CN102764808B - Hydraulic forming device and method of reducing cylindrical part - Google Patents

Hydraulic forming device and method of reducing cylindrical part Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102764808B
CN102764808B CN201210257436.XA CN201210257436A CN102764808B CN 102764808 B CN102764808 B CN 102764808B CN 201210257436 A CN201210257436 A CN 201210257436A CN 102764808 B CN102764808 B CN 102764808B
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China
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die
cavity
punch
hole
hand
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CN201210257436.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102764808A (en
Inventor
林俊峰
李峰
张鑫龙
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Publication of CN102764808A publication Critical patent/CN102764808A/en
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Abstract

A hydraulic forming device and method of a reducing cylindrical part relate to a hydraulic forming device and method of a metal plate. Aiming at the bottleneck problems of high cost, long cycle and poor forming property in a roll welding process used due to the fact that the reducing cylindrical part, the section of an axis part of which is of a bottle shape with a small upper part and a big lower part, is difficult to machine by using the traditional plate hydraulic forming method, the device comprises a lower concave die and an upper concave die; a blank holder and a convex die are arranged above the upper concave die; the shape of a cavity in the concave die is in accordance with the shape of the outer outline of a finally-formed cylindrical part, namely the cavity is configured into a reducing cylinder with the aperture gradually reduced from the bottom to the top or reducing in a stepped form; and the lower concave die and the convex die are respectively provided with an injection hole. The forming method sequentially comprises the following steps of: injecting medium in the cavity, arranging blanks, pressing the blanks, applying backpressure, downwards moving the convex die, and pressing in the inner cavity of a pre-formed part in order to close to the die. The blanks are under the action of a pressure difference of inner and outer dynamic fluids in the forming process due to the injection holes arranged in the convex die, the die-close forming of the blanks is finished at one step, and the formed part can be smoothly taken out due to the design of the combined concave die.

Description

A kind of hydroforming equipment of reducing cylindrical member and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of hydroforming equipment and method of sheet metal, be specifically related to a kind of hydraulic means and method for the reducing cylindrical member that is shaped, particularly a kind ofly by bottom, to top external diameter, reduced gradually or hydroforming equipment and the method for the stepped reducing cylindrical member reducing.
Background technology
In order to realize energy-saving and emission-reduction, the meaning of light-weight design is highlighted day by day.Realize light-weighted approach and have two kinds: material lightweight and structure lightweight.Sheet Metal Hydro-forming adopts liquid water or oil as power transmission medium, replaces traditional rigidity punch or die, and fit under the effect of power transmission pressure medium die or punch of blank is shaped.Hydroforming all can overcome the weak point of traditional handicraft aspect sheet material or forming tubular product, being easy to realize flexibility is shaped, effectively improved the crystallized ability of sheet material or tubing, reduced the surface scratch of part, the gross weight that has reduced part under the prerequisite all increasing in structural strength and function application etc., is achieved structure lightweight.
Hydroforming is suitable at one comparatively complicated thin-walled hollow class A of geometric unitA of in-process processing and manufacturing profile, and the larger ratio of height to diameter cylindrical member consistent with punch shape that be shaped had to significant advantage.Than common sheet material drawing and forming, need multiple working procedure, adopt Hydroforming can realize once-forming.Be primarily characterized in that and adopt water or emulsion as liquid power transmission medium, be injected in concave die cavity, by external booster, in die cavity, apply interior pressure, the fluid pressure action producing is on shaped sheet, make it be adjacent to punch, the frictional force between shaped sheet and punch increases gradually under the effect of fluid back pressure, forms useful friction, improve the impact of punch-nose angle place tension on this place's material flow behavior, thereby avoid the defects such as this place's material production attenuate even breaks.The fluid at flange flanging position plays copious oil supply between sheet material and sealing ring, thereby has guaranteed to improve the object of sheet material forming performance and surface quality.Based on above-mentioned advantage, sheet Metal Hydro-forming is widely applied in fields such as Aero-Space and automobiles, and has obtained fast development under this promotes.
