CN102844503A - Wall form units and systems - Google Patents

Wall form units and systems Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102844503A
CN102844503A CN2010800240575A CN201080024057A CN102844503A CN 102844503 A CN102844503 A CN 102844503A CN 2010800240575 A CN2010800240575 A CN 2010800240575A CN 201080024057 A CN201080024057 A CN 201080024057A CN 102844503 A CN102844503 A CN 102844503A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
panel
wall
wall form
form unit
constructional materials
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN2010800240575A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
I·S·比金
M·P·巴特斯
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BASF SE
Original Assignee
BASF SE
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GBGB0909280.0A priority Critical patent/GB0909280D0/en
Priority to GB0909280.0 priority
Application filed by BASF SE filed Critical BASF SE
Priority to PCT/EP2010/057000 priority patent/WO2010139564A2/en
Publication of CN102844503A publication Critical patent/CN102844503A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8611Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers being embedded in at least one form leaf
    • E04B2/8617Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with spacers being embedded in at least one form leaf with spacers being embedded in both form leaves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/30Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing magnesium cements or similar cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/30Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing magnesium cements or similar cements
    • C04B28/32Magnesium oxychloride cements, e.g. Sorel cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8635Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties attached to the inner faces of the forms
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D20/02Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using latent heat
    • F28D20/023Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using latent heat the latent heat storage material being enclosed in granular particles or dispersed in a porous, fibrous or cellular structure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2103/00Function or property of ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone
    • C04B2103/0068Ingredients with a function or property not provided for elsewhere in C04B2103/00
    • C04B2103/0071Phase-change materials, e.g. latent heat storage materials used in concrete compositions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2201/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values
    • C04B2201/30Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values for heat transfer properties such as thermal insulation values, e.g. R-values
    • C04B2201/32Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values for heat transfer properties such as thermal insulation values, e.g. R-values for the thermal conductivity, e.g. K-factors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/14Thermal energy storage

Abstract

The invention relates to a wall form unit for containing a pourable, curable construction material for forming a wall section integrating said wall form unit and said construction material, comprising a first panel and a second panel spaced apart in predetermined relation thereby forming a hollow between first and second panels for defining said wall section and at least one tie assembly having a spacer member for maintaining said first and second panel in predetermined relation, in which both the first panel and second panels are rigid and adapted to retain said construction material, wherein the first panel is constructed of a thermally insulating material and the second panel is constructed of a thermally conducting material. A wall form system for forming a section of wall and wall section and a method for constructing same are also defined. The invention also relates to a panel for use in forming a wall form unit and also claims a kit for constructing a wall form unit.

Description

Wall form unit and system
The present invention relates to be used to build the wall form unit and the system of building unit such as wall.More particularly, the present invention relates to the heat conduction panel, it is used for building the wall that is formed by dumpable, curable constructional materials in wall form unit and system, and wherein said template system original position remains on wherein.
Building unit such as wall and post are processed by curable constructional materials such as concrete usually.Be well known that, by the member of these made special shapes with building or build civil engineering structure.Previous this class template is processed by the material such as timber usually.For making building unit, build template and can hold curable constructional materials such as the concrete cavity that is liquid form to form.With concrete or other curable constructional materials impouring or introduce in the cavity that forms by template, it is condensed then.In case said hardened material becomes building unit just to remove template.
Perhaps, template can be built up by some modular units, and wherein each modular unit has the panel at a pair of interval.Said modular unit adjacent to each other level and vertical placement to make up complete template.The template build efficient of using this system to obtain to improve.In case just permanent original position keeps and in case with concrete or other curable constructional materials impouring and make under its situation that just needn't remove of condensing modular unit being designed to place, and is especially true.Each modular unit of a kind of said system has the side plate of being processed by thermal insulation material.These side plates play the unit, side as cavity, and then behind the concrete coagulation as the double action of the heat insulation layer on each side of said concrete.
These wall form unit and wall form system are commonly referred to heat insulating concrete template (ICF).The application of heat insulating concrete template or wall form unit more generally or system is widely accepted as very effective building construction technology.
ICF or other wall form unit or system comprise expansion plastic (foamed plastics) usually, are generally expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam, and wherein template comprises the panel or the hollow block at two intervals.
