CN102845589A - Feed for juvenile prawns and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Feed for juvenile prawns and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN102845589A
CN102845589A CN2012103168611A CN201210316861A CN102845589A CN 102845589 A CN102845589 A CN 102845589A CN 2012103168611 A CN2012103168611 A CN 2012103168611A CN 201210316861 A CN201210316861 A CN 201210316861A CN 102845589 A CN102845589 A CN 102845589A
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feed
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weight
shrimp
parts
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王军
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杨高林
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Abstract

The invention discloses a feed for juvenile prawns. The feed comprises one or more selected from the following components: fish meal, wheat bran, bean cake, vinasse, yeast, a composite vitamin premix, a traditional Chinese medicinal composite additive, a mineral matter premix and a feed adhesive. Weight parts of the above mentioned components are as follows: 10 to 40 parts of fish meal, 10 to 20 parts of wheat bran, 10 to 15 parts of bean cake, 1 to 2 parts of vinasse, 1 to 2 parts of yeast, 1 to 2 parts of the composite vitamin premix, 1 to 2 parts of the traditional Chinese medicinal composite additive, 1 to 2 parts of the mineral matter premix and 10 to 15 parts of the feed adhesive. According to the invention, Chinese herbal medicines are applied to prevent and treat fish and prawn diseases, which is in accordance with disease controlling criteria for development of nuisanceless aquaculture and production of green aquatic products, especially in accordance with demands for intensive and large-scale production in the current aquaculture industry; the Chinese herbal medicines compose a compound preparation in proportion, which enables synergistic effects of the medicines to be better performed; a steaming process is utilized to allow starch in the feed adhesive to agglutinate at different temperatures, so the degree of expansion is increased, the degree of gelatinization of the starch is substantially improved, the effects of a chemical adhesive in feed processing can be totally replaced, and sinking performance and binding performance of the feed are enhanced, which is beneficial for growth and culture of juvenile prawns.

Description

A kind of juvenile prawn feed and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of feed of producing as raw material with animal, plant and preparation method thereof, particularly a kind of juvenile prawn feed and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
The factor that affects the fish an shrimp diet quality mainly contains: 1. material quality; 2. processing technology and equipment; 3. equipment operating management; 4. formula Design.Material quality is the primary factor that determines the fish an shrimp diet quality.The selection of raw material be the more important thing is the digestion feature that will consider by letting animals feed except according to the conventional criteria.For fish, shrimp, its digestive system must from being conducive to the digest and assimilate of fish, shrimp, be selected more should pay attention to this point for the raw material of postlarva, young shrimp and juvenile fish, juvenile prawn bait when selecting raw material not as good as terraria.Noticeable especially have 2 points: the 1. enzyme processing of raw material.For improve juvenile fish, juvenile prawn digests and assimilates bait, should utilize digestive ferment in advance albumen and energy bins to be divided and carry out external digestion, makes albumen and energy component obtain degraded after the enzyme processing.It should be noted that when selecting exogenous enzymes that should adapt with water temperature, this technology has been widely used in the production of enzymic fodder at present; 2. because some trace element has inhibitory action such as Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ etc. to digestive ferment, its inhibiting rate reaches 50%~90%.For this reason, this class trace element is adopted coated chelating as far as possible or trace element is made soap, the time-delay of these micro-metal ions and digestive ferment is met, to reduce metal ion to the digestion enzyme inhibition.
The shrimp of body length below 2CM is juvenile prawn, and juvenile prawn grows soon, and nutritional need is large, and because of its build characteristics, prawn feed requires also very high.For improve juvenile fish, juvenile prawn digests and assimilates bait, should utilize digestive ferment in advance albumen and energy bins to be divided and carry out external digestion, makes albumen and energy component obtain degraded after the enzyme processing.Shrimp belongs to Arthropoda, Crustachia, Decapoda, swimming suborder in categorizing system.The kind of shrimp is a lot, mainly contains Penaeus Vannmei, Chinese prawn, japonicus, Penaeus monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the new prawn of cutter volume etc.China marine site is broad, and rivers and lakes are numerous, abound with extra large shrimp and fresh water shrimp.Shrimp is Fresh ﹠ Tender in Texture, nutritious and be well received by consumers with it.Particularly in recent years, along with developing rapidly of China's economy and improving constantly of living standards of the people, various shrimps products progressed into common people's dining table.Simultaneously, the rise of tourist industry and the growth of foreign trade have further promoted the development of China's shrimp culture industry and processing industry.From 20 century 70 later stages, China has begun take large-scale pond extensive cultivation form as main shrimp aquaculture.At the beginning of the eighties, along with the breakthrough of shrimp industrial artificial seedling rearing technology, the development of shrimp aquaculture industry has entered a brand-new stage, and cultured area constantly enlarges, and the cultivation kind constantly increases, and intensive degree improves constantly.2,250,000 mu of shrimp areas were supported in the whole nation in 1992, and output reaches 220,000 tons, occupies then No. 1 in the world.The epiphytotics generation of worldwide prawn fulminant in 1993 and spreading makes the shrimp culture of China already suffer heavy loss, and significantly gliding appears in shrimp aquaculture output.The later stage nineties, along with Animal nutrition research deeply and the development of feed processing technology, China's shrimp aquaculture already enters the new sustainable development stage.2005, the prawn culturing area reached 5,000,000 mu, and total output reaches 1,070,000 tons, accounted for more than 40% of world's prawn culturing total output, and the output value is 20,000,000,000 yuan.
The shrimp feed is the indispensable material conditions of shrimp culture industry, for shrimp culture development already provides powerful support.The sustainable development of shrimp culture industry has also promoted the development of shrimp feed processing industry.According to incompletely statistics, the manufacturing enterprise of China's shrimp feed has reached thousands of families at present, and annual production is about 2,000,000 tons.
In the cost structure of shrimp aquaculture industry, feed cost accounts for about 70% of totle drilling cost.Shrimp feeding quality quality has determined the success or failure of aquaculture development.At present, the shrimp mixed feed on the market mainly contains hard pellet diet and two kinds of forms of extruding feed.Hard pellet diet is mainly by flat-die and ring die pelleter production.Because the Flat die cuber of domestic production and use is simple in structure, the product quality of production is not high, and output is lower, so commercial grit shrimp feed is mainly by ring die pelleter production.In process of production, material is through after pulverizing and mixing, under the modified effect of steam, starch gelatinization and albuminous degeneration, adhesive effect power between the material strengthens, then under the compacting of pressing mold, pressure roller, rubbing action, material mutually near, at last by the nib moulding.
The advantage of grit shrimp feed mainly contains: (1) can reach feed formula optimum organization and both satisfy nutritional need, reduces again the purpose of cost; (2) in modified pelletization, the squeezing action of the warming and humidifying of steam and ring mold pressing roll makes the feed ingredient slaking, is beneficial to shrimp and digests and assimilates, and improves digestibility; (3) under the granulator suppression, various compositions are mutually bonding, and feed density improves, and products obtained therefrom is heavy property, the end that the adapts to shrimp Sexual life mode of dwelling; (4) can add as required nutritional labeling and medicine, strengthen physique and the immunity of shrimp; (5) throw something and feed simply, bait form and size are fit to ingesting of shrimp; (6) be convenient to storage and transport, limited by natural conditions, can produce in enormous quantities.It is that starch burn degree is low in the production process that but there is a disadvantageous aspect in grit shrimp feed, causes the product resistance to water poor.
Compare with hard pellet diet, the difference of extruding production of fodder process maximum is: the material after modified directly enters extruder, produce HTHP by friction, shearing and heating, then by being discharged into suddenly normal temperature and pressure behind the nib, make material forming and in this process the physicochemical property of material a series of variations occur.High-intensity hydrothermal in the extrusion process process, can remove most of injurious factor, improved the security of feed.The shortcoming that exists in the extruding production of fodder process is: (1) equipment investment cost is large, and maintenance cost is high; (2) in the process of producing heavy forage, material is expanded easily, causes density to reduce, and the final products mutability is buoyancy; (3) high temperature in the extrusion process is damaged the nutrient of some thermal sensitivity such as VC and various feeding enzyme, causes nutrient imbalance.
