CN102798412A - Method for evaluating construction quality of tunnel drilling and blasting based on three-dimensional laser scanning - Google Patents

Method for evaluating construction quality of tunnel drilling and blasting based on three-dimensional laser scanning Download PDF

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CN102798412A
CN102798412A CN2012102703939A CN201210270393A CN102798412A CN 102798412 A CN102798412 A CN 102798412A CN 2012102703939 A CN2012102703939 A CN 2012102703939A CN 201210270393 A CN201210270393 A CN 201210270393A CN 102798412 A CN102798412 A CN 102798412A
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tunnel
data
blasting
based
method
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CN102798412B (en
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王建秀
邹宝平
黄天荣
司鹏飞
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同济大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for evaluating the construction quality of a tunnel, and discloses a method for evaluating the construction quality of tunnel drilling and blasting based on three-dimensional laser scanning. The method comprises the following steps of: acquiring data by adopting a tunnel data acquisition module at first, and then processing the acquired data by adopting a tunnel data pre-processing module, building a tunnel three-dimensional model building module according to the processed result, performing post-processing by adopting a tunnel three-dimensional model post-processing module, and finally, evaluating the result by adopting a tunnel drilling and blasting quality evaluation module. The method discloses by the invention has the advantages of being wide in measurement range, strong in applicability, high in automation degree, and good in reliability.

Description

一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法 A method for drill and blast tunnel construction quality assessment based on three-dimensional laser scanning

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种隧道施工质量评定的方法,尤其涉及一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a tunneling method of construction quality assessment, particularly to a method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 隧道钻爆施工质量关系到工程的安全与效益。 [0002] drill and blast tunnel construction quality related to safety and efficiency projects. 对采用钻爆法施工的深埋长大隧道,其围岩为非均质各向异性不连续体,现有爆破设计参数大多依据经验公式和工程类比经验数据确定,随意调整爆破参数引发的问题较为突出,现场爆破施工质量不容乐观,特别是隧道超欠挖情况较常见,如不加以控制,将会给隧道工程建设造成巨大的损失。 Construction of using the drill and blast method grew deep tunnel, which is non-homogeneous and anisotropic surrounding rock discontinuities, the conventional blasting design parameters are mostly based on empirical data and empirical determination engineering analogy, be adjusted problems caused by blasting parameters more prominent, on-site blasting construction quality is not optimistic, especially tunnels underbreak situation is more common, if left unchecked, will cause huge losses to the tunnel construction. [0003] 传统的隧道钻爆施工质量评价指标体系单一,大多根据经验采用人为观测评定爆破的效果,精度低,观测范围有限,难以真实评定隧道钻爆施工质量,不能对钻爆设计施工提供参考,且对于爆破面的平整度、爆破轮廓线的规则性与光滑度、隧道超欠挖情况、爆破面炮孔利用率等具体爆破效果未进行分级与定量化处理。 Evaluation System [0003] The conventional drill and blast tunnel construction quality single, mostly using empirically human observer assessed blasting effect, low precision, limited observation range, it is difficult to true assessment drill and blast tunnel construction quality can not be provided with reference to the drilling and blasting design and construction , and for the flatness of the surface blasting, blasting contour smoothness and regularity, the tunnel of Overbreak case, surface blasting blast hole blasting effect is not specific utilization and quantitative grading process. 实践表明,仅根据经验对隧道钻爆施工质量进行评定是不够的,缺乏系统和科学的隧道钻爆施工质量评定的理论、程序和方法,不可避免的会导致不合理甚至错误的隧道钻爆施工质量评定的方法,从而造成不必要的浪费或灾害,所以有必要开展系统、全面的隧道钻爆施工质量评定方法、程序的研究,以科学、准确地评估钻爆施工质量对隧道围岩的应力场、渗流场、结构承载能力、承载状态的影响规律和影响程度,即正确的判断隧道钻爆施工质量,以便于采取及时有效的钻爆施工方法,避免钻爆施工质量事故的发生,减少隧道超欠挖,提高经济效益。 Practice shows that it is not enough just to be assessed, the lack of systematic and scientific theory of drill and blast tunnel construction quality assessment, procedures and methods, will inevitably lead to an unreasonable or even the wrong drill and blast tunnel construction based on the experience of the drill and blast tunnel construction quality quality assessment method, resulting in unnecessary waste or disaster, it is necessary to carry out the system, construction quality assessment method of comprehensive drill and blast tunnel, research programs, scientific, accurate assessment of stress in drill and blast tunnel construction quality of surrounding rock , seepage, structural load carrying capacity, the influence of and impact load state, i.e., correct judgment drill and blast tunnel construction quality, in order to take timely and effective drilling and blasting method, to avoid drilling and blasting quality accidents, reducing the tunnel super underbreak, increase economic efficiency.