The ICF that comprises the panel at two intervals provides with self-assembly " tiling packing (flatpack) " system usually, and it comprises two foamed plastics panels and is used to assemble tie-rod or other coupling assembling, the hereinafter referred to as tie-rod of this template.ICF for example is locked together in together through using along the joint tongue and the groove connector at ICF edge usually through suitable linkage, thereby it is piled up to form wall.Reinforcing bar or reinforcement steel mesh reinforcement can be used in the space between the said panel, in said space, add concrete or other curable constructional materials so that additional strength to be provided.When using reinforcing bar, but these levels and vertical orientated then.Said template is assembled into the hollow vertical wall,, forms solid wall thus to wherein impouring concrete or other curable constructional materials.ICF or wall form unit remain on original position and become the permanent part of building and provide adiabatic.It has been generally acknowledged that and use ICF energy efficiency to be provided, help environment to use reliably on the spot as the permanent part of building.As ICF is transported to substituting of project site with self-assembly " tiling packing " form, also can ICF be provided with the pre-assembled unit form.As another selection, the wall section can be on the scene extraterrestrial by the ICF construction, and can these wall sections be transferred to the project site of waiting to build building.
Typical heat insulating concrete template is described in Canadian Patent 1244668,2551250; United States Patent (USP) 4703602,4731968,4949515,5704180,5724782,5809728,5896714; U.S.'s publication application 20040040240,20040045237,20080022619 is among International Application No. WO 9525207, WO9901626, WO2008009103 and the WO2008136819.
French Patent (FRP) 2598447 has been described a kind of structure that comprises the lightweight supporting frame.Said framework is included in on-the-spot by panel institute sealed hollow.In the said cavity of material impouring, thereby wherein said material has the high heat storage ability and the rapid condensation time forms thermal accumulator.Between heat insulation layer inserting surface panel and inner panel laterally.This labyrinth used some panels and utilized the limited capability of constructional materials and do not make framework cross dark with excessively insert.
European patent application 1959212 has been described the wall plate that is formed by glass plate, the core material packing space of wherein using the microcapsules by phase-change material to constitute.Yet this wall plate is inappropriate for fully and keeps curable constructional materials.The packing material that mixes in this wall plate is not curable.
PFSolutions has described the cement-bonded flakeboard as permanent framework on the www.pfsolutions.ie of its website, be retained in original position behind its cast on-site cement.Cement-bonded flakeboard obviously has the thermal conductivity of 0.26W/mK.Yet there is not any thermal insulation slab that directly contacts with concrete core in this system.
Although ICF is generally wall a plurality of heat insulation layers are provided, the building of being built by the ICF wall often has the sufficient inadequately shortcoming of space temperature adjusting in the building.The purpose of this invention is to provide the wall form unit and the system that overcome this problem.Especially, but be desirable to provide and can transport easily and field erected this type wall form unit in the place of construction of buildings or other structure easily.
According to the present invention; We provide a kind of wall form unit; It is used to hold dumpable, curable constructional materials to form the wall section that combines with said wall form unit and said constructional materials; It comprises with predetermined relationship first panel and second panel at interval, and cavity and at least one of between first and second panel, being formed for limiting said wall section thus have the tie-rod device that is used for keeping with predetermined relationship the distance piece of said first and second panels; Wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
The present invention also provides a kind of wall form system that has by the wall section of the core of dumpable, the curable constructional materials of a plurality of Bao Na of panel institute that comprise at least two wall form unit that is used to form, and wherein said wall form unit has separately and is used for the said wall form of interlocking unit to limit the device of said wall section; With predetermined relationship first panel and second panel at interval, between first and second panel, form the cavity of accepting said constructional materials thus; With at least one tie-rod device; Said tie-rod device comprises the distance piece that is used for keeping with said predetermined relationship said first panel and said second panel; Wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
According to a further aspect in the invention, we provide a kind of external member that is used to build the wall form unit of the aforementioned aspect of the present invention.
The invention still further relates to a kind of comprise at least two as the wall form unit defined herein or the wall section of wall form system; It contains the curing building material between first and second panel, and said curing building material is formed by dumpable, the curable constructional materials in the cavity between first and second panel of impouring.
Said wall section usually can be on-the-spot formation the in place of waiting to build building.Perhaps, said wall section can form and be transported to the place of waiting to build building in the manufacturer place.
The invention still further relates to a kind of novel panel that is suitable for building the wall form unit of the aforementioned aspect of the present invention, wherein said panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
The invention still further relates to a kind of construction and comprise the method for the building structure of the wall section that is formed by a plurality of ICF unit, it comprises the steps:
I) first and second panels of arranging a plurality of ICF unit with predetermined relationship to be to limit said wall section, make through first and second panels being formed cavity at interval between first and second panel with predetermined relationship,
Ii) connect at least one and have and be used to keep the tie-rod device of said first and second panels with predetermined relationship distance piece at interval,
Iii) in said cavity, introduce dumpable, curable constructional materials,
Said dumpable, curable constructional materials is solidified,
Wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
In the building course of wall form unit, answer so that its formation is placed second panel towards the mode of the wall side of interior of building, and should be so that its formation is placed first panel towards the mode of the wall side of outside.Should use tie-rod to make first panel and second panel keep preset distance.Introduce dumpable, curable constructional materials such as concrete in the cavity that should between first and second panel, form and it is condensed to form the wall section.
