; The xsect of the cavity 1-2 of described patrix 1 is oval (inside surface that is cavity 1-2 is elliptic cylinder), and the minor axis of oval cross section is long identical with the diameter of pipe 2, and described patrix 1 is provided with the mould liquid filling orifice 1-1 that communicates with cavity 1-2; The inside surface that described patrix 1 contacts with pipe 2 is semi-cylindrical, and described semi-cylindrical radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe 2 external diameters; End is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about patrix 1 inside surface; The inside surface that described counterdie 4 contacts with pipe 2 is the face of cylinder, and the described face of cylinder is used for contacting with pipe 2, and described face of cylinder radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe 2 external diameters, and end is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about counterdie 4 inside surfaces; Be respectively equipped with right drift 3 and left drift 5 at the two ends of pipe 2, be provided with the drift liquid filling orifice 3-1 that communicates with pipe inner chamber 2-1 in the right drift 3, described left drift 5 and right drift 3 ends all have 15-20 ° tapering, match with left drift 5 and right drift 3 respectively in the two ends of pipe 2.
In use, described patrix 1 is connected with press ram, and described counterdie 4 is connected with press bench, fixing, right drift 3 be connected drift 5 and be connected with cross cylinder respectively.
Embodiment two: as shown in Figures 1 to 4, present embodiment is to utilize the tube bulge forming limit method of testing under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions of above-mentioned proving installation, and described method of testing realizes according to following steps:
Step 1, making patrix 1, counterdie 4, left drift 5 and right drift 3: cavity 1-2 inside surface is elliptic cylinder, and the ratio of long axis to short axis of oval cross section is respectively 1,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2 and 2.5, the long 2b of minor axis and pipe diameter Identical, major axis is respectively With Counterdie 4 inside surfaces are semi-cylindrical, and counterdie 4 inner surface diameter are identical with the pipe diameter;
In step 1, can prepare the described proving installations of many cover claims 1, also can prepare a plurality of patrixes 1 and a counterdie 4, the use that matches with a counterdie 4 respectively successively of each patrix 1.
Step 2, making metal pipe material sample:
Utilize the rotten mode of galvanic corrosion to make at the outside surface of metal pipe material sample and be a plurality of circles or the square indenture that matrix is arranged, the outside surface that makes the metal pipe material sample be the matrix roundness mess of arranging or the square net shape; Measurement is circular or the diameter d of square indenture or the length of side d of square indenture that matrix is arranged;
In step 2, can cut length and be the tubular product sample of 4 times of pipe diameters (namely ), outside surface coating one deck photoresist at the metal pipe material sample, then see through mask the photoresist layer of metal pipe material sample outside surface is carried out the selectivity exposure, namely the grid outline portion that will print is exposed, the grid profile of described corrosion is the roundness mess profile of arranging with matrix or the square net profile of arranging with matrix, corrode the square net profile inside that the roundness mess profile inside of the matrix of exposed portion being arranged with metal erosion liquid or matrix are arranged, the square net that the roundness mess that matrix is arranged or matrix are arranged can be printed on the upper surface of metal pipe material sample, the diameter d (the perhaps square net length of side) of the roundness mess that the measurement matrix is arranged, thus the metal pipe material sample obtained;
Step 3, clamping metal pipe material sample: will be placed on the counterdie 4 with the metal pipe material sample of printing grid, press ram drives patrix 1 descending contact tubular product sample 2, applies mold clamping force; Left drift 5 and right drift 3 apply horizontal force to pipe, and the tapering of the tapering of left drift 5, right drift 3 makes the two ends of pipe 2 that enlarging occur and reclines with patrix 2 inside surfaces and counterdie 4 inside surfaces;
Step 4, bidirection press load: inject fluid media (medium) in the cavity 2-1 of tubular product sample 2 inside, apply the bulging pressure P with the inside surface to tubular product sample 2 1In the cavity 1-2 of patrix 1, inject fluid media (medium) and apply normal pressure P with the outside surface to tubular product sample 2 2And make normal pressure P 2With the bulging pressure P 1Equate;