[0004] 相比传统的隧道钻爆施工质量评价方法,三维激光扫描方法具有快速、准确、精度高、测量范围广、适用性强等优点。 [0004] Compared with the traditional method of construction quality evaluation of the tunnel drill and blast, the three-dimensional laser scanning method is rapid, accurate, high accuracy, wide measurement range, applicability, and other advantages. 现有的三维激光扫描方法主要涉及基于三维激光扫描数据的物体立面矢量化方法、动态监测坡面尺度侵蚀发育过程、乔木三维绿量测定方法、树木测量、地质体结构面三维激光扫描点云识别方法等方面,而有关隧道钻爆施工质量评定的方法鲜有报道。 The method of laser scanning a conventional three-dimensional object relates facade Vector Quantization Based on three-dimensional laser scan data, the dynamic monitoring of the development slopes of the erosion process, the amount of green tree-dimensional measurement method, measurement of trees, the three-dimensional surface of the geological structure of the laser scanning point clouds and other aspects of recognition, but about the drill and blast tunneling method of construction quality assessment rarely reported.

[0005] 中国专利CN102136155A基于三维激光扫描数据的物体里面矢量化方法和系统,方法步骤主要包括区域分割,边界提取,边界融合和边界修正,不具备对隧道施工质量进行评价的功能,不能用于隧道钻爆施工质量评价。 [0005] Chinese Patent CN102136155A vector object which method and system based on 3D laser scan data, the method including the step of area division, edge extraction, the fusion boundary and boundary correction, do not have the function to evaluate the quality of the tunnel construction, can not be used construction quality Assessment drill and blast tunnel.

[0006] 中国专利CN102305622A —种基于三维激光扫描仪的乔木三维绿量测定方法,根据公共参考球把用三维激光扫描系统在三个不同方向扫描站的点云数据进行拟合,形成完整的单株乔木形状的点云并最终生成单株乔木树冠点云数据,并并其分割为若干区分段,按照等距计算不规则面的面积,得到单株乔木的三维绿化量。 [0006] Chinese Patent CN102305622A - three kinds of determination methods of tree green quantity based laser scanner, according to a common reference sphere at the fitting point cloud data in three different directions by three-dimensional laser scanning stations scanning system, a complete single strain tree shape point cloud generating plant and tree canopy final point cloud data, and which is divided into several regions and segments in accordance with equidistant irregular surface area, the amount of plant to obtain a three-dimensional green trees. 这种三维激光扫描方法只能用于森林工程,并不能用作隧道工程质量评定。 This three-dimensional laser scanning method can only be used for forest projects, and not be used as the tunnel project quality assessment.

[0007] 中国专利CN101793543A利用三维激光扫描技术动态监测坡面尺度侵蚀发育过程的研究方法,包括的步骤有划定测量区域并贴反光材料,对各点云数据进行统一拼合,测量区域裁剪,导入地理信息系统软件分析。 [0007] Chinese Patent CN101793543A three-dimensional laser scanning technology Method slopes of dynamic monitoring developmental processes erosion, comprising the steps of measuring the area delineated and paste the reflective material, each unified split point cloud data, the measurement region clipping, introduced geographic information system software analysis. 这种三维激光扫描技术也只能用于动态监测坡面尺度侵蚀发育过程,且没有对后处理软件进行二次开发,同时也不能用于隧道过程钻爆质量评定。 This three-dimensional laser scanning technique can only be used for dynamic monitoring of the development slopes of the erosion process, no post-processing software and the second development, the tunnel can not be used while drilling and blasting process quality assessment.

[0008] 中国专利CN102096944A地质体结构面三维激光扫描点云识别方法,分6个步骤实现对高陡边坡地质调查与快速地质编录,主要包括确定地质体结构面扫描范围,通过三个不在同一直线上的点坐标确定需要扫描的地质体结构面范围的一个面,通过三个点的三维坐标获得平面方程,扫描结构面出露面上的所有点,重新选择下一个地质体结构面,提取结构面产状参数并进行结构面拟合。 [0008] Chinese Patent CN102096944A three-dimensional structure surface laser scanning point clouds geological recognition method, divided into 6 steps to achieve the high and steep slope fast geological survey and geological record, including determining geologic structure plane scanning range, not in the same by three determining the coordinates of points on a straight line to scan a plane surface of the geological structure of the range, obtained by three-dimensional coordinates of three points plane equation, the structure of the scanning points on the surface of all appearances, the next re-select a geologic structure surface extraction structure oCCURRENCE structure and surface fitting parameters. 这个方法同样不能用于隧道工程钻爆施工质量评定,仅能解决高陆边坡地质调查与快速地质编录。 This approach also can not be used for drill and blast tunnel project construction quality assessment can only address the high land Slope Geological Survey and rapid geological record.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0009] 为了克服上述现有技术的不足,本发明的目的是提供一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,该方法具有快速、准确、精度高、测量范围广、适用性强的特点。 [0009] In order to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art, an object of the present invention is to provide a method based on 3D laser scanning tunneling assessing drilling and blasting quality, the method is rapid, accurate, high accuracy, wide measurement range, applicability specialty.

[0010] 本发明的技术方案如下: [0010] aspect of the present invention is as follows:

[0011] 本发明提供了一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,该方法包括以下步骤:首先采用隧道数据采集模块采集数据,然后采用隧道数据前处理模块对采集到的数据进行处理,根据处理结果构建隧道三维模型构建模块,采用隧道三维模型后处理模块进行后处理,最后采用隧道钻爆质量评价模块对结果进行评价。 [0011] The present invention provides a method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality, the method comprising the following steps: First, the data collecting module of tunnel data, using the processing module and the data acquisition is performed prior to data tunnel process, the tunnel construction of 3D model building blocks according to the processing result, the three-dimensional model tunnel processing module for processing, the quality of the final tunnel drill and blast results were evaluated evaluation module.