In a single day said dumpable, curable constructional materials is introduced in the said cavity, just should directly contact with first and second panels.In case solidify, said dumpable, curable constructional materials should form the solid core that directly contacts with first and second panels.
The inventor thinks; Through using separately the panel that directly contacts and form by Heat Conduction Material and thermal insulation material respectively with curing building material such as concrete; The caloic of curing building material capable of using, and use it for the adjustment of improving in the building space, keep enough thermal insulation simultaneously.The inventor thinks, the adjustment that the building of being built by prior art ICF wall often has a space in the building inadequately fully the reason of shortcoming be that it lacks available caloic.
Condense and demonstrate high caloic with dumpable, the curable constructional materials (being generally concrete) that forms curing building material inner core.Its caloic representes to be generally 700J/kgK at least with specific heat capacity, is generally 800J/kgK at least, and perhaps 900J/kgK at least more preferably is for example up to 1000J/kgK or 1100J/kgK or bigger.Concrete density influences thermal capacitance from the volume aspect.Density is big more, and volumetric heat capacity is just big more.Therefore, preferably use, be generally concrete based on curing building material with highdensity portland cement.Its density usually always>0.5kg/l, preferred>1.0, most preferably>2.0.In case curing is also solidified, said dumpable, curable constructional materials can have 1-6W/m ideally 2The admittance of K (admittance) value.According to the present invention, can use any concrete that is generally used for building purpose, but preferred specialized designs is used for the concrete that ICF uses, for example available from Rheo Cell (trade mark) the ICF concrete of BASF or available from the U Crete (trade mark) of Bardon Concrete.Also can use waterproof concrete, build in particular for basement.Also can comprise phase-change material (PCM) ideally so that extra adjustment to be provided in building.Suitable phase-change material is described in the description of this paper about second panel.
The size of first and second panels can be typical ICF size commonly used.Panel length can suitably be 1000-1500mm, preferred 1200-1300mm, for example about 1220mm.The height of first panel and second panel can be 350-500mm, preferred 390-450mm, for example about 400-410mm.Yet, in some cases, can use bigger size ideally.For example panel can be desirably up to 3000mm or 4000mm long and/or wide or bigger.If find it is feasible, also can use even bigger size.Even bigger size for example can be and reaches 10,000mm high with reach 20,000mm is long.
Large-sized application comprises the ICF structure, and it can be built in factory in advance.Typically more large scale IFC structure can be similar to used size among the HercuWallTM that is made by HercuWall Inc (U.S.).
Said first and second panels should be strong usually and have enough abrasion resistancies and during transportation or especially wreck at an easy rate at project site avoiding.This comprise processing, assembling, concrete topple over during, concrete setting up period, machinery and electricity is installed and wiping one's face subsequently, finishing etc.
The edge of first and second panels can be to allow wall form unit (ICF) thus piling up the mode that makes level and vertical edge all be locked in the adjacent cells forms.Lock down system can be based on joint tongue and groove connector.This can be through for example for top edge and left side provide joint tongue, and for lower edge and right side provide groove, thereby make each panel to realize with the mode of this adjacent panels interlocking.These lock down systems can add, pour into a mould or cut in the panel or can form to form joint tongue and groove through some thinner panels are installed at production period.
Can further adjust first and second panels to help and concrete better bonding.This for example can realize through applying groove or other surface configuration on the panel side of the constructional materials that is intended to/curing curable towards concrete or other.On second panel, these grooves also should help to improve the thermo-contact between said panel and the concrete.
From the required specific purposes of interior of building, also can adjust towards the surface of second panel of interior of building, promptly with concrete or other curable/the relative side of constructional materials contact side of solidifying.For example, the surface towards inside of second panel can be smooth to accept coating or wallpaper, and perhaps when the needs rough surface, erasable or make its roughening to accept ceramic tile or other overcover wherein needs coarse surface.Second panel also can be coated with suitable grid cloth, and for example glass fiber is to improve finish, intensity or anti-flammability.
First panel of said wall form unit or system can be the conventional panel of any ICF of being used to form.First panel can be processed by composite material, polymer or polymer base compound (compound) usually.Said first panel is suitably by foamed plastics, and preferred expanded polystyrene (for example available from BASF Styropor (trade mark)) or polyurethane foam form.First panel can contain other thermal insulation member or the vacuum heat-insulating plate with foamed plastics such as Aerogel (trade mark).Can be in the foamed plastics of first panel blast blending to improve its performance such as intensity or insulating characteristics.The additive that is suitable for foamed plastics comprises graphite such as Neopor (trade mark), and it is the expanded polystyrene by the graphitiferous of BASF production.First panel can contain two-layer or more multi-layered foamed plastics, forms form of composite thus.The thickness of first panel is confirmed by the required concrete thermal-insulating value (T.I.V.) of the concrete building in building.First panel can suitably have the thermal conductivity that is lower than 0.045W/mK.Thermal conductivity can be any value that is lower than this value usually, and can be low to moderate detectable minimum.Thermal conductivity can be low to moderate 0.005W/mK.The thermal conductivity of first panel can be 0.010-0.040W/mK usually, usually is 0.020-0.040W/mK.
