CN102835356B - Breeding method of artificial parents of sipunculus nudus - Google Patents

Breeding method of artificial parents of sipunculus nudus Download PDF

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CN102835356B
CN102835356B CN2012103567043A CN201210356704A CN102835356B CN 102835356 B CN102835356 B CN 102835356B CN 2012103567043 A CN2012103567043 A CN 2012103567043A CN 201210356704 A CN201210356704 A CN 201210356704A CN 102835356 B CN102835356 B CN 102835356B
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CN102835356A (en
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邹杰
杨家林
童万平
张琴
王志成
文雪
童潼
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GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTONOMOUS REGION INSTITUTE OF OCEANOLOGY
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Abstract

The invention discloses a breeding method of artificial parents of sipunculus nudus. The sipunculus nudus is low in food chain level and strong in stress resistance, does not migrate in a long distance, and is cultivated without feeding, thereby being suitable for large-area artificial cultivation. By the technical measures of primary selection of parents, natural spawn cultivation, trochophore selection, larva cultivation and selection, cultivation and selection of young sipunculus nudus, parents breeding, and selection of the bred parents, excellent artificial parent selection and volume production of the sipunculus nudus are achieved under the situation of occupying fewer resources; the yield of parent selection is 77%-94%; the mean growth and metamosphsis rate of oosperms produced by the parents is 88%; the abnormal survival rate is 48.3%; the artificial breeding efficiency of the sipunculus nudus is greatly improved, and offspring seeds produced by the selected parents in mudflataquaculture of two years grow faster than wild seeds by 8.3%. According to the invention, the parent selection of the sipunculus nudus is carried out under an artificial control condition; and the breeding method is shorter in time and stable in result, and plays a role in greatly promoting the development of an artificial aquaculture industry of the sipunculus nudus.

Description

The artificial parent selection of Sipunculus nudus
Technical field
What the present invention relates to is the artificial parent selection of Sipunculus nudus, mainly is applicable to southern china coastal Sipunculus nudus parent seed selection and fine-variety breeding, belongs to breeding and the cultural technique field of Fisheries Science marine animal.
Background technology
Sipunculus nudus Sipunculus nudus, have another name called Sipunculus nudus, be commonly called as sandworm, be subordinate to sipunculan door, Genus Sipunculus, be the water warm cosmopolitan, be distributed widely in three table runoffs more rich sandy or husky shale beach, coastal in China Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan all have a distribution.This kind food chain level is time low, and apart from the migration transport phenomena, cultivation need not bait throwing in to strong stress resistance without long, is very suitable for large tracts of land and propagates artificially, and only Guangxi province can be supported area and reached more than 15.3 ten thousand mu.Progressively expansion along with the Sipunculus nudus aquaculture; the coastal masses in the provinces such as Guangxi, Guangdong and even Fujian thirst for development Sipunculus nudus artificial increasing cultivation very much; but natural seeding, wild fry is caught along with excessively adopting of natural resources and is become very deficient; Sipunculus nudus artificial breeding technique difficulty is larger simultaneously; making great efforts through the long-term tackling key problem of growing seedlings in realizing that in recent years large-scale artificial grows seedlings, but the larvae survival rate still is in reduced levels.With regard to the present domestic volume production result that grows seedlings, the highest distortion ratio of the Sipunculus nudus sea ball young is no more than 22%, and Sipunculus nudus time breeding period is short, and it is unstable to grow seedlings.At us Sipunculus nudus in the long-term large-scale artificial seedling growth test process, is found the quality of Sipunculus nudus parent and success or failure and the output that the source fundamentally determines artificial breeding.Accordingly; carry out seed selection since every year in 2007 for Sipunculus nudus parent aspect; annual parent to the seed selection maturation carries out the natural spawning work of growing seedlings; grow seedlings and realize that the highest abnormal survival rate of the extra large ball young is 99.4%; minimum 13.7%; average 48.3%; unit are larval culture density reaches as high as 35000/square metre after abnormal; average about 15000/square metre; improved greatly the Sipunculus nudus large-scale artificial and grown seedlings, the fingerlings artificial mudflat aquaculture growth rate that simultaneously seed selection is produced is faster than natural seeding, wild fry.Through retrieval, the research of Sipunculus nudus parent aspect is detected in us to the hasten parturition research of cultivation aspect of parent, in the disclosure that has no correlation technique aspect the parent seed selection both at home and abroad.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide the artificial parent selection of Sipunculus nudus; preliminary seed selection by excellent to the primary election of Sipunculus nudus parent in lay eggs cultivation, artificial seed; the parent source of growing seedlings and providing stable for the Sipunculus nudus large-scale artificial; and then supply the Sipunculus nudus young of a large amount of high-qualitys, for the Sipunculus nudus artificial increasing cultivation provides in batches and the artificial seed of high-quality.