[0012] 所述的隧道数据采集模块采集数据包括以下步骤:(I)利用三维激光扫描仪和全站仪分别对隧道数据进行采集;(2)三维激光扫描仪获取隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据,全站仪获取隧道参考点云数据;(3)在隧道现场布置好三维激光扫描仪,完成隧道测站布设、后视点坐标扫描、测站坐标扫描、隧道场景粗扫描、隧道场景精扫描;(4)在上述基础上,获得隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据。 [0012] The tunnel data acquisition module acquiring data comprises the steps of: (I) using the total station and laser scanner data acquisition tunnels, respectively; (2) a three-dimensional laser scanner acquires the point cloud data tunnel and the tunnel image data station tunnel reference point cloud data acquired; (3) good dimensional laser scanner is disposed in the tunnel scene, the station layout completion of the tunnel, the viewpoint coordinates after scanning, scanning station coordinates, scanning tunneling scene coarse, fine scanning tunneling scenes ; (4) based on the above, to obtain point cloud data tunnel and the tunnel image data.

[0013] 所述的隧道数据前处理模块对采集到的数据进行处理包括以下步骤:(I)把采集的隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据导入隧道数据前处理模块,对数据进行预处理;(2)基于软件Visual C++6. O和Matlab 7. O,对反射体标识进行识别;无反射体标识时,立即对特征进行采集;有反射体标识时,对反射体标识进行采集;(3)对采集到的数据进行序列拼接、整体匹配,达到数据融合,查看是否为最后一幅扫描数据图形,如为是,则隧道多视点云数据拼接完成,如为否,必须重新对隧道多视点云数据进行拼接匹配,重复步骤(2)和步骤 [0013] The tunnel processing data prior to the data acquisition module for processing comprising the steps of: (I) the tunnel and the tunnel point cloud data acquired image data import the first tunnel data processing module, the data preprocessing; ( . 2) 6 O and Matlab 7. O, of the reflecting body identified based on Visual C ++ software identification; no identification reflector, characterized collected immediately; identifier when the reflector, the reflector of the identification acquisition; ( 3) data collected sequence splicing, the overall match, to data fusion, the last one to see if the scan data graphics, such as it is, the tunnel multiview cloud data registration is completed, such as NO, you must re tunnel and more view point cloud data matching stitching, repeating steps (2) and the step of

(3)直到达到符合要求为止。 (3) until the compliance date.

[0014] 所述的预处理包括坐标转换、数据去除冗余、数据去除噪声或数据精简。 Pretreatment [0014] The coordinate conversion comprises, removing redundant data, data or data reduction to remove noise.

[0015] 所述的构建隧道三维模型构建模块包括以下步骤:基于隧道多视点云数据拼接,对隧道几何体拟合构建隧道三维模型构建模块。 [0015] Construction of the three-dimensional model of a tunnel building block comprising the steps of: a multi-view cloud data based on the tunnel splicing, to construct a three-dimensional tunnel tunnel geometry fitting model building blocks.

[0016] 所述的对隧道几何体拟合包括点拟合、曲线拟合、曲面拟合、圆柱拟合、圆锥拟合或矢量线拟合。 Tunnel geometry fitting said fitting including point [0016], curve fitting, surface fitting, the fitting cylindrical, conical or vector fit line fitting.

[0017] 所述的采用隧道三维模型后处理模块进行后处理包括以下步骤:基于隧道三维模型构建模块对隧道三维模型进行后处理,然后测量隧道的几何尺寸。 [0017] With the three-dimensional model of the tunnel after processing the processing module comprises the steps of: constructing the tunnel module for processing three-dimensional model based on three-dimensional model of the tunnel, and then measuring the geometry of the tunnel.

[0018] 所述的基于隧道三维模型构建模块对隧道三维模型进行后处理包括纹理映射、拓扑分析、漏洞修补、阴影去除或模型简化。 After [0018] The three-dimensional tunnel model three-dimensional model constructing module comprises a texture mapping process tunnel, topological analysis, bug fixes, or shadow removal simplified model.

[0019] 所述的测量隧道的几何尺寸包括距离量测、角度量测、面积量测或体积量测。 Measuring the geometry of the tunnel [0019] comprises the distance measurement, angle measurement, the measurement area or volume measurement.

[0020] 所述的采用隧道钻爆质量评价模块对结果进行评价包括以下步骤:计算各种评价因子,输出隧道三维模型,显示隧道三维模型,转换隧道三维模型格式。 [0020] The quality of the tunnel drill and blast results were evaluated evaluation module comprising the steps of: calculating evaluation of various factors, the output of the three-dimensional model of the tunnel, the tunnel displaying three-dimensional model, the three-dimensional tunnel model format conversion.

