CN102840281B - Synchronizer-free gear shifting system for input shaft speed regulation for electric automobile - Google Patents

Synchronizer-free gear shifting system for input shaft speed regulation for electric automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102840281B
CN102840281B CN201210348336.8A CN201210348336A CN102840281B CN 102840281 B CN102840281 B CN 102840281B CN 201210348336 A CN201210348336 A CN 201210348336A CN 102840281 B CN102840281 B CN 102840281B
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China
Prior art keywords
gear
driving
speed
output shaft
input shaft
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CN201210348336.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102840281A (en
Inventor
李亮
李磊
杨克
宋健
杨超
李红志
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清华大学
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Priority to CN201210348336.8A priority Critical patent/CN102840281B/en
Publication of CN102840281A publication Critical patent/CN102840281A/en
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Publication of CN102840281B publication Critical patent/CN102840281B/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to a driving motor front-engine rear-drive automatic mechanical gearbox gear shifting system, in particular to a synchronizer-free gear shifting automatic mechanical gearbox on the basis of few-gear middle shaft active speed regulation, and belongs to the technical field of automobile control. The system comprises an input shaft, an output shaft, driving and driven gears for each gear, a spline hub, an engagement sleeve, a sensor, a speed regulating motor, a speed regulating motor transmission mechanism, a clutch operation mechanism, a gear shifting executing mechanism and a controller. The system realizes the synchronism of the engagement sleeve and a target-gear gear during the gear shifting through the regulation on the input shaft rotating speed under the condition of the motive power interruption of the speed regulating motor, a synchronizer with high requirements on materials is omitted, the cost is favorably reduced, and meanwhile, the problem that the starting and acceleration performance and the relative high-speed running of a small-size pure electric automobile cannot be simultaneously considered can be favorably solved.

Description

A kind of for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system, particularly relate to the automatic mechanical type gearbox (hereinafter referred to as AMT) without synchronizer gearshift of a kind of motor based on few gear active speed governing, mainly for the small-sized electric vehicle of the preposition forerunner of drive motor, belong to Control of Electric Vehicles technical field.
Background technique
Along with the growing interest to environmental problem, and society petroleum-based energy problem there is a serious shortage in the supply, people put among researching and producing of new-energy automobile energetically, wherein, small-sized electric vehicle, with its no pollution, plays an increasingly important role at society to the advantage that fuel oil zero consumes.
Current existing small-sized electric vehicle comes into operation, its structure is directly driven by motor, without speed changer, power is directly passed to transmission shaft through one-level or double reduction, well meet starting and grade climbing performance, but highest speed is affected, simultaneously due to without gearbox, climb or accelerate substantially by drive motor Direct driver, to the peak torque T of motor maxwith maximum speed n maxrequire high, thus the quality of motor or car load, volume and cost are improved.Or the electric vehicle of existing installation two gear gearbox, still has certain narrow limitation: otherwise low-speed high-torque starts to walk or climbing, or run at high speed, without middle normal travelling speed, adaptability for working condition reduces, simultaneously, during high speed operation of motor, efficiency reduces greatly, and power consumption raises; Even if two gears are set to lower normal travelling speed, but cannot meet relatively high the running at high speed of speed, also may affect to traffic.If gearbox gear is too much, structure can be made to become complicated, and volume and quality must increase, and conflict to some extent with the design concept of small-sized electric vehicle.Traditional mechanical structure synchronization device is adopted during existing electric automobile gearshift, by balk ring and gear ring taper-face contact produce friction reach synchronous with reduce shift gears time engaging tooth between impact, but synchronizer manufactured materials requires high, make cost raise, and structure is more complicated.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the deficiency for prior art, propose a kind of for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system, few gear (more than three gears) gearbox is adopted to the small-sized electric vehicle of the preposition forerunner of drive motor, eliminate synchronizer, adopt speed-adjustable motor to input shaft initiatively speed governing, thus reach synchronous effect.