Along with the raising of people's living standard, Food Quality Safety is also more and more paid attention to.The safety problem of shrimp type food also must be picked up from the source.Therefore, shrimp culture also must be to healthy aquaculture and non-nuisance future development.Use a large amount of antibiotic in can not cultivating, the disease that ripener is prevented and treated in the cultivation also is one of difficult problem again.
The shrimp feed is the key factor that affects shrimp culture, also must be to safety and environmental protection feed future development.In the production process of hard pellet diet, starch burn degree is low, causes the resistance to water of final products poor.And the shrimp feed is higher to the requirement of resistance to water, and the resistance to water that therefore improves the shrimp feed just seems particularly important.In the process variation of various factors on quality of the fodder particularly resistance to water larger impact is arranged.Set about optimized production process from process, improve processing conditions and be and improve the effective method of resistance to water.China mainly concentrates in the preliminary treatment of food processing field and feedstuff the research of extrusion technique, in the production of extruding shrimp feed, also be in the starting stage, on the one hand because extrusion machinery is relatively expensive, maintenance cost is higher, cause the production cost of shrimp feed to increase, thereby cause the raising of shrimp aquaculture cost; Owing in extrusion process, have various controllable factors and disturbing factor, the variation of these factors has larger impact to product quality on the other hand.If in process of production, can not control timely and effectively various factors, then be difficult to guarantee the stability of production process and the quality of final products.Therefore, come study various factors on the impact of final products resistance to water and sinking from feed processing technology, can provide the technological guidance for the production process of reality, thereby be conducive to the improvement of production process condition, improve the shrimp feeding quality, also be conducive to promote the healthy and sustainable development of shrimp culture industry, improve culture benefit.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is, for the deficiencies in the prior art, provides a kind of both nutritious, and allotment is simple, is beneficial to juvenile prawn and digests and assimilates, and improves digestibility; Various compositions are mutually bonding again, and feed density improves, and products obtained therefrom is heavy property, the end that the adapts to shrimp Sexual life mode of dwelling; Also to add as required nutritional labeling and medicine, strengthen physique and the immunity of juvenile prawn, improve the growth rate of juvenile prawn and the juvenile prawn feed of quality
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the invention provides a kind of juvenile prawn feed, comprise in the following component one or more: fish meal, wheat bran, soya-bean cake, vinasse, yeast, complex vitamin premix, Chinese traditional medicine composition additive, mineral substance premix, feed adhesive.
The ratio of weight and number of described component can be fish meal 10-40 part, wheat bran 10-20 part, soya-bean cake 10-15 part, vinasse 1-2 part, yeast 1-2 part, Chinese traditional medicine composition additive 1-2 part, complex vitamin premix 1-2 part, mineral substance premix 1-2 part, feed adhesive 10-15 part.
Described feed adhesive may further include: Strong flour and starch, wherein the ratio of weight and number of Strong flour and starch is, 5-6:4-5.
The starch that uses in the described feed adhesive can be cornstarch, and the ratio of weight and number of wherein giving birth to starch and ripe starch is 80-85:15-20.
The Strong flour that uses in the described feed adhesive can be the flour of protein wt degree 13%-50%.
Described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive may further include following bulk drug: Poria cocos, the root of large-flowered skullcap, the capsule of weeping forsythia, field pennycress, selfheal, cordate houttuynia, the root of Dahurain angelica, the red sage root, the seed of Chinese dodder, Radix Codonopsis, the Radix Astragali and the bighead atractylodes rhizome.
The ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive can be Poria cocos 5~10 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 5~10 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~10 weight portions, field pennycress 5~10 weight portions, selfheal 5~10 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 5~10 weight portions, the red sage root 5~10 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions; Radix Codonopsis 5~10 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 5~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 5~10 weight portions.
The ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive can also be Poria cocos 8~10 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 8~10 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~10 weight portions, field pennycress 5~10 weight portions, selfheal 5~8 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 5~8 weight portions, the red sage root 8~10 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions; Radix Codonopsis 5~8 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 5~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 8~10 weight portions.
The ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive can be Poria cocos 5~8 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 5~8 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~8 weight portions, field pennycress 5~8 weight portions, selfheal 5~10 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 5~10 weight portions, the red sage root 5~10 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions again; Radix Codonopsis 5~10 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 5~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 5~10 weight portions.
The ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive also can be Poria cocos 5~10 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 5~10 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~10 weight portions, field pennycress 5~10 weight portions, selfheal 8~10 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 8~10 weight portions, the red sage root 5~8 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions; Radix Codonopsis 8~10 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 8~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 8~10 weight portions.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of described shrimp feed, concrete steps are: get wheat bran by described ratio of weight and number, fish meal, soya-bean cake, vinasse, yeast, complex vitamin premix, mineral substance premix mix, grinding and sieving, stir after pouring again the Chinese traditional medicine composition additive into, get raw mix; Getting feed adhesive adds water and begins modified; pour in the spraying machine after stirring; also pour into the aforementioned base materials mixture in the spraying machine; it is fully mixed; with 60 degrees centigrade of water temperature modulation in the spraying machine, open sprayer, stirred rapidly 1 minute; the sprayer water temperature is controlled at 60-70 ℃; feed adhesive and raw mix are fully binded, continue to be warming up to 90 ℃ and finish expandedly, put into granulator after making it evenly; granulate; cooling, drying obtains feed; discharging is sieved, and granular size is 0.15-0.25mm.
The preparation method of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive can for: get the chopping of described bulk drug and join in the multi-function extractor, add ratio of weight and number and be 3000 parts water soaking 30~40 minutes, decocts after 1 hour, it is for subsequent use to take out first time decoction liquor; Dregs of a decoction adding ratio of weight and number is after 3000 parts decocting boils 1 hour, take out for the second time decoction liquor, twice decoction liquor merged filtration, it is 1000 parts solution that filtrate decompression is concentrated into ratio of weight and number, staticly settle 24~36 hours, draw supernatant, being concentrated into relative density is 1.04-1.05, puts into dryer and is dried into fine powder.
The preparation method of described juvenile prawn feed again can for: get by weight percentage wheat bran, fish meal, soya-bean cake, vinasse, yeast, complex vitamin premix, mineral substance premix mix, and in the step of grinding and sieving, the aperture of sieving is the classifying screen of 0.18mm; In the step of described granulation, the granular size of making is 0.15mm~0.25mm.
The present invention uses the disease control criterion that herbal control fishes and shrimps disease meets the nuisanceless aquatic products industry of development fully, produces green aquatic product, research and production practices prove that Chinese herbal medicine is particularly useful for the needs of intensive, the large-scale production of current culture fishery as mixed feeding agent or feed addictive, they are formed compound preparation by a certain percentage, can better bring into play the cooperative effect of medicine, play the effect that brings out the best in each other; With steaming process the starch in the feed adhesive is binded under different temperatures, strengthened dilation, starch burn degree is improved greatly, the also fully effect of substituted chemistry adhesive in feed processing, improved heavy water-based and the cohesive of feed, resistance to water is high, and scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio is little, be beneficial to the absorption growth cultivation of juvenile prawn, created good economic benefit and social benefit.
The specific embodiment
The error of the processing technology that the raw material smashing fineness depends primarily on mixture homogeneity, adapt with curing degree, the various components that guarantee to search for food every day guarantees to cultivate efficient in allowed band.