Along with the development of advanced field product design at the aspects such as hommization of complicated, the design concept of the diversification of instructions for use, geometric properties, there is the more product of labyrinth profile and also for current forming technology, brought challenge.As the ampuliform reducing cup-drawing of the stepped variation of external diameter, such cylindrical member can be achieved by punch shape being optimized to design in sheet Metal Hydro-forming, but the method only limits to the cylindrical member to the stepped increase of top external diameter from bottom, is shaped.When if the external diameter that reducing cylindrical member is made progress by bottom reduces gradually, conventional hydraulic manufacturing process is difficult to be shaped, in other words, and at all cannot be by punch shape be designed to realize; For this class A of geometric unitA, can first sheet metal bending be processed into steppedly, by volume, be welded into shape and go out straight-arm and step portion, then with welding forming at the bottom of cylinder, the shortcomings such as not only operation is various, and the part after welding exists residual stress, poor reliability simultaneously, cost is high, efficiency is low.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is in order to solve for being reduced gradually or the stepped reducing cylindrical member that reduces adopts conventional panels hydro-drawing manufacturing process to be difficult to shape to top external diameter by bottom, and adopt volume Welding to have the bottleneck problem that cost is higher, the cycle is long, forming property is poor, and then a kind of hydroforming equipment and method of reducing cylindrical member are provided.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above the technical scheme of taking to be:
The hydroforming equipment of reducing cylindrical member of the present invention comprises combined die, punch, blank holder, die hand-hole and punch hand-hole, described punch is columned drift and coordinates with blank holder is airtight, described combined die consists of upper cavity die and lower cavity die and the two the airtight connection of joint face, and the die cavity in die is power transmission medium cavity; Die cavity in described die is consistent with the outer contour shape of whole shaping cylindrical member, is by bottom, to be made progress that aperture reduces gradually or the stepped reducing tubular reducing; Blank holder is placed in the top of upper cavity die and the gap between the two for sandwiched sheet material blank; On the sidewall of lower cavity die, have the die hand-hole communicating with power transmission medium cavity, by die hand-hole, in power transmission medium cavity, inject power transmission medium the outer surface of preform cylindrical member is applied to fluid pressure dorsad; On described punch, have punch hand-hole, by punch hand-hole, in preform cylindrical member cavity, inject power transmission medium, thereby make power transmission medium apply hydraulic expanding-forming power initiatively to the sheet material blank in forming process.
The method of utilizing above-mentioned building mortion to carry out hydroforming, described method realizes according to following steps: step 1, by designing requirement, upper cavity die and lower cavity die are connected, form complete reducing tubular die cavity; Step 2, the punch hand-hole on the die hand-hole on lower cavity die and punch is connected with external booster by high-pressure oil pipe respectively, independent control, then by die hand-hole to injected media in power transmission medium cavity, make medium be full of power transmission medium cavity until differ certain distance with upper cavity die upper surface, in punch hand-hole, inject a small amount of power transmission medium; Step 3, sheet material blank is placed on the upper cavity die that close the second seal is installed; Step 4, blank holder, punch are connected with forcing press device for exerting respectively, by regulating forcing press that blank holder is come downwards to sheet material blank, come in contact, now apply certain pressure-pad-force (shown in figure acceptance of the bid F), the second sealing ring is fully contacted with sheet material blank, form flooded lubrication, to avoid blank flange to produce fold when the shaping feeding; The control of pressure-pad-force size is depending on specific requirement; Step 5, by controlled pressure owner slide block movement, punch is come downwards to sheet material blank to come in contact, after contact, continue to press down, now by external booster, in power transmission medium cavity, apply interior pressure, sheet material blank is produced to fluid pressure dorsad, for avoiding the excessive sheet material blank that causes of pressure dorsad to cave in to hand-hole, by regulating external booster to make that punch hand-hole section hydrostatic pressure equates with homalographic pressure in power transmission medium cavity, opposite direction, until punch, come downwards to apart from the bottom surface in lower cavity die after a small amount of distance the stop motion of forcing press master slider; Step 6, by external booster in punch hand-hole slowly injected media pressurize, control hydraulic pressure in the interior hydraulic pressure of power transmission medium cavity and preform cylindrical member cavity keeps constant dynamic pressure poor simultaneously, make sheet material blank paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure, process finishes; Step 7, by external booster, shed the pressure in power transmission medium cavity, preform cylindrical member cavity, master slider drives punch up, unload pressure-pad-force make blank holder up by forcing press, and combined die is separated, taking-up formation of parts.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
The present invention has realized the up-small and down-big ampuliform reducing cylindrical member in cross section and has adopted sheet metal hydroforming method to process, by a procedure, realize shaping of reducing cylindrical member (being reduced gradually or the stepped reducing cylindrical member reducing to top external diameter by bottom), thereby reach the requirement of raising the efficiency, reduce costs, improve part total quality.