For achieving the above object, the present invention has taked following technical scheme, and the artificial parent selection of Sipunculus nudus may further comprise the steps:
(1) parent is preliminary preferred: at first carry out the spawning pond construction, the spawning pond floor space 10-20m of selection 2, depth of water 0.8-1.2m, half lays the thick sand of 5-10cm at the bottom of the pond, take rough sand as main, particle diameter 0.5-3mm; Then it is excellent to select annual mid-June to early August to carry out primary election, the alternative sandworm that can be excavated the same day when selecting is concentrated and stacks, tell female male worm, male female worm selects than being 1: 1.5-2.2, with sand filter seawater flushing, then adopt the Benzylpenicillin sodium salt sea water immersion of 3-5mg/L to carry out disinfection in 5 minutes after choosing, after be invested in spawning pond, parent is thrown in when spreading husky position, and the husky person that do not dive eliminated in 1 minute;
(2) natural spawning is cultivated: parent is cultivated in spawning pond, and parent 5-10kg, monomer weight>18g are cultivated in single pond, breeding condition is intensity of illumination<2500Lux, and day is changed water 100%, and bait is mainly benthic diatom, spirulina powder and prawn slice, single pond benthic diatom feeding volume is 1-3 * 10 7Cell, spirulina powder and prawn slice feeding volume 2-5g, imitation morning and evening tides, day drains water and keeps 1h, and then the dark 1-1.2m of water filling treats its natural spawning, ejaculation, in vitro fertilization, reduce other people and be illumination, the temperature difference or dry in the shade stimulation, prevent ejaculation too much and the jejune ovum of output;
(3) trochophore selects excellent: 20-24h adopts siphonage to collect fertilized egg behind the parent spawning and fertilization, select excellent mode for collecting spawning pond apart from the trochophore more than the 20cm of bottom, the grade that adopts 170 order mesh bags to carry out the trochophore Individual Size is selected excellent, leave and take the larger trochophora in the mesh bag, rear input floor space 10-20m 2, the nursery pond of the dark 1-1.2m in pond is hatched and is cultivated;
(4) larval culture with select excellent: just incubated extra large ball larval culture time 8-10 days, the generation sinkage fell seedling to husky pond in 8-10 days, the larval culture water temperature keeps 26-32 ℃, at 1-4 days of larval culture, cultivating density was 1/10ml, 1/20ml of 4-10 days cultivation density, day quantity of exchanged water 60%-80%, fell the pond once in 3-4 days, 1-5 days chrysophyceae of throwing something and feeding, pavlova viridis and Chaetoceros, feeding volume 1 * 10 4Cell/ml, 5-10 days Chaetoceros of throwing something and feeding, flat algae and avette algaes, every kind of bait 1-3 * 10 of feeding volume 4Cell/ml, day bait throwing in 1 time, intensity of illumination is lower than 3000Lux, in case bait self-growth overrich, the grade of carrying out Individual Size in 4 days when adopting afterwards 150 order mesh bags to change water collection seedling is selected excellent, it is individual directly to filter little individuality or depauperation;
(5) young siphon-worm cultivate with select excellent: the extra large ball young is about to metamorphosis through about 8-10 days cultivation and changes the end life of dwelling over to, put the Miao Chi of dwelling the end of to the bolting silk bag with the young collection this moment, the end even spreading fine sand at the bottom of the seedling pond of dwelling, particle diameter 0.02~1mm, thickness 1-3cm, put seedling and needed water filling 1-1.2m before 3 days, splash 1 * 10 7The cell benthic diatom breeds, and it is dark to 1-1.2m again to change water when putting