Step 5: bulging experiment: increase the internal pressure P1 of the cavity 2-1 of tubular product sample 2, the distortion of tubular product sample generation bulging is until sample breaks; After breaking, near the roundness mess of arranging the crackle becomes oval grid, and the square net of arranging becomes the rectangle grid; Pressure and the mold clamping force of the cavity 1-2 of unloading patrix 1, the cavity 2-1 inside of tubular product sample 2, press ram drives patrix 1 backhaul, and cross cylinder drives left drift 5 and right drift 3 sets back;
Step 6: measure the grid after the distortion on the metal pipe material sample: metal pipe material sample 2 is unloaded, measure near the transverse length d of rupture location on the metal pipe material sample 1With minor axis length d 2, or near the long edge lengths d of the rectangle rupture location on the measurement metal pipe material sample 1With bond length d 2(at this moment square net forms the rectangle grid);
Step 7: the breaking strain ε that calculates the metal pipe material sample according to the data before and after the roundness mess distortion that records 1=Ln[d 1-d/d] and ε 2=Ln[d-d 2/ d], can obtain a dependent variable strong point;
The long axis length of the oval cross section of the cavity 1-2 of change patrix 1 repeats above-mentioned steps, can obtain otherwise limit dependent variable strong point, respectively with ε 1And ε 2Be horizontal ordinate and ordinate, the drawing data point connects the data point that obtains or match, can obtain at a certain normal pressure P 2Tube bulge shaping limit curve under the condition.
Carry out again following elaboration for the present invention:
Described proving installation comprises fluid patrix 1, described patrix 1 is provided with the liquid filling orifice 1-1 that communicates with cavity 1-2, described cavity 1-2 inside surface is elliptic cylinder, the part that described patrix 1 contacts with pipe 2 is semi-cylindrical, the semicylinder radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe 2 external diameters, end is the conical surface about patrix 1 inside surface, and described patrix 1 is connected with press ram; Described pipe 2 two ends are right drift 3 and left drift 5, are provided with the liquid filling orifice 3-1 that communicates with pipe inner chamber 2-1 in the right drift 3, and described left drift 5 and right drift 3 ends have 15-20 ° tapering, and are connected with cross cylinder; Described patrix 1 below is counterdie 4, and described counterdie 4 inside surfaces are the face of cylinder, and the face of cylinder contacts with pipe 2, and face of cylinder radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe 2 external diameters, and end is the conical surface about counterdie 4 inside surfaces, and described counterdie 4 is connected with press bench, fixes; Described left drift 5 and right drift 3 are with tapering, patrix 1 and counterdie 4 ends are with the conical surface, after purpose was patrix 1 and counterdie 4 matched moulds, right drift 3 and left drift 5 applied the expanding end formation sealing that power produces pipe 2, and the fluid media (medium) of avoiding injecting in cavity 2-1 outwards overflows.Utilize described device to carry out forming limit test under plane stress and the normal stress concurrent conditions, detailed process is as follows successively:
A, at first the liquid filling orifice 1-1 on the patrix 1 is connected with high-voltage power supply, the liquid filling orifice 3-1 on the right drift 3 is connected with high-voltage power supply;
B, then place the tubular product sample 2 (Fig. 2) of printing grid by etch at the inner periphery of counterdie 4;
C, patrix 1 is connected with press ram, control patrix 1 comes downwards to counterdie 4 and contacts under the drive of press ram, then apply mold clamping force (shown in F among Fig. 1) by press ram, the purpose that applies mold clamping force is the medium pressure liquid of balance pipe cavity volume 2-1, therefore in actual applications, big or small indefinite according to the different described mold clamping forces of tube blank size and pressure, but as long as can realize avoiding die sinking;
D, left drift 5 is connected with cross cylinder with right drift 3, apply horizontal force (such as the F1 among Fig. 1 by oil cylinder, make left drift 5 and right drift 3 conical surfaces enter pipe 2, make pipe 2 that reaming occur, the conical surface of patrix 1 and counterdie about 4 ends reclines, the purpose that applies horizontal force is to make the pipe reaming to realize end part seal, avoids high-pressure fluid medium to leak;
E, in pipe cavity volume 2-1, inject fluid media (medium) to cavity volume 1-2, filling orifice 3-1 by filling orifice 1-1, until fill with;
F, increase pressure in cavity volume 1-2 and the pipe inner chamber 2-1 by high-voltage power supply, increase to simultaneously P 2, then keep cavity volume 1-2 internal pressure constant, increase pipe cavity volume 2-1 pressure to P 1, make tubular product sample at P 1Bulging occurs under the pressure to break;
Pressure and mold clamping force and the horizontal force of g, unloading cavity volume 1-2 and 2-1 inside, 1 backhaul of press ram band moving medium cavity volume, cross cylinder drives left drift 5 and right drift sets back.