The present invention propose for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system, comprising: drive motor output shaft, clutch, input shaft, output shaft, clutch operation, gear shifting actuating mechanism, driving mechanism and speed governing bindiny mechanism; Described drive motor output shaft is connected with input shaft by clutch;
The two ends of described input shaft are bearing on gearbox casing by tapered roller bearing, input shaft is provided with two gear driving gears, a gear driving gear, four gear driving gears, three gear driving gear and driving mechanism driven gears, wherein, two gear driving gears, a gear driving gear, four gear driving gears, three gear driving gears and input shaft make one, input shaft and above-mentioned driving mechanism driven gear spline joint;
Described driving mechanism is supported on gearbox casing, and driving mechanism is made up of driving gear and driven gear, and driving gear and driven gear engage each other;
The two ends of described output shaft are bearing on gearbox casing by ball bearing, output shaft is equipped with two gear driven gears successively from front end to rear end, second splined hub, one gear driven gear, four gear driven gears, first splined hub and three gear driven gears, two gear driven gears, one gear driven gear, four gear driven gears and three gear driven gears keep off driving gear with two on above-mentioned input shaft respectively, one gear driving gear, four gear driving gears and three gear driving gear engagements, the internal spline of the second splined hub and the external splines drive fit of output shaft, second splined hub is linked by the second clutch collar and gear shifting actuating mechanism, the internal spline of the first splined hub and the external splines drive fit of output shaft, first splined hub is linked by the first clutch collar and gear shifting actuating mechanism,
Described clutch operation is fixed on the gearbox casing of shifting system, clutch operation is made up of motor, worm screw, duplicate gear and tooth bar, motor is fixed on gearbox casing, worm screw exports with motor and is connected, worm screw engages with the first order worm gear in duplicate gear, second level wheel and rack engagement in duplicate gear, tooth bar and described clutch linkage;
Described gear shifting actuating mechanism is fixed on gearbox casing, gear shifting actuating mechanism is by block selecting motor, first reducing gear, block selecting tooth is fanned, shift motor, second reducing gear, gearshift tooth fan, gearshift tooth bar shift fork, block selecting tooth bar shift fork and main shaft composition, described block selecting motor is fanned with block selecting tooth by the first reducing gear and is connected, block selecting tooth fan engages with block selecting tooth bar shift fork, described shift motor is fanned by the second reducing gear be connected with gearshift tooth, gearshift tooth fan engages with gearshift tooth bar shift fork, gearshift tooth bar shift fork and above-mentioned first clutch collar or the second clutch collar link,
Described speed governing bindiny mechanism is fixed on gearbox casing, speed governing bindiny mechanism is by transmission shaft, friction disk, platen, ball, ball grooves, feed screw nut, speed-adjustable motor and slide bar composition, one end of described transmission shaft and the driving gear spline joint of above-mentioned driving mechanism, the other end of transmission shaft and friction disk spline joint, described platen, ball grooves and feed screw nut are arranged on speed-adjustable motor output shaft successively, described platen is fixed on the leading portion of speed-adjustable motor output shaft by square key, ball is arranged in ball grooves, ball grooves is fixed on speed-adjustable motor output shaft leading portion by square key, described feed screw nut becomes leading screw to be connected with the back segment of speed-adjustable motor output shaft, one end of described slide bar is fixed on gearbox casing, the other end becomes to be slidably matched with feed screw nut, coaxially, there is gap each other in described friction disk and platen.
The automatic mechanical type gearbox shifting system for electric vehicle that the present invention proposes, its advantage is:
1, the present invention adopts few gear AMT gearbox, and slowing down to drive motor during low gear increases square, and increases overgear to improve speed of operation, thus the load greatly reduced drive motor and power requirements;
During the AMT gearbox shifting 2, proposed in the present invention, clutch separation, input shaft is in inertial deceleration state, unpowered input, more easily drives, and this Driving Torque to speed-adjustable motor requires to reduce, the cost that can realize the motor of this function is only dozens of yuan, greatly reduces cost;
3, the AMT gearbox proposed in the present invention, is provided with low gear and hypervelocity gear, makes max. climb slope i maxwith highest speed u maximprove, improve the adaptability for working condition of electric vehicle, thus make up nowadays mostly F-Zero be the deficiency that the small-sized electric vehicle speed of 3040km/h is low;
4, the present invention is the most outstanding for having given up synchronizer, when needing gearshift, utilize speed-adjustable motor band driven input shaft, the output shaft gear be engaged with is driven by input shaft gear, thus speed governing is carried out to output shaft target gear gear, replace the effect of synchronizer, make the joint gear ring turn up of clutch collar rotating speed and target gear to synchronous, recycling gear shifting actuating mechanism realizes gearshift, loss is impacted in effective minimizing, in addition, due to without synchronizer, make gearbox designs more simple, cost reduces further.And motor reaches the time of stablizing high rotating speed and only needing 100ms-200ms, fast response time from startup.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 be the present invention propose for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system structural representation.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of clutch operation in the shifting system shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of gear shifting actuating mechanism in the shifting system shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of speed governing bindiny mechanism in the shifting system shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of an embodiment of shifting system of the present invention, and gearbox is wherein three gears.