seedling, abnormal condition: water temperature keeps 29-33 ℃, the salinity sudden change is no more than 3, dissolved oxygen>3mg/L, vibrios content<1300cfu/ml, complete metamorphosis is that the cultivation density of young siphon-worm is no more than 0.5/cm 2Keep depth of water 0.3m, changed water 100% every two days, the artificial feeding mainly adopted prawn slice and spirulina powder 1: 1, threw something and fed after rubbing filter with the hands with 150-170 order mesh bag, according to the situation increase and decrease feeding volume of ingesting, be as the criterion to show a small surplus, young siphon-worm is cultivated and selected excellent in 30 days and minute pond cultivation, and sieve is got the individuality of body weight>0.028g, and density 0.1-0.2 bar/cm is cultivated in minute pond 2, cultivated again 30 days;
(6) parent is bred: the young siphon-worm to artificially breeding cultivates 2 years, cultivation place selecting party lattice siphon-worm natural yielding area, the beach table is mild, the sandy beach in intertidal zone without tidewater water route process, offshore need be excavated clean original remaining Sipunculus nudus, and the ebb of cultivation place is without water and long-pending the silt, remove too much large-scale assorted algae, 8/m of cultivation breeding density 2
(7) it is less preferred again to form parent: operate tentatively preferably with parent, during parent body weight>22g,, repeated said process and carry out 2 parent seed selections or artificial breeding production than 5: 1 with male and female quantity;
Water water quality is the one-level sand filter seawater, dissolved oxygen>4mg/L, water temperature 26-32 ℃, salinity 18-33;
Described benthic diatom is the benthic diatom of natural waters collection and cultivation, mainly comprises any mixed algae of the capable algae of boat, melosira and plumage line algae;
Described 150-170 order mesh bag refers to the mesh bag of landing net bore 0.15-0.17mm;
Described prawn slice are commercially available senior to slag prawn slice or the commercially available prawn slice of making through zymotechnique.
Take the present invention of above-mentioned measure, by Sipunculus nudus parent proterties is selected, the proterties of Artificial Control seed is selected with cultivation and is manually bred parent and select the excellent Sipunculus nudus parent seed selection work that realizes finishing again, 2 years seed selection phases, seed selection capable of circulation, the result is stable, do not find the germplasm degeneration, realized the stable supply of Sipunculus nudus high-quality parent, significantly improved the metamorphosis and survival rate of the Sipunculus nudus young, the seed mudflat aquaculture growth rate of producing simultaneously is fast than natural seeding, wild fry.Technological process of the present invention is scientific and reasonable, and operability and repeatability are strong.Taking under the less resource situation, realized the batch production of Sipunculus nudus high-quality parent, average parent is formed rate 41%, form parent and select excellent qualification rate 77%-94%, it is 88% that the fertilized egg of seed selection parent production is on average grown distortion ratio, average abnormal survival rate 48.3% greatly improves Sipunculus nudus artificial breeding efficient, and the seed selection seed grows fast 8.3% than natural seeding, wild fry in the mudflat aquaculture in 2 years.The inventive method is carried out seed selection under the manual control condition, relative time is short and the seed selection result stable, and the development of Sipunculus nudus artificial increasing cultivation industry is had great facilitation, and higher practical value is arranged.
Embodiment
By the following examples technical scheme of the present invention is further described.