1. mixture homogeneity.Mixture homogeneity is except outside the Pass having with mixer performance, material characteristic, and is also relevant with the feed intake of mixing ratio, smashing fineness, fishes and shrimps.Existing mixture homogeneity analytical method is methyl violet, and mixing ratio is 1: 1 * 104, and the crystal violet smashing fineness is 150 orders, granularity is 0.1mm, sampling amount is not less than 200g, and the analysis sample is 10g, and detected object is that minimum edible 10g analyzes the chicken of sample every day in the fowl poultry animal.This assay method only considers 10g analyzes in the sample whether contain enough microcomponent populations, and does not consider 10g analyzes whether even microcomponent distributes in the sample.Therefore, when animal amount every day during greater than 10g, the analytical method of this mixture homogeneity meets the raising requirement.When every day, amount was less than 10g, for example, analyze sample or every day amount below 1g, the mixture homogeneity when above-mentioned analytical method does not then reach and analyzes sample and be 10g.So, to every day feed intake only be juvenile fish, the juvenile prawn of 0.017g, 0.048g, 0.088g, 0.19g, its bait is measured mixture homogeneity with said method, may not necessarily meet the mixing quality requirement of juvenile fish, juvenile prawn.After only taking to improve smashing fineness, reach the amount that reduces the analysis sample under the mixing index condition or suitably improving the measures such as standard of mixture homogeneity, the requirement of mixture homogeneity in the time of just meeting amount less than 10g.Wherein improve smashing fineness and be effective measures, guarantee that the feed particles of taking in every day counts the coincidence loss requirement.
2. the smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials.The smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials should be according to digestion characteristics, the raw material residing state that dissolves in extrusion process of aquatic animal, and namely starch gelatinization and protein-denatured effect are determined.When being used to into fish bait, the smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials is about 40 orders, and granularity is 0.36~0.40mm; When being used to into shrimp bait, be 90% by 80 orders, granularity is 0.196~0.231mm.Because the digestive system of fish is better than shrimp, the raw material smashing fineness that we think into fish bait meets the cultivation requirement.The energy of juvenile prawn bait, protein raw materials smashing fineness also can be 80 orders.When the modified and kneading of extruder dissolves effect when fine, smashing fineness also can be 70 orders.
3. the trace element smashing fineness.Trace element is difficult to formation and dissolves effect in extrusion process, still exist with graininess.About 100 orders, particle diameter is about 0.144mm to the fineness of all kinds of micro-components in the feed mostly.For guaranteeing juvenile fish, juvenile prawn every day to the intake of various trace elements, its bait should satisfy the probable error requirement of taking in particle under the prerequisite that mixes, and the trace element of absorption is meeting on the basis of addition, and the smallest particles number should not be less than 8~10.The grinding particle size of trace element should be according to different growing stages, and the probable error of taking in particle is determined.
4. the long daily ration of feeding that concerns shrimp of the body of daily ration of feeding and shrimp and the body of shrimp are grown relevantly, and computing formula is: Qe=01017L 1.5, L is body long (cm); Qe is daily ration of feeding (g).When the body length of shrimp was respectively 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 5cm, corresponding daily ration of feeding was respectively: 0.017g, 0.048g, 0.088g, 0.19g.
Energy, protein component account for 95%~98% in the shrimp bait.Constant vitamin accounts for 2%~3% temperature-sensitive components such as (should add) vitamins behind extrusion, trace element (accounting for 10% with 8 kinds of trace elements in the premixed feed calculates) accounts for about 1%.When the body length of shrimp was respectively 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 5cm, the corresponding grinding particle size of taking in trace element was respectively: 0.1087mm, 0.11mm, 0.15mm, 0.196mm.As calculated, when the body length of shrimp during less than 2cm, micro-grinding particle size should less than 140~160 orders, can satisfy edible demand; When the body of shrimp was grown up in 3cm, micro-grinding particle size was 100 orders, just can satisfy edible demand.When micro-addition during less than 20g/t, even the grinding particle size of trace element is 100 orders, do not meet edible demand yet, require this moment the granularity of trace element should be less than 140~160 orders, namely less than 0.110~0.087mm.
The fishes and shrimps feed with animal and fowl fodder except the selection difference of the design of nutrient formulation, raw material, the processing granulation more there is its specific (special) requirements, General Requirements fish feed pellets resistance to water in water is higher, lost to reduce, improve efficiency of feed utilization, this also is that proposed requirement is put into practice in the cultivation of mixed feed, also becomes the raiser at southern most areas at present and weighs whether qualified primary standard of aquatic granulated feed.Also be that any enterprise will stride into the problem that the aquatic feeds industry must at first solve.
The specific embodiment 1: be taken as wheat bran 1000g, fish meal 4800g, soya-bean cake 1000g, vinasse 200g, yeast 200g, complex vitamin premix 100g, mineral substance premix 100g, co-grinding.Raw material is pulverized rear all to sieve by the classifying screen of aperture as 0.08mm-0.1mm.
Described complex vitamin premix further comprises:
In every kilogram of shrimp feed:
V A, 300mg; V B2, 320mg; V B6, 360mg; V B12, 120mg; V B1, 120mg; V K, 220mg; Folic acid, 225mg; Biotin, 130mg; V E, 300mg; Inositol, 500mg; Calcium pantothenate, 800mg; Nicotinic acid, 235mg; Choline Chloride, 700mg; V D, 400mg.
Described mineral substance premix further comprises:
In every kilogram of shrimp feed:
ZnSO 4·7H 2O,0.889g;CaCO 3,1.02g;NaH 2PO 4,1.68g;KH 2PO 4,2.552g;CaCl 2,1.513g;Mg?SO 4·7H 2O,0.6g;KCl,0.448g;AlCl 3·6H 2O,0.019g;MnSO 4·6H 2O,0.321g;CuCl 2,0.52g;FeSO 4·7H 2O,0.56g;CoCl 2,0.027g;KI,0.036g。
The specific embodiment 2: the preparation method of shrimp feed Chinese traditional medicine composition additive: get Poria cocos 100g, root of large-flowered skullcap 100g, capsule of weeping forsythia 100g, field pennycress 100g, selfheal 80g, cordate houttuynia 100g, root of Dahurain angelica 100g, red sage root 100g, seed of Chinese dodder 100g, Radix Codonopsis 80g, Radix Astragali 80g and bighead atractylodes rhizome 100g chopping and join in the multi-function extractor, add ratio of weight and number and be 3000 parts water soaking 30~40 minutes, decoct after 1 hour, decoction liquor is for subsequent use for the first time in taking-up; Dregs of a decoction adding ratio of weight and number is after 3000 parts decocting boils 1 hour, take out for the second time decoction liquor, twice decoction liquor merged filtration, it is 1000 parts solution that filtrate decompression is concentrated into ratio of weight and number, staticly settle 24~36 hours, draw supernatant, being concentrated into relative density is 1.04-1.05, put into dryer and be dried to fine powder, to sieve by the classifying screen of aperture as 0.08mm-0.1mm.
The specific embodiment 3: get Strong flour 900g, mix with Treatment 520g and cooked maize starch 95g, its gelling point of cornstarch is 61 ℃ of beginnings, finishes for 63 ℃.Although gelling point is lower, adhesive is stuck with paste the same at the general Double-plate machine of bonding time image, and gel is rapid.Viscosity is usually at 27-32 between second.After cornstarch stirred in normal-temperature water, its particle was dispersed into emulsus, but can not dissolve, and also can not absorb moisture content.If stop to stir, starch then is deposited in the bottom and forms gradually lump, in case the lump type becomes, it is just so uneasy to disperse again, is scattered in the starch in the water, begins during heating to absorb moisture content and expands.The Strong flour that uses in the feed adhesive of the present invention can be the flour of protein wt degree 13%-50%.
So the present invention adopts first and stirs high-strength flour and starch mixture with a small amount of water, add the raw material that mixes and inhale powder, after stirring, add in the steam blower, reaching 61 ℃ after steam blower starts in a few minutes begins to accelerate to stir, reach 70 ℃ in 1 minute, continue to be warming up to 90 ℃, finish expansion.The starch of gel is thickness very, and its degree is decided on the amount of starch in the water.