Fig. 6 is the structural representation that in shifting system of the present invention, each gear engages gear ring.
Fig. 7 is the control flow chart based on motor speed-regulating that the present invention proposes.
In Fig. 1-Fig. 5, 1 is clutch, 2 is input shaft, 4 is two gear driving gears, 5 is input shaft speed probe, 6 is a gear driving gear, 7 is four gear driving gears, 8 is three gear driving gears, 9 is driving mechanism driving gear, 10 is driving mechanism driven gear, 12 is main reducing gear and differential mechanism, 13 is three gear driven gears, 131 is that three gear driven gears are in conjunction with gear ring, 14 is the first splined hub, 15 is the first clutch collar, 16 is fourth gear driven gear, 161 is fourth gear driven gear joint gear ring, 17 is a gear driven gear, 171 is that a gear driven gear engages gear ring, 19 is the second clutch collar, 20 is the second splined hub, 21 is two gear driven gears, 211 is that two gear driven gears engage gear ring, 22 is output shaft, 23 is OSS, 24 is gearbox casing, 25 is drive motor output shaft.
3 is clutch operation, and 31 is worm screw, and 32 is duplicate gear, and 33 is motor, and 34 is tooth bar (clutch pull rod).
11 is speed governing bindiny mechanism, and 111 is transmission shaft, and 112 is friction disk, and 113 is platen, and 114 is speed-adjustable motor output shaft, and 115 is ball, and 116 is feed screw nut, and 117 is speed-adjustable motor, and 118 is slide bar, and 119 is ball grooves.
18 is gear shifting actuating mechanism, 181 is block selecting motor, 182 is the first reducing gear (identical with the second reducing gear, to be conventional worm and gear or other mechanical mechanisms), and 183 is block selecting tooth fan, 184 is shift motor, 185 is the second reducing gear, and 186 is gearshift tooth fan, and 187 is gearshift tooth bar shift fork, 188 is block selecting tooth bar shift fork, and 189 is main shaft.
Embodiment
The present invention be used for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without synchronizer shifting system, its structure as shown in Figure 1, comprising: drive motor output shaft 25, clutch 1, input shaft 2, output shaft 22, clutch operation 3, gear shifting actuating mechanism 18, driving mechanism and speed governing bindiny mechanism 11; Described drive motor output shaft 25 is connected with input shaft 2 by clutch 1.
The two ends of described input shaft 2 are bearing on gearbox casing 24 by tapered roller bearing, input shaft 2 is provided with two gear driving gears 4, and keeps off driving gear 6, four gear driving gear 7, three gear driving gear 8 and driving mechanism driven gear 10, wherein, two gear driving gears 4, keep off driving gear 6, four gear driving gear 7, three gear driving gear 8 and make one with input shaft 2, input shaft 2 and above-mentioned driving mechanism driven gear 10 spline joint;
Described driving mechanism is supported on gearbox casing 24, and driving mechanism is made up of driving gear 9 and driven gear 10, and driving gear 9 and driven gear 10 engage each other;
The two ends of described output shaft 22 are bearing on gearbox casing 24 by ball bearing, output shaft 22 is equipped with two gear driven gears 21 successively from front end to rear end, second splined hub 20, one gear driven gear 17, four gear driven gears 16, first splined hub 14 and three gear driven gears 13, two gear driven gears 21, one gear driven gear 17, four gear driven gears 16 and three gear driven gears 13 keep off driving gear 4 with two on above-mentioned input shaft respectively, one gear driving gear 6, four gear driving gears 7 and three gear driving gears 8 engage, the internal spline of the second splined hub 20 and the external splines drive fit of output shaft 22, second splined hub 20 is linked with gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 by the second clutch collar 19, the internal spline of the first splined hub 14 and the external splines drive fit of output shaft 22, first splined hub 14 is linked with gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 by the first clutch collar 15,
Described clutch operation 3 is fixed on the gearbox casing 24 of shifting system, clutch operation is made up of motor 33, worm screw 31, duplicate gear 32 and tooth bar 34, motor 33 is fixed on gearbox casing 24, worm screw 31 exports with motor and is connected, worm screw 31 engages with the first order worm gear in duplicate gear 32, second level wheel and rack 34 in duplicate gear 32 engages, and tooth bar 34 and described clutch 1 link;