Second panel can be by providing any material of appropriate characteristic to process for the application in wall form unit and system.That it should be rigidity and be suitable for keeping constructional materials such as concrete.In addition, it should have the thermal conductivity of 0.1W/mK (watts/meter Kelvin) at least ideally at least on the thickness direction of plate, preferably 0.2W/mK at least.In some cases, the thermal conductivity of second panel can be 0.25W/mK at least, 0.3W/mK at least, 0.4W/mK at least, preferred 0.5W/mK at least, more preferably 1.0W/mK at least.There is not the upper limit in thermal conductivity, as long as it does not damage other performance such as rigidity and intensity.Thermal conductivity can be at most 100W/mK.
Second panel can for example be processed with the metal sheet form by any suitable metal.Usually this can be aluminium or the copper that thermal conductivity is respectively 200W/mK and 380W/mK.Yet preferred second panel is processed by the suitable constructional materials that is suitable for improving thermal conductivity.
Second panel can comprise concrete slab or piece, comprise stone or the marble panel or the plate of cement such as portland cement or magnesite cement, for example fiberboard or flakeboard.If gypsum plank has enough durability so that it is without prejudice in building course, then can use gypsum plank.The standard gypsum plank is inappropriate for this application usually.
Preferred second panel comprises the combination of at least two kinds of components, and it comprises first component that is selected from inorganic adhesive material, polymer and polymer base compound and is distributed in second component that is selected from heat conduction particle, filament or net in whole first component.
First component of preferred second panel comprises inorganic hydraulic binding agent, as is found in concrete substrate, and like the portland cement plate, magnesite cement plate particularly is as based on those of oxygen magnesium sulfate, oxychloride magnesium and magnesium phosphate.The inorganic adhesive material of the hydraulicity for example is and the inorganic material of water reaction with the formation solid matrix.Other instance comprises magnesia, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide/pozzolan mixture, aluminous cement, gypsum ash etc.The inorganic adhesive material of on-hydraulic also can be used as first component of second panel.These adhesive material are through dry sclerosis the wholly or in part, and comprise calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, clay, magnesium hydroxide etc.Also can use mixture, preferred inorganic adhesive material contains at least a hydraulic binding agent.
Second component of second panel comprises the material with high thermal conductivity.In order to offer the enough thermal conductivitys of second panel, second component material has 0.1W/mK at least ideally, the preferred thermal conductivity of 0.2W/mK at least.Preferred especially second component material has above 1.0W/mK, especially surpasses the thermal conductivity of 2.0W/mK.There is not greatest limit in the thermal conductivity of second component, and these can be up to 200 or even 500W/mK.
Second component of preferred second panel can be any material that is selected from graphite, alumina particle, silica sand, fine sand gravel or stone granulate, metallic fiber, wire lath and metallic particles.Suitable metal comprises iron, copper, aluminium or metal alloy such as steel or brass.Also can use other metal or metal alloy like lead, tin, bronze, silver etc.
Second component of second panel can be particle, fiber or other structure form like net.Common said particle can be thinner, and its weight average particle diameter is less than 1mm, especially less than 0.1mm, for example is low to moderate 0.01mm or lower.Perhaps, said particle can be thicker, and its weight average particle diameter is 1mm at least, even 2mm at least, for example up to 5mm or even up to 10mm or 20mm or bigger.Said fiber can have 0.01-1mm or bigger cross-sectional diameter.The length of fiber can be shorter, for example less than 5mm, perhaps is 10mm or 20mm sometimes, if it is knitting wool form such as steel wool or steel mesh reinforcement, and then can be significantly longer.
Second panel can comprise its amount based on first component and its amount second component for the 0-95 weight % of panel of these two kinds of components (not comprising any filler or lining material such as paper or grid cloth) for 5-100 weight %.Second component can be present in the said panel with the amount of 5-95 weight % usually, and first component can exist with the amount of 5-95 weight %.In many systems, second component can be key component, 65-95 weight % for example, and preferred 75-85 weight %, and first component can be 5-35 weight %, preferred 15-25 weight %.Preferred first component forms the matrix that wherein is distributed with second component in panel.If second panel has high thermal conductivity, promptly>0.1W/mK, then can not need second component.