The specific embodiment 4: granular size 0.15mm~0.25mm when the moulding of shrimp feed is granulated.In the pelletization, the material in each pressing mold hole is subjected to the step extruding force of pressure roller, and the raw material of each extruding all changes to some extent.As the feed in the pressing mold hole is divided into some sections, the difference between section and the section is the basic reason that produces radial cracking.In the process of shrimp feed, pelletizing forming and cool drying are the main processing workshop sections that produces the particle surface crackle.The crushing material granularity is inhomogeneous, particularly has some larger particles, easily causes in the pelletization the stressed effect of material each several part inhomogeneous.In modified process, the amount of cure of material is inhomogeneous, and some do not have slaking or the lower material of amount of cure, and are low such as the stickiness of the components such as starch and protein, poor plasticity, other components around being difficult for binding.When moulding, easily do not obtain suitable modified material position from these and crack.In addition, it is inhomogeneous or modified improper to add water in the mixed process, can form the particle of semi-wet.When cool drying, have different coolings and rate of drying between the unbalanced part of these particles, have different shrinkage factors, very easily cause cracking.Keep particle length consistent, key is to guarantee that particle stressed effect in the nib of granulator is consistent.Under the identical condition in each aperture, hole of pressing mold, the length of particle depends on that material of pressing mold rotation is by the amount of nib.Inventory by a certain nib is subjected to material to be subjected to the suppression power of pressure roller to reach the impact of 3 factors of inventory of passing through nib by nib resistance, material.It is inhomogeneous to add water in the mixed process, and the material amount of cure is inconsistent in the modified process, all can cause material suppressing.Stressed effect in the journey is unbalanced, makes the particle of producing different in size.
The present invention uses in various bulk drugs and the Chinese traditional medicine composition additive thereof herbal nature as follows:
Radix Angelicae Sinensis: its flavor is sweet and weigh, so specially can enrich blood, its gas is light and hot, thus again can promoting circulation of blood, and bowl spares has, in the row benefit is arranged, the gas medicine in the sincere blood, the also panacea in the blood.About mending to mend then of assistant, thus can support nutrition blood, the tonifying Qi production of sperm, five viscera settling, body by force, beneficial mind, all tangible deficient diseases, nothing is unsuitable.Assistant logical to attack then, so the pain defaecation of dispelling, relieving rigidity of muscles and joints is controlled contraction, paralysis, the card such as dry, puckery.Seek void and the exterior syndrome being not relieved person, help with agent such as bavin, Pueraria lobota, fiber crops, osmanthus, the Biao Weire that can fall apart greatly, and table is not held back the person, and assistant can be shown again admittedly with rheum officinale and so on.Precisely because gas Xin Erdong, so want its quiet person when keeping away it, the sliding benefaction of property is defecated and is not consolidated the person when keeping away it.All cloudy moderate heat Sheng persons, the active blood of Radix Angelicae Sinensis, also non-institute is suitable, cloudy deficiency of YANG of middle-JIAO person, Radix Angelicae Sinensis can nourish blood, and is indispensable.
The Radix Astragali is take qi-restoratives as main, can invigorating qi for strengthening superficies, and diuresis holder poison, apocenosis, expelling pus and promoting granulation.Be used for that insufficiency of vital energy and blood, sore cave in, purulence becomes not burst or burst for a long time and do not hold back the person.The Radix Astragali has the function of good promoting pus discharge and tissue regeneration, i.e. the abscess suppuration myogenic of for a long time disunion.Modern medicine study shows that the Radix Astragali includes and multiple antibiotic effective ingredient, and can strengthen the immunologic function of body, therefore can also be used for the generation of some infectious disease of prevention." book on Chinese herbal medicine meets former " carries: " Radix Astragali can all void of tonifying five zang organs, controls arteries and veins string spontaneous perspiration, rushes down yin fire, removes lung heat, losslessly then sends out, and has sweat then to end." be the good medicine of promoting resistance and defence disease.
Cordate houttuynia is hot, is slightly cold.Return lung channel, be used as medicine, the traditional Chinese medical science thinks that its flavor is hot, cold, energy is clearing heat and detoxicating, sore, promoting urination and removing dampness, stomach strengthening and digestion promoting are treated in the detumescence of row's pain, with controlling lung carbuncle that real heat, heat poison, damp evil, disease heat are trouble, sore swollen toxin, hemorrhoidal hemorrhage, retention of heat in the spleen and stomach etc., alone or compatibility compound, the equal determined curative effect of the use of oral administration and externally or multiple Dietotherapy method among the people.Pharmacological research, the cordate houttuynia master contains volatile oil, and the multiple components such as decanoyl acetaldehyde decanoy acetaldehyde have the inhibition antibacterial action to various Xenorhabduses, coccus, influenza virus, Leptospira etc., and can improve the human immunity regulatory function.
The field pennycress nature and flavor are bitter flat, have effect clearing heat and detoxicating, the broken stasis of blood of apocenosis.Can cure acute appendicitis, diarrhea, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, the stagnant stomachache of the stasis of blood in postpartum, red eye, swell pain.Enter stomach, large intestine, Liver Channel.Cure mainly clearing heat and detoxicating, the carbuncle that disappears apocenosis, blood circulation promoting competent silt.Be used for acute appendicitis, lung carbuncle and sore and toxic, the chest abdomen pain due to the real hot stasis of blood stagnates, the stagnant stomachache of the stasis of blood in postpartum waits disease.
The root of large-flowered skullcap has heat-clearing and damp-drying drug, and cool blood is antiabortive, detoxicating functions.Cure mainly the diseases such as warm heat disease, the infection of the upper respiratory tract, cough with lung heat, damp and hot jaundice, pneumonia, dysentery, hemoptysis, hot eyes, fetal irritability, hypertension, the swollen furuncle sore of carbuncle.The clinical practice of the root of large-flowered skullcap is antibiotic not worse than the coptis, and does not develop immunity to drugs.We are used in the fungal culture miscellaneous bacteria and infect special severity by the strong characteristics of broad-spectrum antibacterial action, and are fine with root of large-flowered skullcap extract effect." Bencao Jingshu ": the root of large-flowered skullcap, its property is respectful clearly, so evil removing: so bitter eliminating dampness; So cold sensation of the genitalia wins heat, so main all heat.All hot persons, heat symptoms caused by an exopathgen with all over heat also, jaundice, intestines be out-of-the-way, let out dysentery, the disease of all damp and hot victory is also analysed it, then all diseases are from recover.Bitter cold can be except damp and hot, thus small intestine profit and water from pursuing, the source is clearly then flowed also clean.The blood person of closing, real heat is at blood system, and instant heating human blood chamber makes us obstructed through closing, damp and hot solution, then Ying Qi is clearly and voluntarily also.Dislike sore subcutaneous ulcer erosion person, blood-head is then stayed knot, and is that the swollen stain of carbuncle is mashed also: fiery ulcer person, the internal heat blood trouble also, cool blood heat extraction, then self-healing also.
The little hardship of selfheal, clearing liver, dissipating bind, diuresis; Control the diseases such as seasonal febrile diseases, acute mastitis, order pain, jaundice, gonorrhoea, hypertension; Control that scrofula, thyroid gland enlargement, scrofula, goiter and tumor, acute mastitis, breast cancer, order pearl nyctalgia, photophobia are shed tears, under the vertigo, facial paralysis, arthralgia and myalgia, pulmonary tuberculosis, acute icteric catarrhal jaundice, metrorrhagia, band.Selfheal is the key medicine of clearing away the liver-fire, Disperse hepatic depression, and what it cured mainly is the illness of Liver Channel mostly.This product is equipped with chrysanthemum, cassia seed, can clear liver and improve vision, and control red eye, swell pain, be equipped with the shell of seaear, yncaria stem with hooks, but the pancake liver-yang is controlled headache, dizziness; Be equipped with the product such as radix scrophulariae, the bulb of fritillary, oyster, but softening and resolving hard mass is controlled scrofula and is gone through tuberculosis." the southern regions of the Yunnan Province book on Chinese herbal medicine ": the liver wind of dispelling, the network of passing through is controlled facial paralysis.The row irritability is opened liver depression, ends arthralgia and myalgia, ophthal malgia, and loose scrofula is stolen, whole body tuberculosis." the sward property of medicine standby want ": remove the phlegm purulence that disappears, control scrofula, clearly upward mend down, remove eye mask, pain relieving.Its drug effect is comparatively gentle, and taste neither be very bitter.