Described gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 is fixed on gearbox casing 24, gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 is by block selecting motor 181, first reducing gear 182, block selecting tooth fan 183, shift motor 184, second reducing gear 185, gearshift tooth fan 186, gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187, block selecting tooth bar shift fork 188 and main shaft 189 form, described block selecting motor 181 is fanned 183 by the first reducing gear 182 with block selecting tooth and is connected, block selecting tooth fan 183 engages with block selecting tooth bar shift fork 188, described shift motor 184 is fanned 186 by the second reducing gear 185 with gearshift tooth and is connected, gearshift tooth fan 186 engages with gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187, gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187 links with above-mentioned first clutch collar 15 or the second clutch collar 19,
Described speed governing bindiny mechanism 11 is fixed on gearbox casing 24, speed governing bindiny mechanism 11 is by transmission shaft 111, friction disk 112, platen 113, ball 115, ball grooves 119, feed screw nut 116, speed-adjustable motor 117 and slide bar 118 form, one end of described transmission shaft 111 and driving gear 9 spline joint of above-mentioned driving mechanism, the other end of transmission shaft 111 and friction disk 112 spline joint, described platen 113, ball grooves 119 and feed screw nut 116 are arranged on speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 successively, described platen 113 is fixed on the leading portion of speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 by square key, ball 115 is arranged in ball grooves 119, ball grooves 119 is fixed on speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 leading portion by square key, described feed screw nut 116 becomes leading screw to be connected with the back segment of speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114, one end of described slide bar 118 to be fixed on gearbox casing 24, the other end is slidably matched with feed screw nut 116 one-tenth, coaxially, there is gap each other in described friction disk 112 and platen 113.
In the shifting system that the present invention proposes, for the speed-adjustable motor to input shaft active speed governing, driving to input shaft or braking is realized by the one group of gear drive engaged according to selected target gear, thus reach the object of speedup or deceleration, input shaft is made to drive input shaft gear, input shaft gear drives the output shaft gear be engaged with, make joint gear ring speedup or the deceleration of output shaft target gear, to make its rotating speed close with clutch collar rotating speed or equal, play synchronous effect, now perform gear shifting action with gear shifting actuating mechanism again, complete smooth shift.
Described each gear driven gear, its structure is all shaped with and splined hub external splines profile of tooth and the identical joint gear ring of quantity, and increment is processed into smooth curved surface shape, to ensure smooth-going engagement.
Motor speed-regulating in the present invention, its controlling method can be as follows: the speed discrepancy being calculated the front clutch collar of gearshift and target gear gear by speed probe and software program, and compare with set threshold value, if be less than threshold value, gear shifting actuating mechanism completes gearshift; If be greater than threshold value, motor carries out speed governing until speed discrepancy is within threshold value, completes gearshift.
Figure 1 shows that the AMT gearbox without synchronizer of the two-axis four gear motor speed-regulatings of shifting system of the present invention, comprise drive motor output shaft 25, clutch 1, input shaft 2, output shaft 22, each gear main driven gear, first splined hub 14, second splined hub 20, first clutch collar 15, second clutch collar 19, input shaft speed probe 5, OSS 23, speed-adjustable motor 117, driving mechanism driving gear 9 and driving mechanism driven gear 10, clutch operation 3, gear shifting actuating mechanism 18, case of transmission 24 and controller (not marking in figure).Wherein, input shaft 2 is parallel with output shaft 22, and input shaft 2 and two keeps off driving gear 4, and keeps off driving gear 6, four and keep off driving gear 7 and three and keep off driving gear 8 and make one, and its two ends tapered roller bearing is bearing on mission case 24; Output shaft 22 two ends ball bearing is bearing in gearbox casing, the internal spline of the first splined hub 14 and the second splined hub 20 and output shaft spline drive fit, and its external splines coordinates with the internal spline of the first clutch collar 15 and the second clutch collar 19; One gear driven gear 17, two keeps off driven gear 21, three gear driven gear 13 and fourth gear driven gear 16 passes through needle bearing empty set on output shaft 22; Ball bearing outer ring has locking groove, and groove, built with end ring, prevents input shaft and output shaft axial float.