Second panel can be processed by material that contains partial inflation such as float stone, as long as inflation does not damage thermal conductivity and holds ability dumpable, curable constructional materials.The material that is used to form second panel should not contain the air gap of significant quantity usually ideally like inflation, because this possibly tend to obtain than low heat conductivity.Second panel should be ideally as fine and close feasible under the common restrictive condition during panel production, building construction and building use.Ideally, the density of second panel is 100kg/m at least 3, preferred 300kg/m at least 3, more preferably 700kg/m at least 3Especially preferred material tends to have 1000kg/m at least 3, usually up to 1500kg/m 3Density.Yet density can be significantly higher, for example up to 1750kg/m 3Perhaps even up to 2400kg/m 3Or it is higher.
The instance of second panel be by portland cement or magnesite cement as first component, comprise those that sand grains or fine agglutinant form as second component that is distributed in whole portland cement or the magnesite cement.Suitably, sand or fine agglutinant account for the 65-95% of the second panel gross weight, and all the other are magnesite cement.Preferred sand or fine agglutinant account for the 75-85% of the second panel gross weight, and magnesite cement accounts for the 15-25% of gross weight.
Second panel also can contain other component such as filler or reinforcing fiber.For example, when second panel is based on inorganic adhesive material of the hydraulicity such as magnesite cement, can comprise this type filler.Usually this can comprise wood particle or fiber, synthetic glass fiber, basalt or carbon fiber or carbon granules.Yet, its objective is that the overall thermal conductance that must make second panel is maximum, and must think over the interpolation of filler, fiber etc. from this purpose.Must obtain suitably high thermal conductivity and satisfy each requirement and seek balance between like intensity, outward appearance, cost etc.
In preferred template of the present invention, second panel can contain phase-change material (PCM).This characteristic allows space temperature in the building is further regulated.
Suitable phase-change material can be organic, the water-insoluble material that experiences solid-liquid/liquid-solid phase transformation at usable temp (being generally 0-80 ℃) down.Enthalpy of phase change (fusion and crystallization latent heat) is very high usually.When measuring through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), suitable organic phase change material demonstrates high enthalpy of phase change, usually>50kJ/kg, preferred>100kJ/kg, most preferably>150kJ/kg.
Suitable organic phase change material includes, but is not limited to the mixture of water-insoluble basically fatty alcohol, glycol, ether, aliphatic acid, acid amides, fatty acid ester, straight-chain hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbon, cyclic hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbons and these materials.Special preference chain alkane (being commonly referred to paraffin), ester and alcohol.Alkane preferably is essentially normal paraffin hydrocarbons, and it is the most usually the most commercially available with the mixture of material with different chain length, can be C through its key component of gas chromatography determination 10-C 50, be generally C 12-C 32The instance of the key component of alkane organic phase change material comprises positive octacosane, n-docosane, n-eicosane, n-octadecane, n-heptadecane, hexadecane, n-pentadecane and n-tetradecane.Suitable ester organic phase change material is by one or more C 10-C 24The C of aliphatic acid 1-C 10Arrcostab, especially methyl esters constitute, wherein key component Wei methyl behenate, methyl arachidate, methyl stearate, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl myristate or methyl laurate.Suitable pure organic phase change material comprises one or more alcohol, and wherein key component for example is Decanol, n-dodecane alcohol, n-tetradecanol, the pure and mild n-octadecane alcohol of hexadecane.
Also can comprise the halogenated hydrocarbons that serves as fire retardant with main organic phase change material.
Organic phase change material is an insoluble in water basically, because this is the particle form of preparation organic phase change material, for example emulsion form or encapsulated form are necessary.
Organic phase change material is used for the present invention with particle form, and it means and is emulsification or encapsulated form.From hereinafter reason discussed in detail, the granularity of phase-change material particle should be too not big.Usually the phase-change material particle is as far as possible little in particular bound.When considering the phase-change material form, during like emulsion or encapsulated form, this discusses hereinafter in more detail.
For the wherein non-encapsulated present composition of organic phase change material is provided, it is desirable to provide the said organic phase change material that is emulsion form usually.Suitable emulsion constitutes by being stabilized in the decentralized photo that contains the organic phase change material in the water continuous phase, so it is oil-in-water or O/W type emulsion.Term " emulsion " is applicable to liquid bag liquid two-phase system usually.In the present invention, we make term " emulsion " comprise liquid bag liquid and the solid two kinds of systems of liquid bag, and this depends on that the particle of phase-change material is liquid (fusion) or solid-state (crystallization).Therefore, when referring to organic phase change material, term " particle " also comprises liquid and these two kinds of forms of solid.In suitable emulsion, use haplotype and/or polymer type surface activating agent emulsification and the stable particle that contains in the water continuous phase that is in to promote organic phase change material.