Radix Codonopsis is flat, sweet, little acid of distinguishing the flavor of.Return spleen, lung channel.Tonifying middle-Jiao and Qi, invigorating the spleen benefit lung.Be used for a little less than the spleen deficiency syndrome of the lung, the palpitaition of breathing hard, anorexia and loose stool, void is breathed with cough and is coughed, and interior heat is quenched one's thirst." book on Chinese herbal medicine justice " carries: Radix Codonopsis power energy tonifying spleen nourishing the stomach, and moistening lung is promoted the production of body fluid, gas in the tendon fortune, this is very mutually not far away with ginseng.Its outstanding valuable person, invigorating the spleen fortune and not dry is then grown stomach-Yin and wet, and moistening lung and do not violate is cold and coolly nourished blood and is not partially grown greasyly, inspires clear sun, gas in the vibration, and without just dry fraud.Radix Astragali tonifying Qi, can rise enriching spleen-QI, can admittedly show by beneficial lung again.The Radix Codonopsis tonifying Qi can only the invigorating the spleen tonifying Qi, and without the power of solid table, but Radix Codonopsis can also nourishing generate fluid, and the Radix Astragali is then without the effect of promoting the production of body fluid, the double energy of Radix Astragali Li Shui, and Radix Codonopsis is without the Li Shui effect.This two flavors medicine share can tonifying middle-Jiao and Qi, improves resistance.
The capsule of weeping forsythia is bitter, is slightly cold.Return lung, the heart, small intestinl channel.Function is clearing heat and detoxicating, dispersing swelling and dissipating binds.Be used for ulcer, scrofula, acute mastitis, erysipelas, anemopyretic cold, warm disease is from the beginning of, warm joining the army, high hot polydipsia, coma is sent out spot, and heat is drenched renal shutdown.The medicinal part of the capsule of weeping forsythia mainly is fruit.Its shell, i.e. " sticking up " in " a kind of reed mentioned in ancient books sticks up detoxifying pills ".Contain forsythol, coumarin, oleanolic acid, saponin, citrin etc.Have the effects such as heat-clearing, detoxifcation, dissipating bind apocenosis.Cure mainly warm, sore, scrofula, erysipelas, class's rash, influenza, be decocted in water for oral dose with fruit, or add in the prescription.Be usually used in anemopyretic cold.Nature,taste and action: Chinese medicine bitter, cold nature.Clearing heat and detoxicating, mass dissipating and swelling eliminating.The anaesthetic bitter, cool in nature.Clearly " association's day ", antidiarrheal.Cure mainly: Chinese medicine is controlled pyreticosis from the beginning of, anemopyretic cold, and heating is vexed, abscess of throat, and macula, erysipelas, scrofula, the carbuncle pyogenic infections from tumour or sore, acute nephritis, heat is drenched.The anaesthetic subcutaneous ulcer of harnessing the Yellow River, intestines shouting pain, " association day " disease, intestines heat.Sheng Nong's herbal classic ": main fever and chills, the mouse impotence, scrofula, carbuncle is swollen, dislikes sore, goiter and tumor, knot heat, disease due to noxious agents produced by various parasites.
Poria cocos flavor is sweet, light, property flat, be used as medicine have clearing damp and promoting diuresis, the function of beneficial spleen and stomach, antitoxic heart-soothing and sedative.Modern medicine study: Poria cocos can enhanced machine body immunity function, pachymaran has significantly antitumor and protect the liver dirty effect.The Poria cocos slightly sweet flavor is flat, enters the heart, lung, the spleen channel.Has eliminating dampness and diuresis, strengthening the spleen and stomach, the effect of antitoxic heart-soothing and sedative.Can control difficult urination, the oedema turgor, phlegm and retained fluid is coughed contrary, and it is contrary to vomit, and vomiting during early pregnancy is had loose bowels, seminal emission, stranguria with turbid discharge, palpitation with fear, forgetful disease such as grade.The Li Shui of Poria cocos reaches by strong fortune spleen PFT, and is different from the Chinese medicine of other direct Li Shui.Be used for splenasthenic diarrhea, the lower Poria cocos of band can invigorating the spleen, again can excreting dampness, and due to insufficiency of the spleen dysfunction of the spleen in transportation and transformation, have loose bowels, be with down, use the effect that Poria cocos has giving consideration to both the incidental and fundamental, often and the compatibilities such as Radix Codonopsis, the bighead atractylodes rhizome, Chinese yam.Can be used as the tonifying lung spleen, control the adjuvant of the deficiency of vital energy.
Seed of Chinese dodder Cuscuta chinensis is the seed of the dicotyledon scammonia section plant seed of Chinese dodder, the southern seed of Chinese dodder, cuscuta japonica Choisy etc., has tonifying kidney and benefiting sperm, nourishes the liver to improve visual acuity, the effect of solid tire stopping leak.The seed of Chinese dodder is improved the effect of fruit bat property vigor, its mating rate is obviously increased, its effect is strong and weak to become positive correlation with administration concentration. to the mouse due to hydrocortisone " deficiency of yang " model, with making its deficiency of yang symptom that certain restitution is arranged behind the seed of Chinese dodder, but fail to make animal to return to the Normal group level. experiment shows: seed of Chinese dodder decocting liquid can make the vigor of its body weight, kidney weight, thymus gland weight, leukocyte count, red blood cell number, hemoglobin and superoxide dismutase significantly increase to " deficiency of yang " mouse stomach; Give the male mice gavage, but the swimming time of significant prolongation mouse and the time-to-live under anoxia condition also there is humidification to the nonspecific resistance of mouse.
Root of Dahurain angelica meridian distribution of property and flavor: suffering, temperature.Attach to the lung and stomach meridians.Expelling wind and clearing away cold, understand things pain-stopping, detumescence and apocenosis, eliminating dampness is ended band." Japan hanako materia medica ": control the hot eyes triangular mass of mucous membrane growing from the inner corner of the eye, and tire patching leakage landing, broken place blood is mended new blood, acute mastitis, carbuncle on the back, scrofula, intestines wind, hemorrhoid complicated by anal fistula, and apocenosis, desolation, mange, the pain relieving myogenic is gone face Shao-defect scar.
Bighead atractylodes rhizome bitter, sweet, temperature.Return spleen, stomach warp.Cure mainly strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi, eliminating dampness Li Shui, hidroschesis, antiabortive.It is few to be used for insufficiency of the spleen food, and abdominal distension is had loose bowels, and phlegm and retained fluid is dizzy throbs with fear, oedema, spontaneous perspiration, fetal irritability.The bighead atractylodes rhizome has CDCC to oncocyte, can reduce the rate of increase of oncocyte, lowers the aggressive of tumor tissue, improves the ability of the antitumor reaction of body.Baizhu volatile oil has inhibitory action to mouse EC, lymphosarcoma ascitic type, the cancer of the esophagus (Ecal09), sarcoma 180 etc.Atractylodes lactone B lumbar injection is to the murine sarcoma people.Remarkable inhibitory action is also arranged." property of medicine opinion " carries it: monarch, and it is sweet to distinguish the flavor of, and suffering is nontoxic.Can main large wandering arthritis, diarrhea due to disorder of qi for many years, trusted subordinate's distending pain, the broken place food that disappears, sputum is removed in appetizing, except fever and chills, lets out under ending.Interarea light is pleased, and preserves youthful looks, and goes to deceive.The swelling of harnessing the river is full, tells to vomit contraryly, and crymodynia in the abdomen is vomited and diarrhoea incessantly, and the cold dysentery of stomach Qi deficiency.