H, metal pipe material sample 2 is unloaded, measure near the transverse length d rupture location on the metal pipe material sample 2 1With minor axis length d 2
Data before and after the roundness mess distortion that i, basis record are calculated the breaking strain ε of metal pipe material sample 1=Ln[d 1-d/d] and ε 2=Ln[d-d 2/ d], can obtain the dependent variable strong point.
Change the axial ratio (Fig. 3) of cavity 1-2 oval cross section, repeat above-mentioned steps, can obtain otherwise limit dependent variable strong point, respectively with ε 1And ε 2Be horizontal ordinate and ordinate, the drawing data point connects the data point that obtains or match, can obtain at a certain normal pressure P 2Pipes shaping limit curve under the condition; Change normal pressure P 2, repeat the bulging experiment of different axial ratios, can obtain different normal pressure P 2Pipes shaping limit curve under the condition.
In the present embodiment, the pressure P in the fluid media (medium) cavity volume 1-2 2Play and apply normal pressure, set up the condition of plane stress and normal stress coexistence, the pressure P in the cavity volume 2-1 1Make sample generation bulging.The method both can be measured the tube bulge forming limit, also can assess normal stress to the impact of forming limit.

Claims (2)

1. tube bulge forming limit proving installation under the Bidirectional-pressure condition, it is characterized in that: described proving installation comprises patrix (1), counterdie (4), right drift (3) and left drift (5), is used for holding pipe (2) between patrix (1) and the counterdie (4); The xsect of the cavity (1-2) of described patrix (1) is oval, the minor axis of oval cross section is long identical with the diameter of pipe (2), and described patrix (1) is provided with the mould liquid filling orifice (1-1) that communicates with cavity (1-2); The inside surface that described patrix (1) contacts with pipe (2) is semi-cylindrical, and described semi-cylindrical radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe (2) external diameter; End is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about patrix (1) inside surface; The inside surface that described counterdie (4) contacts with pipe (2) is the face of cylinder, the described face of cylinder is used for contacting with pipe (2), and described face of cylinder radius-of-curvature is identical with pipe (2) external diameter, and end is the from inside to outside conical surface of flaring about counterdie (4) inside surface; Be respectively equipped with right drift (3) and left drift (5) at the two ends of pipe (2), be provided with the drift liquid filling orifice (3-1) that communicates with pipe inner chamber (2-1) in the right drift (3), described left drift (5) and right drift (3) end all have 15-20 ° tapering, match with left drift (5) and right drift (3) respectively in the two ends of pipe (2).