The granularity of emulsion is limited to the scope that is rather narrow usually.Should avoid oversize particle, especially very thick particle is because it tends to more unstable and more be prone to cohesion also therefore be separated.Therefore, from actual cause, the granularity of the organic phase change material of emulsion form is generally 0.05-50 μ m, usually is 0.1-20 μ m, is more typically 0.5-10 μ m (volume mean diameter to measure through for example Sympatec Particle Size Analyzer is represented).Therefore, this definition comprises the emulsion that is described as microemulsion and nanoemulsions.
Preferred emulsion contains 20%w/w organic phase change material particle at least, and more preferably this is 40%w/w at least.Emulsion can contain at the most 75 or 80%w/w, but is not more than 60 or 65%w/w usually.
Usually, emulsion should suitably be stablized, because it should not be separated behind static storage number hour; Preferred its stable at least 7 days, most preferably at least 30 days.Usually, emulsion-stabilizing a few weeks longer or several months, even reach 1 year or more of a specified duration.Although particle possibly have to the reservoir vessel surface migration tendency of (being called " creaming " effect), good emulsion can unstability and form the abundant layer of the phase-change material of cohesion, and the stirring particle homogenizing more fully that can make layering.
Suitable emulsion can be through described those preparations of book " EmulsionScience " of conventional method such as Philip Sherman.Select useful guidance to be called the publication of " The HLB System " referring to the name of ICI to monomeric surfactants (emulsifier).The preparation of stable emulsion described in a large amount of other document articles, comprises the selection and the consumption of haplotype to be used and/or polymer type surface activating agent.
Should be noted in the discussion above that usually the preferred liquid form that uses, promptly the organic phase change material of molten condition prepares emulsion.The organic phase change material that contains additive such as halogenated paraffin, organic nucleating agent, oil soluble surfactant etc. also should be desirably complete liquid state.Preferably during emulsion forms, make organic phase change material (comprising optional additive) keep liquid, this temperature that generally includes said organic phase change material (comprising optional additive) remains on more than the temperature that can form wax crystal.The formation of emulsion comprises the decentralized photo that comprises organic phase change material and water merged, and sometimes need be before adding organic phase change material and/or among the temperature of control water.This can be avoided decentralized photo is cooled to the temperature spot of the crystallization that can cause problem.
The organic phase change material of sealing comprises the organic phase change material and optional additive such as halogenated paraffin or nucleator that is surrounded by the impermeable shell of phase-change material usually.Be different from free (free) particle of organic phase change material, capsule particle even the organic phase change material in capsule core also remain solid particle when being in its higher-energy molten condition.In capsule form, the complete pitamen of organic phase change material surrounds and wraps up and protected with anti-pollution.When shell is firm, hold organic phase change material more reliably and from capsule with to comprise the possibility of overflowing the composition of capsule lower.For this reason, preferably use capsule in the present invention, particularly firm capsule.The details of capsule strong character provides hereinafter.
Because the organic phase change material of sealing is the stable solid object often, it can provide with the particle size range wideer than the possible granularity of above-mentioned emulsification organic phase change material.Can use average primary particle size in the present invention is the capsule of 0.1 μ m to 1mm.For many reasons, preferably use less capsule granularity in the present invention usually.Elementary capsule is more little, and is often durable more, thereby makes the present composition be not easy to discharge organic phase change material.Because it has bigger surface/volume, expection conducts heat to organic phase change material particle/conduct heat from the organic phase change material particle present composition than small grain size more easily.Usually capsule is more little, just possibly be distributed in equably in whole second panel more.
Capsule can use with aqueous dispersion or dry powder form expediently.
Suitable aqueous dispersion comprises 30-60%w/w usually, most preferably the microcapsules of 40-50%w/w.When providing, should think over the granularity of organic phase change material capsule as aqueous dispersion.Except the benefit that preamble is discussed than Caplet, the advantageous property that often demonstrates better stability (the capsule creaming or the sedimentation of reduction) than the dispersion of Caplet with the dispersion of the large-size capsule of the same concentrations unfavorable performance that improves of specific viscosity mutually.Usually also more be difficult to prepare suitable capsule with minimum granularity and/or required method because the extra processing of needs and/or use equipment and the costliness more of specialty more.Must between these the strengths and weaknesseses, seek balance, and select the capsule volume mean diameter (VMD) (when the time) of 0.2-20 μ m usually for the aqueous dispersion form.The VMD of capsule is 0.7-10 μ m, more preferably 1-5 μ m in the preferred water dispersion.VMD passes through Sympatec Helos Particle Size Analyzer or discovery can obtain and other technical measurement of the microcapsules result that Sympatec Helos analyzer result coincide very much.