Below in conjunction with Fig. 1, the working procedure of AMT gearbox of the present invention is described:
During electric vehicle starting, low speed high torque is needed to carry out work, now speed changer needs to be switched to a gear gear, ECU (Electrical Control Unit) controls gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 and is moved to right by second clutch collar 19 and make itself and on output shaft 22 keep off one of driven gear 17 to keep off driven gear and engage gear ring 171 and engage, and clutch operation 3 solenoidoperated cluthes 1 engage.The power of drive motor is through drive motor output shaft 25, clutch 1, input shaft 2, one gear driving gear 6, keeps off driven gear 17, and keeps off driven gear gear ring 171, second clutch collar 19, second splined hub 20, output shaft 22, reaches half shaft-driven vehicle finally by main reducing gear and differential mechanism 12 by power and advances.
When electric vehicle normally travels, clutch is in jointing state, when needs are shifted gears, first by clutch separation, makes interruption of power transmission.
Speed changer is when a gear job, and the second clutch collar 19 and one of output shaft 22 keep off one of driven gear 17 and keep off driven gear and engage gear ring 171 and engage, and both peripheral velocitys are equal, i.e. v 19=v 17.For changing to two gears from a gear, clutch 1 is separated, and gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 drives selector fork to be moved to left by the second clutch collar 19, pushes neutral gear position.This time of releasing, still meets v 19=v 17again owing to keeping off the raising speed of driven gear 21 from two gear driving gears 4 to two than being greater than the reduction speed ratio of keeping off driving gear 6 from a gear driven gear 17 to, so the rotating speed of two gear driven gears 21 is higher than the rotating speed of a gear driven gear 17, namely the rotating speed of two gear driven gears joint gear rings 211 of two gear driven gears 21 is greater than the rotating speed of a gear driven gear 17, v 211>v 17, namely when just pushing neutral, v 211>v 19if shifted gears immediately, the gear teeth of the second clutch collar 19 and two can be caused to keep off, and the gear teeth that driven gear engages gear ring 211 impact because speed does not wait.Because the transmission of power of speed changer and drive motor is interrupted, the second clutch collar 19 and two gear driven gears engage gear ring 211 all underdrive under effect of inertia, but the second clutch collar 19 is because being connected with car load, and inertia is large, therefore v 19decline comparatively slow, and two gear driven gears 21 are only connected with input shaft and cogging etc., inertia is little, therefore v 211decline very fast (conventional transmissions produces friction by balk ring and gear ring taper-face contact and reaches synchronous and then stir shifting-fork gear-shifting).Now, connect speed-adjustable motor power supply, speed-adjustable motor 117 is rotated, and by gear drive, speed-adjustable motor output is suitably slowed down and increased square, thus band driven input shaft slows down, namely the deceleration of two gear driving gears 4 is realized, and then drive two gear driven gears 21 and two gear driven gears joint gear rings 211 to slow down, as shown in FIG., input shaft speed probe 5 and OSS 23 is also had in this gearbox, the tach signal of moment Gather and input axle and output shaft, when two gear driven gears joint gear ring 211 rotating speeds being calculated gained by control unit are close with the second clutch collar 19 rotating speed, gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 promotes selector fork 187 and to have moved to left gear shift operation, engaging clutch 1 simultaneously, speed-adjustable motor 117 is deactivated.Wherein, power transmission line is: drive motor (not marking in figure), drive motor output shaft 25, clutch 1, input shaft 2, two gear driving gears 4, two keep off driven gear 21, two and keep off driven gear joint gear ring 211, second clutch collar 19, splined hub 20, output shaft 22, reaches half shaft-driven vehicle finally by main reducing gear and differential mechanism 12 by power and advances.