Embodiment 1
Implementation step:
1. the primary election of parent is excellent
Dug that 150kg carries out primary election the wild Sipunculus nudus colony of catching in mid-June, 2007 same day from the coastal areas of southern China Tideland resources.Select frontly with Sipunculus nudus bamboo basket splendid attire, seal and its anoxic was bleached in 5 minutes, then spread out, the body colour of parent is slowly deepened by white, select vigor preferably parent observe its reproductive cell.Press gently with thumb and to wipe away its body surface, between the grid of body surface, can be observed free spherical ovum, more easily observe near tentacle end body wall thinner area, contrast and choose the larger individuality of ovum as female parent; If observe the body fluid of white milkiness, there is irregular little spermatid group in inside, is male siphon-worm then, and it is dark individual to select body colour.Need get rid of the following characteristics individuality when selecting: (1) rhynchodaenm is long cartridge type when shrinking; (2) rhynchodaenm, trunk end are light yellow; (3) spreading after 10 minutes the body surface subregion out, to present the oily five colours reflective; (4) its tentacle section damage is difficult to stretch, the damaged or obvious depression of the existence scar of body wall.
Male female selecting than being 1: 2.1 selected parent 10kg, and with the sand filter seawater flushing, then the Benzylpenicillin sodium salt sea water solution with 5mg/L soaked 5 minutes after choosing, after be invested in the spawning pond of 20 square metres of floor spaces.Spawning pond depth of water 1m, half lays the thick sand of about 10cm at the bottom of the pond, and sand is take rough sand and gravel as main, particle diameter 0.5-3mm.Parent is thrown in the husky person that will not dive after 1 minute and is pulled out superseded when spreading husky position.
2. natural spawning is cultivated
The spawning pond top keeps intensity of illumination<2500Lux.The imitation morning and evening tides day drains water 1h, finds that dead parent pulls out, and rear water filling 1m treats its natural spawning, namely changes water 100% every day.Drain the bait of throwing something and feeding behind the water, adopt the husky table mode of throwing something and feeding, with bait with throw something and feed after suitably fine sand is mixed thoroughly, bait is mainly benthic diatom, spirulina powder and prawn slice.Single pond benthic diatom feeding volume is 1-3 * 10 7Cell, seawood meal and prawn slice feeding volume 2-5g.Laying eggs should reduce the thermal stimulation more than 4 ℃ in the cultivating process and reduce night artificial light stimulates, and makes its natural spawning.It is more than laying eggs night, and average egg laying amount is 3 * 10 4The female siphon-worm of cell/, present embodiment lay eggs about 910 * 10 altogether 4Cell.
3. trochophore selects excellent
21-22h adopts siphonage to collect fertilized egg behind the ovum fertilization, and this moment, fertilized egg developed into trochophore.Collect first spawning pond apart from the trochophore of the above water layer of bottom 20cm, in large basin, adopt afterwards 165-170 order 20 * 20 * 40cm 3Mesh bag to carry out selecting of trochophore order of magnitude excellent, filter little individual trochophore, leave and take the larger individuality about 500 * 10 in the mesh bag 4Cell drops into afterwards nursery pond and hatches and cultivate, about more than 30 hour incubation of membrane of trochophore.
Larval culture with select excellent
Hatch the ball young of going to sea by trochophore, 9 days extra large ball larval culture time, the generation sinkage fell seedling to nursery pond in 8-9 days.Cultivation whole process to the water body blowing aeration, drops into 20m with Roots blower 35 of indoor cement pits, intensity of illumination is lower than 3000Lux.The larval culture water temperature keeps 27-32 ℃, and the temperature difference is less than 3 ℃.1-4 days, cultivating density was 1/10ml, 4-9 days, cultivated 1.2/20ml of density.Day quantity of exchanged water 60%-80% fell the pond once in 3-4 days.Bait is equipped with the about 100m of water body 3, every kind of bait is once cultivated 8m 3, 1-5 days, the chrysophyceae of throwing something and feeding, pavlova viridis and Chaetoceros, total feeding volume 1 * 10 4Cell/ml, 5-9 days Chaetoceros of throwing something and feeding, flat algae and avette algaes, total every kind of bait 1-3 * 10 of feeding volume 4Cell/ml, flat algae is no more than 5000cell/ml, day bait throwing in 1 time.Adopt direct filtration mode in the time of 4 days, change grade that water collection seedling carries out young Individual Size with 150 order mesh bags and select excellently, it is individual to get rid of little individuality or depauperation, and present embodiment selects the excellent young 397 * 10 4Individual, select excellent extra large ball larva survive ratio to reach more than 95%.