Innovation of the present invention is just by open hand-hole on punch, and die is made to the split type conventional panels hydraulic forming method of having captured is difficult to into up-small and down-big this technical barrier of reducing cylindrical member of tee section.By boring oilhole and be connected with external booster by high-pressure oil pipe at punch axis part.First carry out sheet material liquid filling deep-drawing forming, when punch time is down to matrix cavity internal pressure Sheet drawing to matrix cavity bottom smaller value or sheds, by punch hand-hole, to sheet material upper surface, inject power transmission medium and start supercharging, under the mating reaction of matrix cavity inner fluid back pressure, realizing the shaping of reducing cylindrical member simultaneously.After shaping, shed respectively punch and matrix cavity internal pressure, remove punch combined die is separated, take out formation of parts.Utilize the shape of the hydroforming part that the present invention realizes to depend on the shape of concave die cavity completely.
Punch external diameter of the present invention is formation of parts external diameter value minimum of a value position, guarantees that punch can enter in concave die cavity smoothly.Adopt combined die structure to be convenient to split, and be beneficial to be shaped rear take out part and die cavity cleaning.Use device and method of the present invention can realize in a set of die device and one-stroke internal shaping reducing cylindrical part, thereby improved production efficiency and total quality.
The concrete advantage of the inventive method is as follows: one, by first hydro-mechanical drawing-rear hydraulic expansion method, can realize shaping of the up-small and down-big reducing cylindrical member in cross section; At the bottom of can successively making while two, utilizing the method to be shaped tin and sidewall position sheet material produce moderate finite deformation amount, compared with conventional panels forming technology, compare, be easy to improve uniformity and the forming property of the whole wall thickness of part; Three, on punch, open hand-hole and be connected separately with booster, can realize the independent accurately control of difference of hydraulic pressure in this road hydraulic pressure and matrix cavity, under the two Proper Match effect, realizing the once-forming of reducing cylindrical member; Four, the design of combined die cavity structure, the reducing cylindrical member that is beneficial to this category feature is shaped and is easy to the demoulding.Apparatus of the present invention are simple and reliable for structure, and manufacturing technology is ripe, are easy to implement aborning, promotion and application.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is building mortion and blank position relationship view (being full of power transmission medium in power transmission medium cavity 4) before the specific embodiment one is shaped, Fig. 2 is building mortion and blank position relationship view (punch 1 has come downwards to ultimate range) in the specific embodiment one forming process, Fig. 3 is that after utilizing the specific embodiment of the invention one to be shaped, hydraulic device structure schematic diagram (pressurizes to the interior slow injected media of punch hand-hole 11 by external booster, control hydraulic pressure in power transmission medium cavity 4 interior hydraulic pressure and preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 keeps constant dynamic pressure poor simultaneously, make sheet material blank 9 paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure), in Fig. 1~Fig. 3, provide concave die cavity and serve as reasons that to be upwards reducing ladder angle be the stepped reducing tubulars that reduce of 45 degree in aperture in bottom.