Switching between other gears in like manner, first clutch operation 3 is by clutch separation, interrupt power transmission, clutch collar is pushed into neutral gear position by gearshift 18, according to being changed high gear or the acceleration of high gear kickdown determination jack shaft needs by low gear or slowing down, finally input shaft rotating speed is regulated until target gear gear-wheel gear-ring and clutch collar synchronization by input shaft speed-adjustable motor, then promote clutch collar by gear shifting actuating mechanism 18 and complete gearshift.
In shifting system of the present invention, the structure of clutch operation 3 is as shown in Figure 2, and its structure and working procedure are: by motor 33, export with motor the worm screw 31 be connected, and the duplicate gear 32 engaged with its formation worm and gear, tooth bar 34 forms.During machine operation, first slowed down by the first order worm-and-wheel gear of duplicate gear 32, the second level pinion and rack driving clutch 1 of duplicate gear 32 is separated or engages simultaneously.
In shifting system of the present invention, as shown in Figure 3, its structure and working procedure are the structure of gear shifting actuating mechanism 18: fan 183 by block selecting motor 181, first reducing gear 182, block selecting tooth, shift motor 184, second reducing gear 185, gearshift tooth fan 186, with tooth of shifting gears fan engage gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187, fan with block selecting tooth the block selecting tooth bar shift fork 188 that engages and main shaft 189 forms.When needing gearshift, first block selecting motor 181 carries out block selecting by the first reducing gear 182, block selecting tooth fan 183, drive block selecting tooth bar shift fork 188 in horizontal direction motion, and wherein, block selecting tooth bar shift fork 188 only relative main 189 rotates, and can not move axially; Then moved axially by shift motor 184 shifted gears by the second reducing gear 185, gearshift tooth fan 186, drive gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187, wherein, gearshift tooth bar shift fork 187 moves at main shaft 189 axial direction only, can not rotate by relative main.
In shifting system of the present invention, exporting the structure of the driving mechanism be connected as shown in Figure 1 with speed-adjustable motor, is one group of gear mechanism be meshed, wherein, driving mechanism driven gear 10 is connected with input shaft 2 key, and the transmission shaft 111 axle two ends of driving mechanism driving gear 9 are fixed on gearbox casing 24; As shown in Figure 4, driving gear right-hand member has friction disk 112, and friction disk 112 has axial keyway, is connected with transmission shaft 111 key, and the length of friction disk keyway is less than the axial sleeve length coordinated with axle, to prevent moving axially of friction disk.
In shifting system of the present invention, as shown in Figure 4, speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 is multidiameter shaft to the structure of speed governing bindiny mechanism 11, and the leading portion diameter of axle is less than the back segment diameter of axle, so that the handling of feed screw nut 116.Wherein speed-adjustable motor output shaft back segment is made up of leading screw section and non-leading screw section, leading screw section coordinates with feed screw nut 116, the perforate of feed screw nut one end, be set with slide bar 118, slide bar is used for limiting the rotation of feed screw nut, thus be the axial motion of nut by the convert rotational motion of motor, slide bar also plays the effect of restriction feed screw nut axial displacement simultaneously, and nut shaft is to the maximum between 2-3mm to movement travel.Be the mechanism of rolling friction between a realization and feed screw nut on the left of feed screw nut, this mechanism is made up of ball 115 and ball grooves 119, and wherein ball grooves 119 is used for locating ball 115, and ball 115 exceeds ball grooves 119 end face and directly contacts with feed screw nut; 113 is a platen, platen 113 has the identical square groove of shape with aforementioned ball grooves 119, coordinate with the square key of speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 leading portion, platen 113 is rotated with output shaft together with ball grooves 119, square key and speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 make one herein, and square key length is less than the length of square groove, to ensure the axial displacement of feed screw nut 116.Almost zero clearance between platen 113 and the friction disk 112 that is connected with gear wheel axle, and all adopt differential of the arc shape elastic-friction material, under feed screw nut 116 thrust, elastic compression friction is synchronous.Its working principle is:
When needs gearshift speed governing, first clutch operation 3 driving clutch is separated, interrupt power transmission, then speed-adjustable motor power supply is connected, speed-adjustable motor 117 output shaft rotates, because the rotary motion of the feed screw nut 116 coordinated with leading screw section is restricted, feed screw nut 116 produces axial motion, this axial motion is to ball 115, ball grooves 119 and platen 113 produce end thrust effect, make platen pressing friction dish 112, due to almost zero clearance between two friction disks, thus under the lasting axial pressure effect of feed screw nut 116, the square key rotating through output shaft of speed-adjustable motor output shaft 114 is passed to platen 113, make differential of the arc shape platen 113 and friction disk 112 elastic compression, synchronous axial system is reached by friction, and then realize speed governing by driving mechanism band driven input shaft.Due to platen 113 feed screw nut high speed rotating relative to ball grooves 119, so make the ball 115 in ball grooves directly contact with feed screw nut, thus sliding friction is become rolling friction, reduce wearing and tearing.