[0021] 所述的计算各种评价因子包括计算爆破面平整度、计算爆破轮廓线光滑度、计算爆破面半孔率、计算爆破面炮孔利用率、计算爆破超欠挖矢量值、计算爆破超欠挖面积、计算爆破实测面积或计算爆破理论面积。 [0021] The various evaluation factor calculating comprises calculating the surface flatness blasting, blasting calculated contour smoothness, porosity calculated half-blasting surfaces, surfaces calculated blasting blast hole utilization of Overbreak blasting vector calculation value to calculate the blasting super underbreak area to calculate the measured area blasting or blasting calculated theoretical area.

[0022] 所述的输出隧道三维模型包括输出隧道断面图或输出隧道监测数据。 [0022] The three-dimensional model output comprising an output tunnel or tunnels sectional view of monitoring the output data tunnel.

[0023] 所述的显示隧道三维模型包括模型缩放、模型旋转或模型平移。 [0023] The display of the three dimensional model includes a model tunnel scaling, rotating the model or models translation.

[0024] 所述的转换隧道三维模型格式包括DWG、IGES或STL。 [0024] The format conversion includes a three-dimensional model tunnel DWG, IGES or STL.

[0025] 本发明与现有技术相比,具有以下优点和有益效果: [0025] Compared with the prior art the present invention has the following advantages and benefits:

[0026] I、本发明方法具有快速性:应用三维激光扫描技术进行隧道钻爆施工数据采集与质量评定,速度非常快,可以及时测定隧道爆破施工的三维立体信息,反映钻爆施工的平整度,超欠挖情况。 [0026] I, the method of the present invention has fast: Three-dimensional laser scanning technology for drill and blast tunnel construction data acquisition and quality assessment, very fast, can be determined three-dimensional information tunnel blasting construction timely reflects the flatness drilling and blasting of super underbreak situation.

[0027] 2、本发明方法具有高精度:三维激光扫描技术通过对目标的直接扫描来描述目标的特征,不易受外界干扰,精度高。 [0027] 2. The method according to the present invention has high accuracy: a three-dimensional laser scanning technique to characterize the target by direct scanning of the target, less susceptible to outside interference, high precision.

[0028] 3、本发明方法具有高景深:三维激光扫描射程远,采集数据方便,可以获得高景深,能纵深范围对隧道进行扫描,并对隧道钻爆施工过程围岩的应力场、渗流场进行动态监测。 [0028] 3. The method of the present invention have a high depth: long range three-dimensional laser scanning, data collection convenience, a high depth of field, the depth can range scanning tunnel, and the tunnel drill and blasting process stress field surrounding rock, seepage dynamic monitoring.

[0029] 4、本发明方法具有不接触性:应用三维激光扫描技术不需要接触隧道,就可获得隧道表面的三维信息,适用于测量人无法到达的隧道危险区域,弥补了高地应力岩爆隧道施工质量评价的缺陷,减少了现场作业人员的危险性。 [0029] 4. The method according to the present invention has no contact: Three-dimensional laser scanning technology does not require contact with the tunnel, a tunnel information can be obtained three-dimensional surface, for hazardous areas measured person can not reach the tunnel, to make up for HIGH STRESS ROCK BURST Tunnel construction quality evaluation of defects, reducing the risk of on-site workers.

[0030] 5、本发明方法具有测量范围广,适用性强,自动化程度高,可靠性好的优点。 [0030] 5. The method of the present invention has a wide measurement range, high applicability and high degree of automation, good reliability advantages.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0031] 图I为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法的工作流程示意图。 [0031] Figure I a schematic work flow based on a three-dimensional laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting method for assessing the quality of the present invention.

[0032]图2为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道数据采集模块下工作流程图。 [0032] FIG. 2 is operated in the tunnel data acquisition module flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the present disclosure.

[0033] 图3为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道数据前处理模块下工作流程图。 [0033] FIG. 3 is operated in the tunnel prior to the data processing module is a flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the present disclosure.

[0034] 图4为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道三维模型构建模块下工作流程图。 [0034] FIG 4 flow chart of the module of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on three-dimensional model constructed in the tunnel of the present invention.

[0035] 图5为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道三维模型后处理模块下工作流程图。 [0035] FIG 5 is operated in the three-dimensional model for tunnel processing module flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the present disclosure.

[0036] 图6为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道钻爆质量评价模块下工作流程图。 [0036] FIG. 6 of the present invention is based on a three-dimensional laser scanning method of assessing the quality of the tunnel drill and blasting blast tunnel at a flowchart of the quality assessment module drill.

具体实施方式[0037] 以下结合附图所示实施例对本发明作进一步的说明。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0037] Hereinafter, the present invention will be further described in conjunction with the embodiment shown in the accompanying drawings.

[0038] 实施例 [0038] Example

[0039] 如图I所示,图I为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法的工作流程示意图。 [0039] As shown in FIG. I, Figure I a schematic work flow based on a three-dimensional laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting method for assessing the quality of the present invention.