The capsule of dry form also can be used among the present invention.When the aqueous dispersion that makes capsule or suspension experience dewaters step, can obtain this type capsule, the said step that dewaters can comprise spray-drying, air-dry, filtration or centrifugal.Also can partly remove and anhydrate to obtain the capsule of paste or cheese formula.When the dry basically product of the dispersion of microcapsules production that by VMD is 10 μ m at the most, special preferably spray drying.Treat that preferably spray-dired capsule granularity is 1-5 μ m.Spray-dired organic phase change material particle comprises one or more primary particles (microcapsules), and is generally some primary particles that are agglomerated form.The VMD of spray-dried granules is generally 5-200 μ m, preferred 10-100 μ m, more preferably 20-80 μ m.This scope balance the advantage and the needs of avoiding dust and related breathing to endanger of small grain size.
In the present invention, preferably use the aqueous dispersion form of capsule,, and make cost lower owing to having avoided obtaining the required step that dewaters of dry products because this provides preferably than the Caplet granularity usually.Should be noted in the discussion above that typical Microencapsulation Method provides the moisture capsules disperse body as said method product.
Said encapsulating method obtains to have basically the capsule of nucleocapsid structure.Said nuclear is made up of organic phase change material, and said shell constitutes by sealing polymeric material.It is spherical that capsule is essentially usually.Preferred said shell has durability, thereby the protection organic phase change material is selected from capsule with anti-pollution and difficult.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provides the index of said capsule soundness." half is high " for when the dried capsule with fixed mass heats under constant rate of speed, 50% o'clock temperature of (anhydrous) capsule gross mass is done in loss.In this analytical method, quality maybe since organic phase change material overflow through shell as vapor permeates and/or since breaking of shell lose.When under nitrogen atmosphere, use Perkin-Elmer Pyris 1 with 20 ℃/minute speed when being generally the 5-50mg dry test and carrying out TGA; Half high value of specially suitable organic phase change material microcapsules (mean particle size range is 1-5 μ m) is for being higher than 200 ℃ or 250 ℃; Preferably be higher than 300 ℃, more preferably be higher than 350 ℃.Dry sample remains under 110 ℃ temperature to obtain except that anhydrating (when when obtaining to stablize reading down for 110 ℃, reaching dry state) through a certain amount of dispersion product (solid content is generally 45%w/w) being added in the platter of analyzer then.Analyze through speed lifting temperature then with 20 ℃/minute.
The microcapsules product of the powder type that is obtained by foregoing spray drying process for example can be analyzed in the same manner.In this case, because powder is done basically, drying steps is very short usually.
Capsule can form through any convenient encapsulating method that is suitable for preparing the capsule with correct structure and size.The whole bag of tricks of preparation capsule has been proposed in the document.Relate to the method that active component is wrapped in the matrix and be described in for example EP-A-356 prevailingly, 240, EP-A-356,239, US5,744,152 with WO97/24178 in.Be used to form around the typical technology of polymer shell of nuclear and for example be described in GB1,275,712,1,475,229 and 1,507,739, DE3 is in 545,803 and US3,591,090.
Can phase-change material be applied to one or more surfaces of formed second panel, preferably be applied on the surface of interior of building.Yet, more preferably phase-change material is mixed in its matrix in the manufacture process of second panel.In fact, the key component of second panel, first component for example, preferred magnesite cement forms the matrix that wherein is surrounded by phase-change material ideally.More preferably first component, the preferred magnesite cement and second component, preferred sand or fine agglutinant all surround phase-change material.Especially, phase-change material whole first component such as magnesite cement and second component such as sand or the fine agglutinant in the two that can be distributed in second panel equably.
Can phase-change material be mixed or be applied to the surface of formed second panel in the manufacture process of second panel, wherein phase-change material can be dispersion or the slurry form that is in the continuous phase liquid.Usually this can be dispersion or slurry that is in the water or the form that for example is aqueous emulsion.Preferred phase-change material be microencapsulation and apply as aqueous dispersion.Perhaps, phase-change material can apply to do microencapsulation form.
Second panel can contain flame-retardant additive, and this can comprise inorganic salts or other inorganic compound such as magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide or borate.
The thickness of second panel can be 5-50mm, preferred 5-30mm, more preferably 10-20mm.
The suitable anchor point of tie-rod in first and second panels can be equipped with and be used for.The tie-rod anchor can be poured in the foamed plastics during manufacture.If first panel is processed by some other materials, other device that then is used for fixing anchor point maybe be more suitable, for example screw or other standard fixed device.
Tie-rod can be prior art, for example those the described ICF of being used for that quote of this paper or any conventional tie-rod of other wall form unit.Tie-rod can be processed by metal or plastics usually.If ICF is not based on " tiling packing " system, but forms integrated package, then tie-rod can be processed by foamed plastics.Tie-rod should be combined into one with the distance piece that keeps the first and second panel preset distances ideally.Usually, tie-rod and distance piece form integral body and are processed by above-mentioned metal or plastics or foamed plastics ideally.Can be ideally with tie-rod and first and second panel to form integrated package.The tie-rod anchor is pourable to panel, especially in first panel.First and/or second panel can contain and inserts and the fixing terminal groove of tie-rod.In this case, tie-rod can forever be connected with a panel and through in the groove that the free end of said tie-rod is inserted another panel and be connected with another panel.Perhaps, can tie-rod be installed in the groove of two panels.Can use two kinds or more kinds of tie-rod.