Along with the expansion of crustacean aquaculture scale, the research of its disease and control is also caused day by day people's attention.Macrobrachium nipponensis is that economic worth is very high and have one of Freshwater shrimps of larger cultivation potentiality, and the research of its immunologic function is rare report but.Its juvenile prawn growth is fast, and is individual large, nutritious, very popular, now obtained large-area popularization and cultivation.Along with increasing of water surface for aquaculture, the disease species of shrimps also can be increasing.Research finds that many Chinese herbal medicines can improve immunity of organisms.Utilize Chinese herbal medicine to improve the Immunoresistance of Macrobrachium nipponensis, thus strengthen the shrimp body resist the ability of various diseases and to external world the adaptive capacity of environment be undoubtedly a kind of good method.The present invention has added Chinese herb feed additive in feed, improve the effect of Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn nonspecific immunity power, in the hope of providing theoretical foundation for promoting the application of Chinese medicine immunity enhancer in the shrimp aquaculture diseases prevention.
Experimental study of the present invention shows that juvenile prawn feed of the present invention can strengthen the immunologic function of Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn.
1.1.1 the healthy Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn of experiment material is juvenile prawn when the body length of shrimp is respectively 1cm, 2cm, the juvenile prawn with the equal 1cm-2cm of shrimp is tested in this invention.Choose the specification in the same size.Experimental water family case specification is 80cm * 45cm * 45cm, and depth of water 40cm, experimental water are the running water behind the aeration, and the Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn was supported 2 days in aquarium temporarily, begins experiment after ingesting normally.Experiment periods every other day throw something and feed feed 2 times, feeding volume is 3%~5% of shrimp body weight, changes water every day 1 time, quantity of exchanged water is about 1/3, continuous charge, water temperature is controlled at 25~28 ℃.
Basal feed: Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province section fills " board is contained by section " freshwater shrimp feed that limit company produces.Organize in contrast.
Another group is juvenile prawn feed of the present invention.
1.2 method
1.2.1 test method
Every group of each 50 juvenile prawn of control group and juvenile prawn feed group of the present invention are established in test, establish simultaneously 5 groups parallel group, the control group basal feed of throwing something and feeding, and the juvenile prawn feed group of the present invention juvenile prawn feed of the present invention of throwing something and feeding, Feeding time is 10d.
1.2.2 the Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn of the experiment feed 10d that throws something and feeds is chosen in the extraction of shrimp liver pancreas, muscle extract at random, vivisection, take out shrimp liver pancreas, muscle, in 0.9% physiological saline of pH 7.2, press (w/v) homogenate in 1: 3,4 ℃ of centrifugal 6min of 1000r/min, get supernatant ,-20 ℃ save backup.
1.2.3 the mensuration of antibacterial activity (Ua) and Bacteriolytic activity (UL) adopts improved Hultmark method.
1.2.4 the mensuration of phenol oxidase (PO) vigor (APO) adopts the methods such as improved Ashida take L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate, enzyme activity is with under the experimental condition, and it is an enzyme activity unit that the OD490 per minute increases by 0.001.
1.2.5 the mensuration of peroxidase (POD) relative activity (APOD) adopts improved history to become silver-colored method.The POD relative activity represents with APOD=A4-A3 in the extract.
1.2.6 the mensuration of extract aggegation vigor (HA), is got blood take Alsever's liquid as anti-agglutinant and is fully washed centrifugal (2000r/min * 5min) for several times, be made into afterwards the blood cell suspension of 1% (w/w) with PBS; Getting 25 μ L extracts is added in the V-shaped blood-coagulation-board, make the multiple proportions serial dilution with PBS, then every hole adds isopyknic red cell suspension, hatches 60min in 28 ℃ behind the mixing, observe agglutination activity, the criterion of extract aggregation can be with reference to " immunoassay technology ".
1.2.7 the mensuration of superoxide dismutase (S0D), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) relative activity (AKP) is with measuring kit measurement, the mensuration of superoxide dismutase adopts the detection method of T-SOD.
Represent with average ± standard deviation 1.2.8 data are processed experimental result data, adopt SPSS11.0 that data are carried out one-way analysis of variance.
2 results
The measurement result of the every immune indexes of Macrobrachium nipponensis juvenile prawn liver pancreas behind the juvenile prawn feed of the present invention 2.1 feed:
The Bacteriolytic activity of juvenile prawn feed group of the present invention, antibacterial activity, phenoloxidase activity, peroxidase activity are compared two group differences with control group not remarkable.The hemagglutination activity of Chinese herbal medicine group, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase are compared significant difference with control group.Above result shows that the immune level of juvenile prawn feed group juvenile prawn of the present invention sees Table 1 apparently higher than control group.
Annotate: have same-sign # with each data acceptance of the bid in the delegation and represent difference not significantly (P〉O.05), the identical symbol ◇ of mark tool represents significant difference (P<0.05)
The raw material grinding particle size of shrimp different growing stages
The Bacteriolytic activity of juvenile prawn feed group of the present invention, antibacterial activity, phenoloxidase activity, peroxidase activity are compared difference with control group not remarkable, hemagglutination activity is difficult to measure in the shrimp muscle, the acid phosphatase of juvenile prawn feed group of the present invention, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase are compared significant difference with control group, above result shows that the immune level of juvenile prawn feed group shrimp of the present invention is apparently higher than control group.
Resistance to water is a comprehensive index, and it has characterized conformality, absorbing property, the non-collapsibility and insoluble of feed in water.The resistance to water quality is to weigh the important indicator of aquatic feeds quality good or not.The feed of poor water resistance drops into and the phenomenon such as easily to dissolve, defeated and dispersed behind the water, causes the deposition of feed to waste, Water Eutrophication, severe contamination breeding water body.The water body situation plays vital effect in aquaculture.Good water body is conducive to improve the healthy growth of shrimp, improves survival rate and cultured output.If the every decline 1% of the resistance to water of feed, with about 2,000,000 tons of national annual shrimp forage yield, 10,000,000,000 yuan of meters of the output value, 20,000 tons of so annual losses, amount to 100,000,000 yuan, and the environmental pollution that causes thus, water quality are ruined, are cultivated the indirect loss such as impaired and can't estimate.In some places, owing to the poor water resistance of shrimp feed causes that breeding water body is polluted, cause shrimp epidemic disease large-scale outbreak, cause the impaired phenomenon of shrimp culture industry to beat alarm bell for us.Sinking is the most basic quality requirement of shrimp feed.The shrimp feed floats on the water surface or is suspended in the water, then can not be ingested by shrimp, has reduced the utilization rate of feed, has increased aquaculture cost.In addition, these unemployed shrimp feeds dissolve gradually and scatter and disappear under the action of soaking of water, also can cause water pollution.
The factor that affects shrimp feed resistance to water and sinking is varied.The feedstuff composition composition is various, and loss mode and speed in water also have difference.The content in feed such as organic nutrient substance such as protein, carbohydrate is higher, and major part is insoluble in water, mainly loses in the mode of scattering and disappearing.The feed that gets off that scatters and disappears is granule, is difficult for being ingested by shrimp, thereby causes feed waste.The loss in water such as inorganic salts soluble in water, micro constitutent mainly is that molten becoming homeless causes in the feed.This shows that the factor that affects shrimp mixed feed water stability mainly comprises two aspects: the one, feeding quality, that is internal factor; The 2nd, the breeding water body that feed is thrown in, that is external factor.The eating habit of shrimp has determined that the shrimp feed must have good resistance to water.Thereby resistance to water is to estimate an important indicator of shrimp feeding quality.And in the process of grit shrimp feed, starch burn degree is low so that the adhesive effect power between the material a little less than, cause the feed resistance to water relatively poor.The factor that affects grit shrimp feed resistance to water has: factory formula, processing conditions and binder.The change of factory formula can cause that not only the mass property of feed nutritive value and final products changes, and can not fundamentally change the resistance to water of feed.In the feed process, add binder, not only increased feed cost, and much binder is difficult for digested absorption, even can stick the resistance enteron aisle, cause the death of shrimp.Therefore studying from the feed processing technology aspect, is more rationally effective method of improvement water durability of pellets.