[0040] 一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,该方法包括以下步骤:首先采用隧道数据采集模块采集数据,然后采用隧道数据前处理模块对采集到的数据进行处理,根据处理结果构建隧道三维模型构建模块,采用隧道三维模型后处理模块进行后处理,最后采用隧道钻爆质量评价模块对结果进行评价。 [0040] Based on the three-dimensional laser scanning tunneling method of assessing the quality of drilling and blasting, the method comprising the following steps: First, the data collecting module of tunnel data, then use the collected data to the processing module for processing the data before the tunnel, according to the processing results Construction of three-dimensional model constructing module tunnel, the tunnel after the three-dimensional model processing module for processing, drill and blast tunnel Finally quality evaluation module to evaluate the results.

[0041] 各模块具体实现方法为: [0041] The specific method of each module:

[0042] I.隧道数据采集模块 [0042] I. tunnel data acquisition module

[0043] 如图2所示,图2为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道数据采集模块下工作流程图。 [0043] As shown, FIG. 22 of the present work on the tunnel data acquisition module flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the invention. [0044] 隧道数据采集模块实现方法为:(I)利用三维激光扫描仪和全站仪分别对隧道数据进行采集,三维激光扫描仪和全站仪在进行数据采集前必须进行误差校核,确保扫描精度和大范围扫描;(2)三维激光扫描仪获取隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据,全站仪获取隧道点云参考数据,为隧道多视点云数据拼接提供数据源;(3)在隧道现场布置好三维激光扫描仪,完成隧道测站布设、后视点坐标扫描、测站坐标扫描、隧道场景粗扫描、隧道场景精扫描;(4)在上述基础上,获得隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据。 [0044] tunnels the data acquisition module implemented method: (I) using the total station and laser scanner data acquisition tunnels, respectively, the error must be checked before the total station and laser scanner during data collection, to ensure scanning accuracy and a wide range of scanning; (2) a three-dimensional laser scanner acquires the point cloud data tunneling and tunnel video data, point cloud total station acquires reference data tunnel, the tunnel for the data source that provides the multi-view cloud data stitching; (3) in the tunnel site layout good three-dimensional laser scanner, completion of the tunnel station layout, the viewpoint coordinates of the scanning station coordinates scanning tunneling scene coarse scanning tunneling scene fine scanning; (4) based on the above, obtaining the tunnel point cloud data and the tunnel image data.

[0045] 考虑钻爆隧道悬浮颗粒多,噪音较大、地面震动明显,各扫描站之间的距离不应过长,同时要保证相邻两个扫描站间的重叠度大于40%,以便获取较完整的钻爆隧道洞型数据。 [0045] Consider the tunnel drill and blast plurality of suspended particles, noisy, ground vibrations significantly, the distance between each of the scanning stations should not be too long, while ensuring that the degree of overlap between adjacent two scanning stations is greater than 40%, to obtain more complete data for drill and blast tunnel restorations.

[0046] 用于点云数据拼接用的控制标靶采用球形标靶,每一站之间设置不少于4个控制标靶,遵循近似三角形原理,以获得测量区域的整体坐标配准精度,同时要注意靶标距离扫描仪的位置不能太远,否则靶标中心的识别精度降低。 [0046] for splicing point cloud data with the use of a spherical target control target, provided not less than four control targets between each station, follow the principle of approximately triangular to obtain an overall registration precision coordinate measuring area, Note also that the target position of the scale can not be too far away from the scanner, or reducing the recognition accuracy of the target center.

[0047] 2.隧道数据前处理模块 [0047] Data pre-processing module 2. Tunnel

[0048] 如图3所示,图3为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道数据前处理模块下工作流程图。 [0048] As shown in FIG. 3, FIG. 3 is working in the tunnel prior to the data processing module is a flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the invention.

[0049] 隧道数据前处理模块实现方法为:(I)把采集的隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据导入隧道数据前处理模块,对数据进行预处理,包括坐标转换、数据去除冗余、数据去除噪声、数据精简;(2)基于Visual C++6. O和Matlab7. O,对反射体标识进行识别,无反射体标识时,立即对特征进行采集,有反射体标识时,对反射体标识进行采集;(3)对采集到的数据进行序列拼接、整体匹配,达到数据融合,查看是否为最后一幅扫描数据图形,如为是,则隧道多视点云数据拼接完成,如为否,必须重新对隧道多视点云数据进行拼接匹配,直到达到符合要求为止。 [0049] The data processing module implemented before tunneling method: (I) the acquired point cloud data tunnel and the tunnel prior to introducing the video data tunneled data processing module, preprocessing of the data, including coordinate conversion, remove redundant data, the data is removed noise, data reduction;.. (2) 6 O and Matlab7 O, of the reflector based on identification recognition Visual C ++, without identifying the reflector, characterized collected immediately, when the reflecting body identification, identification of the reflector acquisition; (3) the data collected splicing sequence, overall match, to achieve data fusion, a scan to see if the last graphics data, such as that the tunnel is completed splicing multi-view cloud data, such as NO must re tunnel multiview cloud data matching stitching, until the compliance requirement.

[0050] 坐标转换方法主要是利用泰勒级数展开的方法将模型线性化,然后解算坐标转换的三个旋转参数Xo、Yo、Ztl,三个平移参数εχ、ey> εζ,一个尺度参数δ u,实现三维激光扫描技术的坐标转换。 [0050] The coordinate transformation method is the method of using the Taylor series expansion of the linear model, and then solving the three rotation coordinate conversion parameters Xo, Yo, Ztl, three translation parameters εχ, ey> εζ, a scale parameter δ u, to achieve the three-dimensional coordinate conversion laser scanning technology.