Fig. 4 is building mortion and blank position relationship view (being full of power transmission medium in power transmission medium cavity 4) before the specific embodiment two is shaped, in the specific embodiment two forming processes, building mortion and blank position relationship view are omitted, similar with Fig. 2; Fig. 5 is that after utilizing the specific embodiment of the invention two to be shaped, hydraulic device structure schematic diagram (pressurizes to the interior slow injected media of punch hand-hole 11 by external booster, control hydraulic pressure in power transmission medium cavity 4 interior hydraulic pressure and preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 simultaneously and keep constant dynamic pressure poor, make sheet material blank 9 paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure); In Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, provide concave die cavity and serve as reasons that to be upwards reducing ladder angle be the stepped reducing tubulars that reduce of 30 degree in aperture in bottom.
Fig. 6 is building mortion and blank position relationship view (being full of power transmission medium in power transmission medium cavity 4) before the specific embodiment three is shaped, in the specific embodiment three forming processes, building mortion and blank position relationship view are omitted, similar with Fig. 2; Fig. 7 is that after utilizing the specific embodiment of the invention three to be shaped, hydraulic device structure schematic diagram (pressurizes to the interior slow injected media of punch hand-hole 11 by external booster, control hydraulic pressure in power transmission medium cavity 4 interior hydraulic pressure and preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 simultaneously and keep constant dynamic pressure poor, make sheet material blank 9 paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure); In Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, provide the concave die cavity bottom reducing tubular that upwards aperture reduces gradually of serving as reasons.
The specific embodiment
The specific embodiment one: illustrate present embodiment below in conjunction with Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.This device comprises lower cavity die 5, and described lower cavity die 5 is provided with the hand-hole 6 communicating with power transmission medium cavity 4, passes through hand-hole 6 to the interior injection power transmission of lower cavity die 5 medium during work; Lower cavity die 5 upper end open, described lower cavity die 5 adopts and is connected with upper cavity die 3, form complete stepped reducing cylindrical mould, wherein upper cavity die 3 place's reducing ladder angles are 45 ° (ladder angle is the angle of cascaded surface axis and vertical direction), between lower cavity die 5 and upper cavity die 3, be provided with sealing ring 7, prevent dielectric leakage; Described upper cavity die 3 tops are equipped with blank holder 2 and punch 1, blank 9 is folded between upper cavity die 3 and blank holder 2, between upper cavity die 3 and blank holder 2, leave certain interval and be provided with sealing ring 8, object is after upper cavity die 3 and blank holder 2 matched moulds, avoid the medium in cavity 4 outwards to overflow, play copious oil supply simultaneously, thereby guarantee feeding and improve drip molding surface accuracy; Described punch 1 sidewall position is provided with the hand-hole 11 communicating with its lower surface axis part, sidewall drill hole is connected with external booster by high-pressure oil pipe, during work, by hand-hole 11, in preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2, inject power transmission medium, thereby make medium apply hydraulic expanding-forming power to blank 9; On described upper cavity die 3 and blank holder 2, be equipped with the endoporus passing through for punch 1, the external diameter of described punch 1 is less than the internal orifice dimension of upper cavity die 3 and blank holder 2 simultaneously, between described punch 1 external diameter and upper cavity die 3 internal orifice dimensions, difference in size is slightly larger than preform panel thickness, between described punch 1 and blank holder 2, be provided with sealing ring 10, when object is that power transmission medium applies hydraulic expanding-forming power to blank 9, avoid the medium in preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 outwards to overflow.
The specific embodiment two: illustrate present embodiment below in conjunction with Fig. 4, Fig. 5.The difference of present embodiment and the specific embodiment one is that upper cavity die 3 place's reducing ladder angles are 30 °, and it is identical with the specific embodiment one that other forms structure.
The specific embodiment three: illustrate present embodiment below in conjunction with Fig. 6, Fig. 7.The difference of present embodiment and the specific embodiment one cylindrical member that is to be shaped is the conically shaped that external diameter is linear increment from top to bottom, described lower cavity die 5 forms complete taper die with upper cavity die 3, wherein upper cavity die 3 is provided with medium hand-hole, and it is identical with the specific embodiment one that other forms structure.