5. young siphon-worm is cultivated and selects excellent
The sea ball young is about to metamorphosis through about 9 days cultivation and changes the end life of dwelling over to, this moment with mesh bag will metamorphosis the young be collected into the end Miao Chi of dwelling.Dwell and evenly be covered with fine sand, particle diameter 0.025~1mm, the about 2cm of thickness at the bottom of the Miao Chichi in the end.Putting seedling needed before 3 days to cultivate benthic diatom, by water filling 1m, splashed 1 * 10 7The cell benthic diatom breeds, and daylight is adopted in illumination.Again it is dark to 1m to change water when putting seedling, 30 ℃ of water temperatures, and the salinity sudden change is no more than 3, dissolved oxygen>3mg/L, vibrios content<1300cfu/ml.Fall the pond after 3 days complete metamorphosis be young siphon-worm, it cultivates 0.4/cm of density 2, pond depth of water 0.3m changed water 100% every two days.The artificial feeding mainly adopted Nikken board prawn slice that the green strange international corporation in Taiwan produces and spirulina powder 1: 1 after abnormal, threw something and fed after rubbing filter with the hands with 150 order mesh bags, and according to the situation increase and decrease feeding volume of ingesting, throw something and feed 10g/ time in every pond.Young siphon-worm cultivation selected excellent in 30 days and cultivate in minute pond, and the quick sieve of screen cloth of employing network interface footpath 2.5mm is got the individuality minute pond of body weight>0.028g and cultivated, and divides the pond to cultivate 0.2/cm of density 2, 30 days cultivation time.Select 30.3 ten thousand of young siphon-worms that are fit to form parent in the young siphon-worm of present case.
6. parent is bred
South China Sipunculus nudus nature beach producing region is selected in the cultivation place, is sandy beach, and the beach table is mild, and remaining Sipunculus nudus is few.The about 8/m of cultivation density 2, put 50 mu of (667m of area in a suitable place to breed 2).
7. forming parent selects excellent again
Parent is formed 2 years time, forms rate 43%, excavates 3 mu of statistics, forms parent and selects excellent qualification rate 88%, and male and female were than about 1: 1.
8. form parent artificial breeding result
In June, 2009 and July repeat parent and select excellent operation from excavate 3 mu alternative parent, choose body weight>22g, and then the parent 47kg of male and female than 5: 1 repeat above-mentioned larval culture process.It is 86% that the fertilized egg of seed selection parent production is on average grown distortion ratio, and 52.0%, 3 mu of ground of average abnormal survival rate is bred parents culture and gone out 2,700 ten thousand in indoor seed (production 2 times of growing seedlings, seedling water 1100m 2, bait water body 300m 3), later stage contrast cultivation in the 2 years relatively seed of seed selection grows fast 8.3% than natural seeding, wild fry.
Embodiment 2
Implementation step:
1. the primary election of parent is excellent
In early July, 2008 dug from the coastal areas of southern China Tideland resources and catch the same day, and doing 3 hours the wild Sipunculus nudus 100kg of colony of fortune haulage time, to carry out primary election excellent.Select front with Sipunculus nudus 2 (40 * 30 * 40cm of white foam case 3) splendid attire, sealing 6 minutes is that anoxic bleaches, then spread out the vigor of selecting preferably parent observe its reproductive cell.Press gently with thumb during observation and wipe away its body surface, between the grid of body surface, can be observed free spherical ovum, more easily observe near tentacle end body wall thinner area, contrast and choose the larger individuality of ovum as female parent; If observe the body fluid of white milkiness, there is irregular little spermatid group in inside, is male siphon-worm then, and it is dark individual to select body colour.Need get rid of the following characteristics individuality when selecting: (1) rhynchodaenm is long cartridge type when shrinking; (2) rhynchodaenm, trunk end are light yellow; (3) spreading after 10 minutes the body surface subregion out, to present the oily five colours reflective; (4) its tentacle section damage is difficult to stretch, the damaged or obvious depression of the existence scar of body wall.