[0051] 数据去除冗余主要指经过配准的隧道多站扫描数据存在重叠,必须对其造成的扫描数据去除冗余。 [0051] removing redundant data mainly refers to the presence of the tunnel through the multi-station scan data registration overlap, redundancy must be removed due to its scan data.

[0052] 数据去除噪声主要针对数据采集时激光雷达旋转引起的抖动、运动物体干扰、扫描过程中的杂散光和背景光、接收信号的信噪比、激光束宽度、激光发散、激光波长、接收器反应、电子钟准确度、平台的定位定向准确度等产生的噪声进行去除,主要采用手工删除与系统自动判断的方法进行。 [0052] Data mainly for removing noise data acquisition lidar jitter caused by the rotation, the moving object interfering stray light and the background light in the scanning process, the SNR of the received signal, the width of the laser beam, the laser divergence, laser wavelength, receiving noise generated by the reaction device, an electronic clock accuracy, the positioning accuracy of the orientation of the platform or the like is removed, the main method to manually remove the system is automatically determined.

[0053] 基于Visual C++6. O和Matlab 7. O,对反射体标识进行识别,实现不同测站下的点云数据转换到同一个测站下,采用的主要方法是在Visual C++6. O中调用Matlab 7. O函数库,然后使用Matlab 7. O的各种矩阵运算,根据扫描需要选择的同名标靶所包含的已知坐标数据,解算坐标转换矩阵,最终实现隧道点云数据拼接。 [0053] Based on Visual C ++ 6. O and Matlab 7. O, for identification to identify the reflector, to achieve the conversion point cloud data at different stations into the same station, the main method used is Visual C + + +6. O call Matlab 7. O libraries, and a variety of matrix operations using Matlab 7. O, according to the coordinate data in the scan need to choose the same name included in the target, solving the coordinate transformation matrix, and ultimately the tunnel point cloud data registration.

[0054] 3.隧道三维模型构建模块 Three-dimensional model [0054] 3. The tunnel building blocks

[0055] 如图4所示,图4为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道三维模型构建模块下工作流程图。 [0055] As shown, FIG. 44 lower module operation flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on three-dimensional model constructed in the tunnel of the present invention. [0056] 隧道三维模型构建模块实现方法为:(1)基于隧道多视点云数据拼接,对隧道几何体拟合,主要包括点拟合、曲线拟合、曲面拟合、圆柱拟合、圆锥拟合和矢量线拟合;(2)基于上述工作,完成隧道三维模型构建。 [0056] The three-dimensional model of tunnel building blocks implemented method: (1) Multi-view cloud data based on the tunnel splicing fitting the geometry of the tunnel, including the fitting point, curve fitting, surface fitting, the fitting cylindrical, conical fitting and vector line fitting; (2) based on the above work, complete three-dimensional model constructing the tunnel.

[0057] 4.隧道三维模型后处理模块 [0057] 4. When the three-dimensional model of the tunnel processing module

[0058] 如图5所示,图5为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道三维模型后处理模块下工作流程图。 As shown in [0058] FIG. 5, FIG. 5 after the processing module operates at a three-dimensional model of the tunnel flowchart of 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment based on the present disclosure.

[0059] 隧道三维模型后处理模块实现方法为:(I)基于隧道三维构建模型,对隧道三维模型进行后处理,主要包括纹理映射、拓扑分析、漏洞修补、阴影去除、模型简化;(2)隧道几何尺寸量测,包括距离量测、角度量测、面积量测、体积量测。 [0059] The processing module implements the three-dimensional tunnel model method: (I) a three-dimensional tunnel constructed model, the three-dimensional model tunnel process, including texture mapping, topology analysis, bug fixes, shadow removal, model simplification; (2) tunnel measurement geometry, including distance measurement, angle measurement, area measurement, a volume measurement.

[0060] 5.隧道钻爆质量评价模块 [0060] The drill and blast tunnel quality assessment module

[0061] 如图6所示,图6为本发明基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法在隧道钻爆质量评价模块下工作流程图。 As shown in [0061] FIG. 6, FIG. 6 is a flowchart of the method of the invention a three-dimensional laser scanning tunnel drill assessed quality drilling and blasting blast tunnel based on quality assessment module.

[0062] 隧道钻爆质量评价模块实现方法为:(1)各种评价因子的计算,主要包括爆破面平整度计算、爆破轮廓线光滑度计算、爆破面半孔率计算、爆破面炮孔利用率计算、爆破超欠挖矢量值计算、爆破超欠挖面积计算、爆破实测面积计算、爆破理论面积计算;(2)隧道三维模型输出,包括隧道断面图输出、隧道监测数据输出;(3)隧道三维模型显示,包括模型缩放、模型旋转、模型平移;(4)隧道三维模型格式转换,主要格式包括DWG、IGES、STL。 [0062] drill and blast tunnel module for quality evaluation method: (1) calculate the various evaluation factors, including surface flatness calculating blasting, blasting calculated contour smoothness, porosity calculated half-blast plane, surface blasting using blast hole rate calculation, blasting of Overbreak vector value calculation, blasting of Overbreak area calculation, blasting Found area calculation, blasting theory area calculation; (2) a three-dimensional tunnel model output, including the tunnel cross-sectional view output monitor data output tunnel; (3) tunnel display three-dimensional model, the model including scaling, rotating model, translational model; (4) a three-dimensional model of the tunnel format conversion, format mainly including DWG, IGES, STL.