The specific embodiment four: the detailed process of utilizing said apparatus to form is as follows:
One, by designing requirement, upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 5 are connected, form complete reducing tubular die cavity;
Two, the hand-hole 11 on the hand-hole on lower cavity die 56 and punch 1 is connected with external booster by high-pressure oil pipe respectively, independent control, then pass through hand-hole 6 to the interior injected media of cavity 4, make medium be full of cavity 4 until differ certain distance with upper cavity die 3 upper surfaces, to a small amount of medium of the interior injection of hand-hole 11;
Three, sheet material blank 9 is placed on the upper cavity die 3 that sealing ring 8 is installed;
Four, blank holder 2, punch 1 are connected with forcing press device for exerting respectively, by regulating forcing press that blank holder is come downwards to blank 9, come in contact, now apply certain pressure-pad-force (shown in figure acceptance of the bid F), sealing ring 8 is fully contacted with blank 9, form flooded lubrication, also for fear of blank 9 flanges, when shaping feeding, produce fold; The control of pressure-pad-force size is depending on specific requirement;
Five, by controlled pressure owner slide block movement, punch 1 being come downwards to blank 9 comes in contact, after contact, continue to press down, now by external booster, to cavity 4, apply interior pressure, sheet material blank 9 is produced to fluid pressure dorsad, for avoiding the excessive blank that causes of pressure dorsad to cave in to hand-hole 11, by regulating external booster to make that hand-hole 11 section hydrostatic pressures equate with the interior homalographic pressure of cavity 4, opposite direction, until punch 1, come downwards to apart from lower cavity die 5 bottom surfaces after a small amount of distance the stop motion of forcing press master slider;
Six, by external booster, to the interior slow injected media of hand-hole 11, pressurize, control hydraulic pressure in the interior hydraulic pressure of cavity 4 and preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 keeps constant dynamic pressure poor simultaneously, make blank 9 paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure, process finishes;
Seven, by external booster, shed cavity 4, preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 internal pressure, master slider drives punch 1 up, unloads pressure-pad-force make blank holder 2 up by forcing press, and combined die is separated, takes out formation of parts.
The hydroforming equipment of the specific embodiment five: 7, a kind of reducing cylindrical member according to claim 6, is characterized in that: in step 2, make medium be full of power transmission medium cavity 4 until differ the distance of 1~5mm with upper cavity die 3 upper surfaces.Other operating procedure is identical with the specific embodiment four.
The hydroforming equipment of the specific embodiment six: 8, a kind of reducing cylindrical member according to claim 7, is characterized in that: in step 5, come downwards to after the distance of the bottom surface 1~20mm in lower cavity die 5 stop motion of forcing press master slider until punch 1.Can avoid like this punch 1 and the bottom surface in preform cylindrical member directly to touch, make the subsides contour forming of preform cylindrical member rely on injection power transmission medium in preform cylindrical member cavity 4-2 to complete, thereby improve the quality of whole shaping cylindrical member.Other operating procedure is identical with the specific embodiment five.

Claims (6)

1. the hydroforming equipment of a reducing cylindrical member, it is characterized in that: described building mortion comprises combined die, punch (1), blank holder (2), die hand-hole (6) and punch hand-hole (11), described punch (1) be columned drift and with airtight cooperation of blank holder (2), described combined die is by upper cavity die (3) and lower cavity die (5) formation and the airtight connection of joint face of the two, and the die cavity in die is power transmission medium cavity (4); Die cavity in described die is consistent with the outer contour shape of whole shaping cylindrical member, is by bottom, to be made progress that aperture reduces gradually or the stepped reducing tubular reducing; Top and the gap between the two that blank holder (2) is placed in upper cavity die (3) are used for sandwiched sheet material blank (9); On the sidewall of lower cavity die (5), have the die hand-hole (6) communicating with power transmission medium cavity (4), by die hand-hole (6), in power transmission medium cavity (4), inject power transmission medium the outer surface of preform cylindrical member is applied to fluid pressure dorsad; On described punch (1), have punch hand-hole (11), by punch hand-hole (11), in preform cylindrical member cavity (4-2), inject power transmission medium, thereby make power transmission medium apply hydraulic expanding-forming power initiatively to the sheet material blank (9) in forming process.