According to an aspect of the present invention; Wall form unit (for example ICF) assembles through a plurality of first panels are interconnected with a plurality of second panels together together, and first face equipment that forms thus and second panel-mounted that forms thus keep preset distance by suitable tie-rod device.The space length of the cavity segment that forms between first face equipment and second face equipment (cavity hereinafter referred to as) between said two devices can be 50-500mm.The interlamellar spacing of preferred cavity can be 100-220mm.Typical cavity layer spacing depends on that required fabric structure for example can be 102mm, 158mm and 203mm.Other preformed section such as turning also can be constructed in accordance.
The invention described above embodiment is intended to as embodiments of the invention, and those skilled in the art can change and improve and the scope of the invention that do not depart from claims and limited it.
Shown in Figure 1 is wall section of the present invention, and it has first panel (1) of the thermal insulation material that is positioned at this wall section outside; The metal ribs (2) that is used for the wall support strength; Be used for keeping the tie-rod (3) of first and second panels with predetermined relationship; Corner post (4); Be positioned at second panel (5) of the inboard Heat Conduction Material of this wall section; With as concrete (6) dumpable, curable constructional materials.

Claims (14)

1. wall form unit; It is used to hold dumpable, curable constructional materials to form the wall section that combines with said wall form unit and said constructional materials; It comprises first panel and second panel that is in predetermined relationship; Between said first and second panel, form the cavity that limits said wall section thus; Have with at least one and to be used to keep the tie-rod device of said first and second panels with predetermined relationship distance piece at interval, wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
2. according to the wall form unit of claim 1, wherein said first panel comprises composite material, polymer or polymer base compound, preferred expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam.
3. according to the wall form unit of claim 1 or 2; Wherein second panel comprises first component that is selected from inorganic adhesive material, polymer and polymer base compound and optional and is distributed in second component that is selected from heat conduction particle, filament or net in whole first component.
4. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim; Wherein second panel comprises first component that is selected from inorganic adhesive material, polymer and polymer base compound and second component that is selected from graphite, alumina particle, silica sand, fine sand gravel or stone granulate, metallic fiber, wire lath and metallic particles.
5. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim, wherein second panel is formed by the inorganic adhesive material of the hydraulicity.
6. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim, wherein second panel is formed by magnesite cement.
7. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim, wherein second panel is formed by the magnesite cement that comprises sand grains or have other additive of high thermal conductivity, and said other distribution of additives is in whole magnesite cement.
8. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim, wherein second panel contains phase-change material (PCM).
9. according to each wall form unit in the aforementioned claim, wherein second panel contains phase-change material (PCM) and magnesia or magnesite cement.
10. according to Claim 8 or 9 wall form unit, wherein said phase-change material (PCM) is a microencapsulation.
11. one kind is used to form the wall form system that has by the wall section of the core of dumpable, the curable constructional materials of a plurality of Bao Na of panel institute that comprise at least two wall form unit, wherein said wall form unit has separately and is used for interlocking fixing wall modular unit to limit the device of said wall section; Be in first panel and second panel of predetermined relationship, between first and second panel, form the cavity of accepting said constructional materials thus; With at least one tie-rod device; Said tie-rod device comprises and is used to keep said first panel and said second panel with said predetermined relationship distance piece at interval; Wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
12. one kind is used to build the external member according to the wall form unit of claim 1.
13. one kind comprises at least two according to the wall form unit of claim 1 or according to the wall section of the wall form system of claim 11; It comprises the curing building material between first and second panel, and said curing building material is formed by dumpable, the curable constructional materials in the cavity between first and second panel of impouring.
14. a construction comprises the method for the building structure of the wall section that is formed by a plurality of ICF unit, comprises the steps:
I) first and second panels of arranging a plurality of ICF unit with predetermined relationship to be to limit said wall section, make through first and second panels are formed cavity at interval with predetermined relationship between first and second panel,
Ii) connect at least one and have and be used to keep the tie-rod device of said first and second panels with predetermined relationship distance piece at interval,
Iii) in said cavity, introduce dumpable, curable constructional materials,
Said dumpable, curable constructional materials is solidified,
Wherein first panel and second panel be rigidity and be suitable for keeping said constructional materials, wherein first panel is processed by thermal insulation material and second panel is processed by Heat Conduction Material.
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Application publication date: 20121226