Male female selecting than being 1: 1.6 selected parent 6kg, and with the sand filter seawater flushing, then the Benzylpenicillin sodium salt sea water solution with 3mg/L soaked 5 minutes after choosing, after be invested in a floor space 20m 2Spawning inducing pool.Spawning inducing pool depth of water 1m, half lays the thick sand of about 10cm at the bottom of the pond, standby 5 gas stone blowing aerations.Grains of sand footpath 0.5-2mm.Parent is thrown in the husky person that will not dive after 1 minute and is pulled out when spreading husky position.
2. natural spawning is cultivated
The spawning pond top keeps intensity of illumination<2500Lux.The imitation morning and evening tides, day drains water 1h, and rear water filling 1m treats its natural spawning, changes water 100% next day of not laying eggs, and lays eggs then directly to add water after the collection.Drain the bait of throwing something and feeding behind the water at every turn, adopt the husky table mode of throwing something and feeding, be sprinkled upon husky showing after bait and 500g fine sand are mixed thoroughly, bait is mainly benthic diatom, spirulina powder and prawn slice.Single pond benthic diatom feeding volume is 1-3 * 10 7Cell, spirulina powder and prawn slice feeding volume 2-5g, throw something and feed once every day.Present embodiment is gathered in the crops fertilized egg about 400 * 10 altogether 4Cell.
3. trochophore selects excellent
24h adopts siphonage to collect fertilized egg behind the ovum fertilization, and this moment, fertilized egg developed into trochophore.Collect first spawning pond apart from the trochophore of the above water layer of bottom 20cm, in large basin, adopt afterwards 165 orders, 20 * 20 * 40cm 3Mesh bag to carry out selecting of trochophore order of magnitude excellent, filter little individual trochophore, leave and take the larger individuality about 290 * 10 in the mesh bag 4Cell drops into afterwards nursery pond and hatches and cultivate about 33 hours incubation of membrane of trochophore.
Larval culture with select excellent
Hatch the ball young of going to sea by trochophore, 10 days extra large ball larval culture time, 9 days begin to occur sinkage, fell seedling to husky pond in 10 days.Cultivation whole process to the water body blowing aeration, drops into 20m with Roots blower 34 of indoor cement pits, intensity of illumination is lower than 2800Lux.26-31 ℃ of larval culture water temperature, the sudden change temperature difference is less than 3 ℃.1-4 days, cultivating density was 1/10ml, 4-10 days, cultivated 1/20ml of density.Day quantity of exchanged water 60%-80%, the later stage increases, and falls the pond once in 3-4 days.Bait is equipped with the about 100m of water body 3, every kind of bait is once cultivated 8m 3, 1-5 days, the chrysophyceae+pavlova viridis of throwing something and feeding+Chaetoceros, total feeding volume 1 * 10 4Cell/ml threw something and fed with Chaetoceros, flat algae and avette algae in 5-10 days, total every kind of bait 1-3 * 10 of feeding volume 4Cell/ml, flat algae is no more than 5000cell/ml, day bait throwing in 1 time.Adopt direct filtration mode in the time of 4 days, change grade that water collection seedling carries out young Individual Size with 150 order mesh bags and select excellently, it is individual to get rid of little individuality or depauperation, and present embodiment selects the excellent young 255 * 10 4Individual, select excellent extra large ball larva survive ratio to reach more than 97%.