2. utilize proving installation claimed in claim 1 to carry out the method for tube bulge forming limit test under plane stress and normal stress concurrent conditions, it is characterized in that: described method realizes according to following steps:
Step 1, making patrix (1), counterdie (4), left drift (5) and right drift (3): cavity (1-2) inside surface is elliptic cylinder, the ratio of long axis to short axis of oval cross section is respectively 1,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2 and 2.5, the long 2b of minor axis and pipe diameter Identical, major axis is respectively With Counterdie (4) inside surface is semi-cylindrical, and counterdie (4) inner surface diameter is identical with the pipe diameter;
Step 2, making metal pipe material sample:
Utilize the rotten mode of galvanic corrosion to make at the outside surface of metal pipe material sample and be a plurality of circles or the square indenture that matrix is arranged, the outside surface that makes the metal pipe material sample be the matrix roundness mess of arranging or the square net shape; Measurement is circular or the diameter d of square indenture or the length of side d of square indenture that matrix is arranged;
Step 3, clamping metal pipe material sample: will be placed on the counterdie (4) with the metal pipe material sample of printing grid, press ram drives patrix (1) descending contact tubular product sample (2), applies mold clamping force; Left drift (5) and right drift (3) apply horizontal force to pipe, and the tapering of the tapering of left drift (5), right drift (3) makes the two ends of pipe (2) that enlarging occur and reclines with patrix (2) inside surface and counterdie (4) inside surface;
Step 4, bidirection press load: inject fluid media (medium) in the inner cavity (2-1) of tubular product sample (2), apply the bulging pressure P with the inside surface to tubular product sample (2) 1In the cavity (1-2) of patrix (1), inject fluid media (medium) and apply normal pressure P with the outside surface to tubular product sample (2) 2And make normal pressure P 2With the bulging pressure P 1Equate;
Step 5: bulging experiment: increase the internal pressure P1 of the cavity (2-1) of tubular product sample (2), the distortion of tubular product sample generation bulging is until sample breaks; After breaking, near the roundness mess of arranging the crackle becomes oval grid, and the square net of arranging becomes the rectangle grid; The cavity (1-2) of unloading patrix (1), inner pressure and the mold clamping force of the cavity (2-1) of tubular product sample (2), press ram drives patrix (1) backhaul, and cross cylinder drives left drift (5) and right drift (3) sets back;
Step 6: measure the grid after the distortion on the metal pipe material sample: metal pipe material sample (2) is unloaded, measure near the transverse length d of rupture location on the metal pipe material sample 1With minor axis length d 2, or near the long edge lengths d of the rectangle rupture location on the measurement metal pipe material sample 1With bond length d 2
Step 7: the breaking strain ε that calculates the metal pipe material sample according to the data before and after the roundness mess distortion that records 1=Ln[d 1-d/d] and ε 2=Ln[d-d 2/ d], can obtain a dependent variable strong point;
The long axis length of the oval cross section of the cavity (1-2) of change patrix (1) repeats above-mentioned steps, can obtain otherwise limit dependent variable strong point, respectively with ε 1And ε 2Be horizontal ordinate and ordinate, the drawing data point connects the data point that obtains or match, can obtain at a certain normal pressure P 2Tube bulge shaping limit curve under the condition.
CN2012103670858A 2012-09-28 2012-09-28 Tube bulging forming limit test device and method under bi-directional pressurization condition Pending CN102866064A (en)

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CN103528899A (en) * 2013-11-01 2014-01-22 哈尔滨工业大学 Tube forming performance testing device and method under combined action of internal and external pressure
CN105127268A (en) * 2015-10-19 2015-12-09 哈尔滨工业大学 Design method for hydro-mechanical deep drawing hydraulic loading range of semi-elliptical part
CN106840922A (en) * 2016-12-28 2017-06-13 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of method of tubing forming property under test complex strain paths

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103528899A (en) * 2013-11-01 2014-01-22 哈尔滨工业大学 Tube forming performance testing device and method under combined action of internal and external pressure
CN103528899B (en) * 2013-11-01 2015-06-17 哈尔滨工业大学 Tube forming performance testing device and method under combined action of internal and external pressure
CN105127268A (en) * 2015-10-19 2015-12-09 哈尔滨工业大学 Design method for hydro-mechanical deep drawing hydraulic loading range of semi-elliptical part
CN106840922A (en) * 2016-12-28 2017-06-13 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of method of tubing forming property under test complex strain paths

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Application publication date: 20130109