[0063] 隧道钻爆质量评价模块,主要是利用可视化编程语言DelPhi对隧道三维模型进行评估,在隧道钻爆施工前对其开挖面范围进行一次激光扫描,获取隧道洞型三维立体影像,在隧道钻爆开挖完成后,再进行一次扫描或对扫描困难区域进行补扫,将先后扫描获取的点云数据结果叠加一起进行对比分析,实现对隧道各断面扫描点相对于设计横断面超欠挖值的计算,隧道整个横截面实测面积与超欠挖面积的计算,以及爆破面平整度、爆破轮廓线光滑度、爆破面半孔率计算等。 [0063] The quality assessment module drill and blast tunnel, mainly for three-dimensional model tunnel assessed using a visual programming language DelPhi, once the laser scanning range in the tunnel excavation surface thereof prior to drilling and blasting, obtaining three-dimensional image tunnel restorations, in after the completion of excavation of the tunnel drill and blast, or then scan the scan area up swept difficulty, the successively scanned point cloud data acquired by the results were compared with the overlay to realize the tunnel of each section of the scanning spot with respect to cross over design under digging calculated values, calculated digging tunnels entire cross area, and the surface roughness blasting Found sectional area of ​​over and under, the smoothness of the contour blasting, blasting face half porosity calculation.