5. young siphon-worm is cultivated and selects excellent
The sea ball young is about to metamorphosis through 10 days cultivation and changes the end life of dwelling over to, this moment with mesh bag will metamorphosis the young be collected into the end Miao Chi of dwelling.Dwell and evenly be covered with fine sand, particle diameter 0.03-1.0mm, the about 2.5cm of thickness at the bottom of the Miao Chichi in the end.Putting seedling needed before 3 days to cultivate benthic diatom, by water filling 1m, splashed 1 * 10 7The cell benthic diatom breeds, and daylight is adopted in illumination.Again it is dark to 1m to change water when putting seedling, 33 ℃ of water temperatures, dissolved oxygen>3mg/L, vibrios content<1100cfu/ml.Fall the pond after 2 days complete metamorphosis be young siphon-worm, it cultivates 0.5/cm of density 2, pond depth of water 0.3m changed water 100% every two days.The artificial feeding mainly adopts prawn slice and spirulina powder after abnormal, and 1: 1, to throw something and feed after the 150 order mesh bags stranding filter, 10g was thrown something and fed once in every approximately pond.Young siphon-worm cultivation selected excellent in 30 days and cultivate in minute pond, and the quick sieve of screen cloth of employing network interface footpath 2.5mm is got the individuality minute pond of body weight>0.028g and cultivated, and divides the pond to cultivate 0.25/cm of density 2, 30 days cultivation time.Select 20.4 ten thousand of young siphon-worms that are fit to form parent in the young siphon-worm of present case, selected part carries out parent and breeds.
6. parent is bred
South China Sipunculus nudus nature beach producing region is selected in the cultivation place, is sandy beach, and the beach table is mild, and remaining Sipunculus nudus is few.The about 8/m of cultivation density 2, put 10 mu of areas in a suitable place to breed, form 2 years time.
7. forming parent selects excellent again
Parent is formed rate 37%, forms parent and selects excellent qualification rate 94%, and male and female were than about 1.3: 1.
8. form parent artificial breeding result
In late July, 2010 is chosen body weight>20g, the male and female parent 25kg than 5: 1 from form parent, repeat above-mentioned larval culture process (artificial breeding production).It is 89% that the fertilized egg of seed selection parent production is on average grown distortion ratio, and average abnormal survival rate 46.4% is cultivated 1,570 ten thousand in indoor seed and (grown seedlings seedling water 1600m 1 time 2, bait water body 200m 3), the later stage contrast cultivates the seed of finding seed selection in 1 year and grows fast 5.6% than natural seeding, wild fry.

Claims (1)

1. the artificial parent selection of Sipunculus nudus is characterized in that described selection may further comprise the steps:
(1) parent is preliminary preferred: at first carry out the spawning pond construction, the spawning pond floor space 10-20m of selection 2, depth of water 0.8-1.2m, half lays the thick sand of 5-10cm at the bottom of the pond, take rough sand as main, particle diameter 0.5-3mm; Then it is excellent to select annual mid-June to early August to carry out primary election, the alternative sandworm that can be excavated the same day when selecting is concentrated and stacks, tell female male worm, male female worm selects than being 1: 1.5-2.2, with sand filter seawater flushing, then adopt the Benzylpenicillin sodium salt sea water immersion of 3-5mg/L to carry out disinfection in 5 minutes after choosing, after be invested in spawning pond, parent is thrown in when spreading husky position, and the husky person that do not dive eliminated in 1 minute;
(2) natural spawning is cultivated: parent is cultivated in spawning pond, and parent 5-10kg, monomer weight>18g are cultivated in single pond, breeding condition is intensity of illumination<2500Lux, and day is changed water 100%, and bait is mainly benthic diatom, spirulina powder and prawn slice, single pond benthic diatom feeding volume is 1-3 * 10 7Cell, spirulina powder and prawn slice feeding volume 2-5g, imitation morning and evening tides, day drains water and keeps 1h, and then the dark 1-1.2m of water filling treats its natural spawning, ejaculation, in vitro fertilization, reduce other people and be illumination, the temperature difference or dry in the shade stimulation, prevent ejaculation too much and the jejune ovum of output;