In the raw material of shrimp feed, poor as the adhesion of the raw material of dietary protein origin take fish meal, grouts, mainly be that the starch by gelatinization sticks together various components, improve the anti-corrosion ability in water.Starch burn degree is the index of indirectly judging the feed resistance to water.The technological process of production of grit shrimp feed mainly contains: pulverizing, mixing, modified, granulate, stable, cool drying etc.In these processes, the workshop section that affects starch burn degree mainly contains pulverizing, modified and stable.
The below affects the whole bag of tricks of starch burn degree with description of test
1. starch burn degree is measured
Starch burn degree is measured: the beta amylase Hydrolyze method.Choose cornstarch, potato starch, starch from sweet potato is tested respectively, and it is the highest at 60-63 degree centigrade of gelatinization degree to obtain cooked maize starch.Treatment can reach maximum viscosity at 90 degrees centigrade, becomes glue.May be selected to be adhesive.
2. resistance to water is measured
2.1 water resisting time is measured
In the process of measuring scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio, require the water resisting time of feed greater than two hours.Because the water resisting time of some feeds did not reach two hours, so resistance to water needs to represent with water resisting time that employing is soaked tweezer and gone out method mensuration.Get the beaker of 4 500mL, add respectively water 400mL, put in 25 ℃ of thermostatical water baths, drop into respectively 30 feed granules, record the time.After a period of time, with feed granules of the careful tweezer of tweezers, firmly degree is limited so that particle is fallen down in a beaker, slowly leaves the water, and observes the defeated and dispersed situation of particle.The particle that takes out discard need not, other particle of tweezer one by one.Within different blanking times, defeated and dispersed granule number reaches a half in a beaker, then writes down the soak time of feed granules in this beaker, as the water resisting time of this feed.The result shows that the feed granules of making is difficult for defeated and dispersed most between 60-70 ℃.
2.2 scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio is measured for the feed of water resisting time greater than two hours, resistance to water represents with scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio, adopts quick Nephelometric Determination.Take by weighing respectively the particulate samples of certain mass in six pipe disintegration testers, disintegration 30min in 25 ℃ 1000mL deionized water.After disintegration finishes, take out the disintegration pipe, solution pipettes the l00mL disintegration liquid in the turbidity pipe after using high speed bruisher homogeneous, with eddy oscillating device vibration 2min, puts into fast transmissometer, does reference with the turbidity free water, regulates instrument zero, measures turbidity value, is designated as A1.Then accurately take by weighing the crushed material with disintegration material equal in quality, immerse in the 1000mL deionized water, constant temperature 20min in 25 ℃ of water-baths stirs soak, gets the vibration of l00mL solution and surveys its turbidity, is designated as A2.The scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio of product (%)=A1/A2 * 100 then.The result shows that the feed granules scatter ratio, scatter and disappear ratio of making is minimum between 60-70 ℃.
2.3 subsidence velocity is measured
Subsidence velocity refers to the average speed that feed granules sinks in water.Getting a diameter is 6cm, and length is the transparent pipe of 45cm, one section sealing, and depth of water 40cm vertically places, and measures respectively feed granules and sinks to the pipe time at the end from the underwater.Average subsidence velocity is calculated in parallel determination 20 times.The result shows that the feed granules subsidence velocity of making is the fastest between 60-70 ℃.
3 pulverize resistance to water research
3.1 the crushing material granularity adopts the technique of preparing burden first and pulverizing afterwards to the research experiment process of resistance to water under the pulverizer sieve sheet of different pore size.Material has different geometric mean particle sizes after pulverizing by the sieve (2.0mm, 1.6mm, 1.0mm) of different pore size, mix 5min, pass into the steam that flow is 20g/min (steam pressure is 0.1-0.15MPa), granulate behind the modified 2min, then at 90 ℃ of stable 30min, 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature after, measure index of correlation, research material geometric mean particle size is on the impact of modified rear starch burn degree and final products resistance to water.
3.2 the crushing material granularity is to the research of resistance to water under the classifying screen of different pore size
Experimentation adopts to pulverize first and prepares burden after (the sieve aperture is 1.0mm) sieves again, and disintegrating process namely once circulates.Pass through to adjust the pore size of classifying screen behind the crushing material, make material all by the aperture be 0.60,0.42,0.25,0.18, the classifying screen of 0.15mm, mix 5min, pass into the steam that flow is 20g/min, granulate behind the modified 2min, then at 90 ℃ of stable 30min, 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature after, measure index of correlation.
4. modified to resistance to water research
4.1 modified rear moisture content of material adopts once circulation to pulverize to make material all behind the classifying screen by certain pore size to the research of resistance to water, in mixed process, add respectively 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% moisture make mix after moisture content of material increase in gradient, pass into the steam that flow is 15g/min, granulate behind the modified 2min, then at 90 ℃ of stable 30min, 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature after, measure index of correlation.
4.2 modified rear temperature of charge adopts once circulation to pulverize to make material all behind the classifying screen by certain pore size to the research of resistance to water, does not add moisture in mixed process, passes into the steam that flow is 20g/min, modified 2min; Add 0.5% moisture, pass into the steam that flow is 18g/min, modified 2min; Add 2% moisture, pass into the steam that flow is 12g/min, modified 2min; Add 2.5% moisture, pass into the steam that flow is 10g/min, modified 2min; Add 5% moisture, without modified, after granulating at 90 ℃ of stable 30min, 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature after, measure index of correlation.
4.3 the modified time adopts once circulation to pulverize to make material all behind the classifying screen by certain pore size to the research of resistance to water, interpolation 2.5% moisture passes into the steam that flow is 40g/min, modified 30s in mixed process; Pass into the steam that flow is 20g/min, modified 60s; Pass into the steam that flow is 10g/min, modified 120s; Pass into the steam that flow is 7g/min, modified 180s, after granulating at 90 ℃ of stable 30min, 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature after, measure index of correlation.
5. stabilisation adopts once circulation to pulverize to make all classifying screens by certain pore size of material to resistance to water research, after mixing 5min, pass into the steam that flow is 20g/min, granulate behind the modified 2min, then place immediately stabilizer airtight and insulation, equilibrium temperature be stablize respectively 0,5,10,15,30 under 90,100,110,120 ℃, 60min, behind 105 ℃ of dry 30min, be cooled to room temperature, measure index of correlation, research stabilization temperature and time are to starch burn degree and resistance to water.
Obtain through experiment: the present invention utilizes plants starch and Strong flour to be mixed and made into adhesive, the effect that chemical adhesive is arranged fully can the production of substituted chemistry adhesive in the shrimp feed, and have no side effect, also can be absorbed by shrimp, be a good adhesive.
The error of the processing technology that the raw material smashing fineness depends primarily on mixture homogeneity, adapt with curing degree, the various components that guarantee to search for food every day guarantees to cultivate efficient in allowed band.
1. mixture homogeneity.Mixture homogeneity is except outside the Pass having with mixer performance, material characteristic, and is also relevant with the feed intake of mixing ratio, smashing fineness, fishes and shrimps.Existing mixture homogeneity analytical method is methyl violet, and mixing ratio is 1: 1 * 104, and the crystal violet smashing fineness is 150 orders, granularity is 0.1mm, sampling amount is not less than 200g, and the analysis sample is 10g, and detected object is that minimum edible 10g analyzes the chicken of sample every day in the fowl poultry animal.This assay method only considers 10g analyzes in the sample whether contain enough microcomponent populations, and does not consider 10g analyzes whether even microcomponent distributes in the sample.Therefore, when animal amount every day during greater than 10g, the analytical method of this mixture homogeneity meets the raising requirement.When every day, amount was less than 10g, for example, analyze sample or every day amount below 1g, the mixture homogeneity when above-mentioned analytical method does not then reach and analyzes sample and be 10g.So, to every day feed intake only be juvenile fish, the juvenile prawn of 0.017g, 0.048g, 0.088g, 0.19g, its bait is measured mixture homogeneity with said method, may not necessarily meet the mixing quality requirement of juvenile fish, juvenile prawn.After only taking to improve smashing fineness, reach the amount that reduces the analysis sample under the mixing index condition or suitably improving the measures such as standard of mixture homogeneity, the requirement of mixture homogeneity in the time of just meeting amount less than 10g.Wherein improve smashing fineness and be effective measures, guarantee that the feed particles of taking in every day counts the coincidence loss requirement.