Perform gearshift when reaching synchronous, and reversal connection power supply makes speed-adjustable motor reverse, feed screw nut 116 moves to right, and exits impaction state, thus makes two friction disks interrupt power transmission, and gearbox normally works, and cut off motor power, motor quits work.Motor is immersed in the lubricant oil of gearbox, is convenient to heat radiation.
Accelerator pedal position sensor and input shaft, OSS and controller are electrically connected, and controller obtains input shaft and output shaft tach signal, acceleration pedal position signal and the AMT shift signal of gearbox.
In addition, the present invention considers motor speed-regulating precision problem, can smooth-goingly engage within the scope of certain speed discrepancy for making clutch collar and target gear gear ring, the gear teeth that each gear driven gear engages gear ring are processed on length, width and thickness, all have certain increase compared with the gear teeth of conventional transmissions middle gear gear ring, and traditional chamfering form is made curve form by end, as shown in Figure 6.The outer gearing tooth of same splined hub also at end shape, section flank profil, size with the number of teeth is processed into identical with gear ring, the increment of clutch collar is also made curve form and is engaged with splined hub external tooth.Like this, end curve form makes engagement become smooth-going, reduces and impacts; The increase of size makes intensity enhancing, thus improves working life.Because eliminate synchronizing ring, also can not have an impact to the reduction of overall volume.But it should be appreciated by those skilled in the art, be only a kind of concrete grammar for meeting smooth-going joint to the engaging tooth special processing in shape of gear ring, splined hub and clutch collar, other schemes not departing from spirit of the present invention all should comprise wherein herein.
The invention provides a kind of control program, its control flow is as shown in flow chart 7, and controlling method comprises the following steps:
(1) the transmission control unit TCU moment is by tach signal N, N1 of input shaft and OSS, accelerator pedal position sensor Gather and input axle and output shaft and acceleration pedal position signal, judge whether speed changer AMT realizes gearshift, if gearshift, enters step (2), otherwise TCU continues to detect acceleration pedal position signal;
(2) gear shifting actuating mechanism work, is allocated to neutral gear position by clutch collar, and TCU gathers target gear signal;
(3) TCU is according to input shaft rotating speed N1 and target gear i gnobtain target gear rotating speed N ';
(4) TCU calculates the rotation speed difference deltan N of target gear rotating speed N ' and clutch collar rotating speed N, and takes absolute value, i.e. Δ N=|N-N ' |;
(5) director demon has set a threshold value N0, is made comparisons by Δ N and N0, judges whether Δ N is less than N0, if meet Δ N to be less than N0, then realizes gearshift, otherwise enters step (6);
(6) connect speed-adjustable motor power supply, speed-adjustable motor intervention work carries out speed governing to input shaft, thus realizes the adjustment to target gear rotating speed, again proceeds to step (3).
Figure 5 shows that the AMT gearbox without synchronizer of the two-axis three gear motor speed-regulatings belonging to shifting system of the present invention, a gear is reduced by the basis of above-mentioned two-axis four gear motor speed-regulatings, become three gear gearboxes, it respectively keeps off main driven gear, input shaft is all identical with the Placement of output shaft, in addition, clutch operation, gear shifting actuating mechanism and speed-adjustable motor are also identical with the bindiny mechanism of driving mechanism; The working principle of AMT, the working principle of each mechanism and process and controlling method are also identical with the shifting system of above-mentioned two-axis four gear motor speed-regulatings.