[0064] 上述的对实施例的描述是为便于该技术领域的普通技术人员能理解和应用本发明。 [0064] The description of the above-described embodiments for ease of ordinary skill in the art to understand and apply the invention. 熟悉本领域技术的人员显然可以容易地对这些实施例做出各种修改,并把在此说明的一般原理应用到其他实施例中而不必经过创造性的劳动。 A person skilled in art may readily apparent that various modifications to these embodiments, and the generic principles described herein apply to other embodiments without going through creative work. 因此,本发明不限于这里的实施例,本领域技术人员根据本发明的揭示,不脱离本发明范畴所做出的改进和修改都应该在本发明的保护范围之内。 Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments herein, those skilled in the art in accordance with the present invention are disclosed, without departing from the scope of the invention modifications and variations should be made within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. 一种基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:该方法包括以下步骤:首先采用隧道数据采集模块采集数据,然后采用隧道数据前处理模块对采集到的数据进行处理,根据处理结果构建隧道三维模型构建模块,采用隧道三维模型后处理模块进行后处理,最后采用隧道钻爆质量评价模块对结果进行评价。 1. Based on the three-dimensional laser scanning tunneling methods assessing the quality of drilling and blasting, characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps: First, the data collecting module of tunnel data, then use the collected data to the processing module for processing the data before the tunnel , constructed in accordance with the processing result three-dimensional model constructing module tunnel, the tunnel after the three-dimensional model processing module for processing, drill and blast tunnel Finally quality evaluation module to evaluate the results.
2.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的隧道数据采集模块采集数据包括以下步骤:(1)利用三维激光扫描仪和全站仪分别对隧道数据进行采集;(2)三维激光扫描仪获取隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据,全站仪获取隧道参考点云数据;(3)在隧道现场布置好三维激光扫描仪,完成隧道测站布设、后视点坐标扫描、测站坐标扫描、隧道场景粗扫描、隧道场景精扫描;(4)在上述基础上,获得隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据。 2. The method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drilling and blasting mass of claim I, wherein: said data tunnel data acquisition module comprises the following steps: (1) using a laser scanner and the whole station instrument data acquisition tunnels respectively; (2) a three-dimensional laser scanner acquires the point cloud data tunneling and tunnel video data, Station tunnel reference point cloud data acquired; (3) good dimensional laser scanner is disposed in the tunnel site, completion of the tunnel station layout, the viewpoint coordinates after scanning, scanning station coordinates, scanning tunneling crude scene, the scene fine scanning tunneling; (4) based on the above, the tunnel obtain point cloud data and image data tunnel.
3.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的隧道数据前处理模块对采集到的数据进行处理包括以下步骤:(I)把采集的隧道点云数据和隧道影像数据导入隧道数据前处理模块,对数据进行预处理;(2)基于软件Visual C++6. O和Matlab7. O,对反射体标识进行识别;无反射体标识时,立即对特征进行采集;有反射体标识时,对反射体标识进行采集;(3)对采集到的数据进行序列拼接、整体匹配,达到数据融合,查看是否为最后一幅扫描数据图形,如为是,则隧道多视点云数据拼接完成,如为否,必须重新对隧道多视点云数据进行拼接匹配,重复步骤(2)和步骤(3)直到达到符合要求为止。 3. The method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drilling and blasting mass of claim I, wherein: the processing module for processing the collected data comprises the steps of a tunnel before the data: (I) the collected tunnel point cloud data and the image data import the first tunnel tunnels data processing module, the data preprocessing;.. (2) 6 O and Matlab7 O, of the reflector based on identification recognition software Visual C ++; no identification reflector when, immediately collected features; identifier when the reflector, the reflector of the identification acquisition; (3) the data collected splicing sequence, overall match, to achieve data fusion, to see if the scan data pattern is the last one, if yes, then the multi-view cloud data tunnel splicing is completed, such as NO, the tunnel must be re-splicing multi-view cloud data match, repeating steps (2) and step (3) until a desired extent.
4.根据权利要求3所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的预处理包括坐标转换、数据去除冗余、数据去除噪声或数据精简。 4. The method of drilling and blasting quality assessment based on three-dimensional laser scanning tunneling according to claim 3, wherein: said pretreatment comprises coordinate conversion, data redundancy is removed, data or data reduction to remove noise.
5.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的构建隧道三维模型构建模块包括以下步骤:基于隧道多视点云数据拼接,对隧道几何体拟合构建隧道三维模型构建模块。 5. The method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drilling and blasting mass of claim I, wherein: the tunnel construction of 3D model building module comprising the steps of: based on a multi-view cloud splicing tunnel, tunnel geometry fitting build three-dimensional model of tunnel building blocks.
6.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的对隧道几何体拟合包括点拟合、曲线拟合、曲面拟合、圆柱拟合、圆锥拟合或矢量线拟合。 6. The method of evaluation based on 3D laser scanning tunnel drilling and blasting mass of claim I, wherein: the tunnel geometry fitting comprises fitting points, curve fitting, surface fitting, a cylindrical fitting , or vector line fitting conical fitting.
7.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的采用隧道三维模型后处理模块进行后处理包括以下步骤:基于隧道三维模型构建模块对隧道三维模型进行后处理,然后测量隧道的几何尺寸。 I according to the method based on three-dimensional laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting quality assessment, wherein wherein: the post-processing module employed after the three-dimensional model of the tunnel process comprising the steps of: building blocks for the three-dimensional model based on tunnel three-dimensional model after treatment tunnel, and then measuring the geometry of the tunnel.
8.根据权利要求7所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的基于隧道三维模型构建模块对隧道三维模型进行后处理包括纹理映射、拓扑分析、漏洞修补、阴影去除或模型简化; 所述的测量隧道的几何尺寸包括距离量测、角度量测、面积量测或体积量测。 8. Based on three-dimensional laser scanning quality assessment drill and blast tunnel construction method according to claim 7, wherein: the three-dimensional model is constructed based on the tunnel after the tunnel module for processing three-dimensional model including texture mapping, topological analysis, vulnerability repair, removal or shading simplified model; measuring the geometry of the tunnel comprises a distance measurement, angle measurement, the measurement area or volume measurement.
9.根据权利要求I所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的采用隧道钻爆质量评价模块对结果进行评价包括以下步骤:计算各种评价因子,输出隧道三维模型,显示隧道三维模型,转换隧道三维模型格式。 Drilling and blasting method of quality evaluation based on the three-dimensional laser scanning tunneling according to the claim I, wherein: the mass tunnel drill and blast results were evaluated evaluation module comprising the steps of: calculating evaluation of various factors, three-dimensional model output tunnel, the tunnel displaying three-dimensional model, the three-dimensional model conversion format tunnel.
10.根据权利要求9所述的基于三维激光扫描评定隧道钻爆施工质量的方法,其特征在于:所述的计算各种评价因子包括计算爆破面平整度、计算爆破轮廓线光滑度、计算爆破面半孔率、计算爆破面炮孔利用率、计算爆破超欠挖矢量值、计算爆破超欠挖面积、计算爆破实测面积或计算爆破理论面积; 所述的输出隧道三维模型包括输出隧道断面图或输出隧道监测数据; 所述的显示隧道三维模型包括模型缩放、模型旋转或模型平移; 所述的转换隧道三维模型格式包括DWG、IGES或STL。 10. Evaluation Based 3D laser scanning tunnel drill and blasting method of quality according to claim 9, wherein: said calculating includes calculating the various evaluation factors blasting surface flatness, smoothness calculating contour blasting, blasting calculated half surface porosity, surface blasting blast hole calculating utilization of Overbreak blasting vector calculation value to calculate the area of ​​Overbreak blasting, blasting the measured area is calculated or theoretical calculation blasting area; the three-dimensional model output comprising an output tunnel tunnel cross-sectional view or monitoring the output data tunnel; the three dimensional model includes a model display tunnel scaling, rotating the model or models translating; three-dimensional model of the tunnel comprises format conversion DWG, IGES or STL.
CN 201210270393 2012-07-31 2012-07-31 Method for evaluating construction quality of tunnel drilling and blasting based on three-dimensional laser scanning CN102798412B (en)

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CN106052553A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-10-26 中交第公路工程局有限公司 Civil engineering temporary works design optimization method and device based on three-dimensional laser scanning
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CN107288016A (en) * 2017-06-07 2017-10-24 长安大学 A kind of bituminous paving milling quality evaluating method based on three-dimensional laser detection technique
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