2. the smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials.The smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials should be according to digestion characteristics, the raw material residing state that dissolves in extrusion process of aquatic animal, and namely starch gelatinization and protein-denatured effect are determined.When being used to into fish bait, the smashing fineness of energy, protein raw materials is about 40 orders, and granularity is 0.36~0.40mm; When being used to into shrimp bait, be 90% by 80 orders, granularity is 0.196~0.231mm.Because the digestive system of fish is better than shrimp, the raw material smashing fineness that we think into fish bait meets the cultivation requirement.The energy of juvenile prawn bait, protein raw materials smashing fineness also can be 80 orders.When the modified and kneading of extruder dissolves effect when fine, smashing fineness also can be 70 orders.3. the trace element smashing fineness.Trace element is difficult to formation and dissolves effect in extrusion process, still exist with graininess.About 100 orders, particle diameter is about 0.144mm to the fineness of all kinds of micro-components in the feed mostly.For guaranteeing juvenile fish, juvenile prawn every day to the intake of various trace elements, its bait should satisfy the probable error requirement of taking in particle under the prerequisite that mixes, and the trace element of absorption is meeting on the basis of addition, and the smallest particles number should not be less than 8~10.The grinding particle size of trace element should be according to different growing stages, and the probable error of taking in particle is determined.
4. the long daily ration of feeding that concerns shrimp of the body of daily ration of feeding and shrimp and the body of shrimp are grown relevantly, and computing formula is: Qe=01017L 1.5, L is body long (cm); Qe is daily ration of feeding (g).When the body length of shrimp was respectively 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 5cm, corresponding daily ration of feeding was respectively: 0.017g, 0.048g, 0.088g, 0.19g.
Energy, protein component account for 95%~98% in the shrimp bait.Constant vitamin accounts for 2%~3% temperature-sensitive components such as (should add) vitamins behind extrusion, trace element (accounting for 10% with 8 kinds of trace elements in the premixed feed calculates) accounts for about 1%.When the body length of shrimp was respectively 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 5cm, the corresponding grinding particle size of taking in trace element was respectively: 0.1087mm, 0.11mm, 0.15mm, 0.196mm.As calculated, when the body length of shrimp during less than 2cm, micro-grinding particle size should less than 140~160 orders, can satisfy edible demand; When the body of shrimp was grown up in 3cm, micro-grinding particle size was 100 orders, just can satisfy edible demand.When micro-addition during less than 20g/t, even the grinding particle size of trace element is 100 orders, do not meet edible demand yet, require this moment the granularity of trace element should be less than 140~160 orders, namely less than 0.110~0.087mm.

Claims (10)

1. a juvenile prawn feed is characterized in that, comprises in the following component one or more: fish meal, wheat bran, soya-bean cake, vinasse, yeast, complex vitamin premix, Chinese traditional medicine composition additive, mineral substance premix, feed adhesive.
2. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the ratio of weight and number of described component is: fish meal 10-40 part, wheat bran 10-20 part, soya-bean cake 10-15 part, vinasse 1-2 part, yeast 1-2 part, Chinese traditional medicine composition additive 1-2 part, complex vitamin premix 1-2 part, mineral substance premix 1-2 part, feed adhesive 10-15 part.
3. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described feed adhesive further comprises: Strong flour and starch, wherein the ratio of weight and number of Strong flour and starch is, 5-6:4-5.
4. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 3 is characterized in that the starch that uses in the described feed adhesive is cornstarch, and the ratio of weight and number of wherein giving birth to starch and ripe starch is 80-85:15-20.
5. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 3 is characterized in that, the Strong flour that uses in the described feed adhesive as the protein wt degree greater than 13% flour.
According to claim 1 described in the juvenile prawn feed, it is characterized in that described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive further comprises following bulk drug: Poria cocos, the root of large-flowered skullcap, the capsule of weeping forsythia, field pennycress, selfheal, cordate houttuynia, the root of Dahurain angelica, the red sage root, the seed of Chinese dodder, Radix Codonopsis, the Radix Astragali and the bighead atractylodes rhizome.
7. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 6, it is characterized in that the ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive is: Poria cocos 5~10 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 5~10 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~10 weight portions, field pennycress 5~10 weight portions, selfheal 5~10 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 5~10 weight portions, the red sage root 5~10 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions; Radix Codonopsis 5~10 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 5~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 5~10 weight portions.
8. described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 6, it is characterized in that the ratio of weight and number of the bulk drug of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive is: Poria cocos 8~10 weight portions, the root of large-flowered skullcap 8~10 weight portions, the capsule of weeping forsythia 5~10 weight portions, field pennycress 5~10 weight portions, selfheal 5~8 weight portions, cordate houttuynia 5~10 weight portions, the root of Dahurain angelica 5~8 weight portions, the red sage root 8~10 weight portions, the seed of Chinese dodder 5~10 weight portions; Radix Codonopsis 5~8 weight portions, the Radix Astragali 5~10 weight portions, the bighead atractylodes rhizome 8~10 weight portions.
9. preparation method of shrimp feed as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, concrete steps are: get wheat bran by described ratio of weight and number, fish meal, soya-bean cake, vinasse, yeast, complex vitamin premix, mineral substance premix mix, grinding and sieving, stir after pouring again the Chinese traditional medicine composition additive into, get raw mix; Getting feed adhesive adds water and begins modified; pour in the spraying machine after stirring; also pour into the aforementioned base materials mixture in the spraying machine; it is fully mixed; with 60 degrees centigrade of water temperature modulation in the spraying machine, open sprayer, stirred rapidly 1 minute; the sprayer water temperature is controlled at 60-70 ℃; feed adhesive and raw mix are fully binded, continue to be warming up to 90 ℃ and finish expandedly, put into granulator after making it evenly; granulate; cooling, drying obtains feed; discharging is sieved, and granular size is 0.15-0.25mm.
10. each described juvenile prawn feed according to claim 6-8, it is characterized in that, the preparation method of described Chinese traditional medicine composition additive is: get described bulk drug chopping and join in the multi-function extractor, add ratio of weight and number and be 3000 parts water soaking 30~40 minutes, decoct after 1 hour, decoction liquor is for subsequent use for the first time in taking-up; Dregs of a decoction adding ratio of weight and number is after 3000 parts decocting boils 1 hour, take out for the second time decoction liquor, twice decoction liquor merged filtration, it is 1000 parts solution that filtrate decompression is concentrated into ratio of weight and number, staticly settle 24~36 hours, draw supernatant, being concentrated into relative density is 1.04-1.05, puts into dryer and is dried into fine powder.
CN2012103168611A 2012-08-31 2012-08-31 Feed for juvenile prawns and preparation method thereof Pending CN102845589A (en)

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CN105325767A (en) * 2015-10-31 2016-02-17 颍上县润海畜禽养殖有限公司 Young chrtax quadricarinatus feed
CN105746940A (en) * 2016-02-26 2016-07-13 广东海因特生物技术集团有限公司 Multi-vitamin premix for improving intestinal health of penaeus vannamei boone
CN105851490A (en) * 2016-06-17 2016-08-17 安庆市皖宜季牛水产养殖有限责任公司 Freshwater-shrimp larva feed for enhancing immunity
CN106260579A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-04 合肥申仁养殖有限公司 A kind of Se-enriched feedstuff of Lobster juvenile prawn
CN106343262A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-25 武汉华扬动物药业有限责任公司 Method for immune enhancing agent for raising procambarus clarkii and the preparing method thereof and application
CN107047405A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-08-18 五河县盛源畜牧养殖专业合作社 The method that shrimp seedling is raised in artificial fish jar
WO2019144554A1 (en) * 2018-01-29 2019-08-01 广东联鲲集团有限公司 Premix for litopenaeus vannamei and preparation method therefor

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