It is emphasized that, the above mode of execution only describes the problem with instantiation thus explains technological scheme proposed by the invention in detail, but not be limited to this kind of scheme, so wish that those skilled in the art understands, if any modifying to technical solution of the present invention or replacing on an equal basis, and do not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention's " few gear AMT gearbox without synchronizer based on motor initiatively speed governing " this technological scheme, all should be encompassed in claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. for electric vehicle to input shaft speed governing without a synchronizer shifting system, it is characterized in that this shifting system comprises: gearbox control system, drive motor output shaft, clutch, input shaft, output shaft, clutch operation, gear shifting actuating mechanism, driving mechanism and speed governing bindiny mechanism; Described drive motor output shaft is connected with input shaft by clutch;
Described gearbox control system is used for by speed-adjustable motor input shaft initiatively speed governing, by the tach signal of input shaft speed probe and OSS Gather and input axle and output shaft, when the joint gear ring rotating speed calculated by control unit is close with clutch collar rotating speed, complete gear shift operation by gear shifting actuating mechanism; Described joint gear ring comprises a gear driven gear joint gear ring, two gear driven gears engage gear rings, three gear driven gears joint gear rings and four keep off driven gears and engage gear rings;
The two ends of described input shaft are bearing on gearbox casing by tapered roller bearing, input shaft is provided with two gear driving gears, a gear driving gear, four gear driving gears, three gear driving gear and driving mechanism driven gears, wherein, two gear driving gears, a gear driving gear, four gear driving gears, three gear driving gears and input shaft make one, input shaft and above-mentioned driving mechanism driven gear spline joint;
Described driving mechanism is supported on gearbox casing, and driving mechanism is made up of driving gear and driven gear, and driving gear and driven gear engage each other;
The two ends of described output shaft are bearing on gearbox casing by ball bearing, output shaft is equipped with two gear driven gears successively from front end to rear end, second splined hub, one gear driven gear, four gear driven gears, first splined hub and three gear driven gears, two gear driven gears, one gear driven gear, four gear driven gears and three gear driven gears keep off driving gear with two on above-mentioned input shaft respectively, one gear driving gear, four gear driving gears and three gear driving gear engagements, the internal spline of the second splined hub and output shaft external splines drive fit, second splined hub is linked by the second clutch collar and gear shifting actuating mechanism, the internal spline of the first splined hub and the external splines drive fit of output shaft, first splined hub is linked by the first clutch collar and gear shifting actuating mechanism,
Described clutch operation is fixed on the gearbox casing of shifting system, clutch operation is made up of motor, worm screw, duplicate gear and tooth bar, motor is fixed on gearbox casing, worm screw exports with motor and is connected, worm screw engages with the first order worm gear in duplicate gear, second level wheel and rack engagement in duplicate gear, tooth bar and described clutch linkage;
Described gear shifting actuating mechanism is fixed on gearbox casing, gear shifting actuating mechanism is by block selecting motor, first reducing gear, block selecting tooth is fanned, shift motor, second reducing gear, gearshift tooth fan, gearshift tooth bar shift fork, block selecting tooth bar shift fork and main shaft composition, described block selecting motor is fanned with block selecting tooth by the first reducing gear and is connected, block selecting tooth fan engages with block selecting tooth bar shift fork, described shift motor is fanned by the second reducing gear be connected with gearshift tooth, gearshift tooth fan engages with gearshift tooth bar shift fork, gearshift tooth bar shift fork and above-mentioned first clutch collar or the second clutch collar link,
Described speed governing bindiny mechanism is fixed on gearbox casing, speed governing bindiny mechanism is by transmission shaft, friction disk, platen, ball, ball grooves, feed screw nut, speed-adjustable motor and slide bar composition, one end of described transmission shaft and the driving gear spline joint of above-mentioned driving mechanism, the other end of transmission shaft and friction disk spline joint, described platen, ball grooves and feed screw nut are arranged on speed-adjustable motor output shaft successively, described platen is fixed on the leading portion of speed-adjustable motor output shaft by square key, ball is arranged in ball grooves, ball grooves is fixed on speed-adjustable motor output shaft leading portion by square key, described feed screw nut becomes leading screw to be connected with the back segment of speed-adjustable motor output shaft, one end of described slide bar is fixed on gearbox casing, the other end becomes to be slidably matched with feed screw nut, coaxially, there is gap each other in described friction disk and platen.
CN201210348336.8A 2012-09-18 2012-09-18 Synchronizer-free gear shifting system for input shaft speed regulation for electric automobile CN102840281B (en)

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