2. the hydroforming equipment of a kind of reducing cylindrical member according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described building mortion also comprises the first sealing ring (10), between described punch (1) and blank holder (2), be provided with the first sealing ring (10).
3. the hydroforming equipment of a kind of reducing cylindrical member according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described building mortion also comprises the second sealing ring (8) and the 3rd sealing ring (7), between upper cavity die (3) and blank holder (2), be provided with the second sealing ring (8), between lower cavity die (5) and upper cavity die (3), be provided with the 3rd sealing ring (7).
4. according to the hydroforming equipment of a kind of reducing cylindrical member described in claim 1,2 or 3, it is characterized in that: described punch hand-hole (11) is through hole, one end opening of punch hand-hole (11) is positioned at punch (1) sidewall position, the other end opening of punch hand-hole (11) is positioned at punch (1) lower surface axis part, and the one section of axial location place that is opened in punch (1) that is positioned at outlet of punch hand-hole (11).
5. the hydroforming equipment of a kind of reducing cylindrical member according to claim 4, is characterized in that: described punch hand-hole (11) is L shaped through hole, and the vertical section in L shaped through hole is positioned at the axial location place of punch (1).
6. a method of utilizing the building mortion described in above-mentioned any one claim to carry out hydroforming, it is characterized in that: described method realizes according to following steps: step 1, by designing requirement, upper cavity die (3) and lower cavity die (5) are connected, form complete reducing tubular die cavity, step 2, the punch hand-hole (11) on the die hand-hole (6) on lower cavity die (5) and punch (1) is connected with external booster by high-pressure oil pipe respectively, independent control, then pass through die hand-hole (6) to the interior injected media of power transmission medium cavity (4), make medium be full of power transmission medium cavity (4) until differ the distance of 1~5mm with upper cavity die (3) upper surface, in punch hand-hole (11), inject a small amount of power transmission medium, step 3, sheet material blank (9) is placed on the upper cavity die (3) that close the second seal (8) is installed, step 4, blank holder (2), punch (1) are connected with forcing press device for exerting respectively, by regulating forcing press that blank holder (2) is come downwards to sheet material blank (9), come in contact, now apply certain pressure-pad-force, the second sealing ring (8) is fully contacted with sheet material blank (9), form flooded lubrication, to avoid blank (9) flange to produce fold when the shaping feeding, the control of pressure-pad-force size is depending on specific requirement, step 5, by controlled pressure owner slide block movement, punch (1) being come downwards to sheet material blank (9) comes in contact, after contact, continue to press down, now by external booster, in power transmission medium cavity (4), apply interior pressure, sheet material blank (9) is produced to fluid pressure dorsad, for avoiding the excessive sheet material blank (9) that causes of pressure dorsad to cave in to hand-hole (11), by regulating external booster that punch hand-hole (11) section hydrostatic pressure is equated with the interior homalographic pressure of power transmission medium cavity (4), opposite direction, until punch (1), come downwards to after the distance of the bottom surface 1~20mm in lower cavity die (5), the stop motion of forcing press master slider, step 6, by external booster to slowly injected media pressurization in punch hand-hole (11), control the interior hydraulic pressure of power transmission medium cavity (4) and the interior hydraulic pressure of preform cylindrical member cavity (4-2) keeps constant dynamic pressure poor simultaneously, make sheet material blank (9) paste contour forming under the poor effect of dynamic pressure, process finishes, step 7, by external booster, shed the pressure in power transmission medium cavity (4), preform cylindrical member cavity (4-2), master slider drives punch (1) up, by forcing press, unloading pressure-pad-force makes blank holder (2) up, combined die is separated, take out formation of parts.
CN201210257436.XA 2012-07-24 2012-07-24 Hydraulic forming device and method of reducing cylindrical part CN102764808B (en)

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CN104607524B (en) * 2014-12-31 2016-08-24 哈尔滨工业大学 The tailor welded integral drawing forming device of a kind of large-scale curved part and method
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