(3) trochophore selects excellent: 20-24h adopts siphonage to collect fertilized egg behind the parent spawning and fertilization, select excellent mode for collecting spawning pond apart from the trochophore more than the 20cm of bottom, the grade that adopts 170 order mesh bags to carry out the trochophore Individual Size is selected excellent, leave and take the larger trochophora in the mesh bag, rear input floor space 10-20m 2, the nursery pond of the dark 1-1.2m in pond is hatched and is cultivated;
(4) larval culture with select excellent: just incubated extra large ball larval culture time 8-10 days, the generation sinkage fell seedling to husky pond in 8-10 days, the larval culture water temperature keeps 26-32 ℃, at 1-4 days of larval culture, cultivating density was 1/10ml, 1/20ml of 4-10 days cultivation density, day quantity of exchanged water 60%-80%, fell the pond once in 3-4 days, 1-5 days chrysophyceae of throwing something and feeding, pavlova viridis and Chaetoceros, feeding volume 1 * 10 4Cell/ml, 5-10 days Chaetoceros of throwing something and feeding, flat algae and avette algaes, every kind of bait 1-3 * 10 of feeding volume 4Cell/ml, day bait throwing in 1 time, intensity of illumination is lower than 3000Lux, in case bait self-growth overrich, the grade of carrying out Individual Size in 4 days when adopting afterwards 150 order mesh bags to change water collection seedling is selected excellent, it is individual directly to filter little individuality or depauperation;
(5) young siphon-worm cultivate with select excellent: the extra large ball young is about to metamorphosis through about 8-10 days cultivation and changes the end life of dwelling over to, put the Miao Chi of dwelling the end of to the bolting silk bag with the young collection this moment, the end even spreading fine sand at the bottom of the seedling pond of dwelling, particle diameter 0.02~1mm, thickness 1-3cm, put seedling and needed water filling 1-1.2m before 3 days, splash 1 * 10 7The cell benthic diatom breeds, and it is dark to 1-1.2m again to change water when putting seedling, abnormal condition: water temperature keeps 29-33 ℃, the salinity sudden change is no more than 3, dissolved oxygen>3mg/L, vibrios content<1300cfu/ml, complete metamorphosis is that the cultivation density of young siphon-worm is no more than 0.5/cm 2Keep depth of water 0.3m, changed water 100% every two days, the artificial feeding mainly adopted prawn slice and spirulina powder 1: 1, threw something and fed after rubbing filter with the hands with 150-170 order mesh bag, according to the situation increase and decrease feeding volume of ingesting, be as the criterion to show a small surplus, young siphon-worm is cultivated and selected excellent in 30 days and minute pond cultivation, and sieve is got the individuality of body weight>0.028g, and density 0.1-0.2 bar/cm is cultivated in minute pond 2, cultivated again 30 days;
(6) parent is bred: the young siphon-worm to artificially breeding cultivates 2 years, cultivation place selecting party lattice siphon-worm natural yielding area, the beach table is mild, the sandy beach in intertidal zone without tidewater water route process, offshore need be excavated clean original remaining Sipunculus nudus, and the ebb of cultivation place is without water and long-pending the silt, remove too much large-scale assorted algae, 8/m of cultivation breeding density 2
(7) it is less preferred again to form parent: operation is preliminary preferred with parent, and during parent body weight>22g, than 5: 1, the repetition said process carries out 2 parent seed selections or artificial breeding production with male and female quantity;
Water water quality is the one-level sand filter seawater, dissolved oxygen>4mg/L, water temperature 26-32 ℃, salinity 18-33;
Described benthic diatom is the benthic diatom of natural waters collection and cultivation, mainly comprises any mixed algae of the capable algae of boat, melosira and plumage line algae;
Described 150-170 order mesh bag refers to the mesh bag of landing net bore 0.15-0.17mm;
Described prawn slice are commercially available senior to slag prawn slice or the commercially available prawn slice of making through zymotechnique.
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