CN102756062A - Forging method for efficiently healing hole flaws inside blank with large height-diameter ratio - Google Patents

Forging method for efficiently healing hole flaws inside blank with large height-diameter ratio Download PDF

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CN102756062A
CN102756062A CN2012102253941A CN201210225394A CN102756062A CN 102756062 A CN102756062 A CN 102756062A CN 2012102253941 A CN2012102253941 A CN 2012102253941A CN 201210225394 A CN201210225394 A CN 201210225394A CN 102756062 A CN102756062 A CN 102756062A
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blank
forging
height
anvil
healing
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CN102756062B (en
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徐斌
孙明月
李殿中
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Institute of Metal Research of CAS
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Institute of Metal Research of CAS
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Priority claimed from PCT/CN2012/081732 external-priority patent/WO2013041043A1/en
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of forging, and specifically relates to a forging method with a small screw-down rate, which is capable of efficiently healing hole flaws inside a blank with a height-diameter ratio. The forging method adopts a numerical simulation technique to research the distribution status of strain inside the blank in the conventional forging process, thus providing a radial wide anvil compaction process which comprises the following steps of: pressing down the blank by virtue of the radial wide anvil compaction process, wherein flat plates serve as upper and lower anvil; after radial the wide anvil compaction process, returning the blank to a furnace to be re-heated and be subjected to thermal insulation; and turning over the blank by 90 degrees and drawing out the blank by the upper and lower anvil. The forging method is suitable for a free forging process for various blanks (for example continuous-casting blanks) or steel ingots with a large height-diameter ratio and the like, and particularly has good effects on the blank with the large height-diameter ratio and serious centre looseness. Forged pieces produced by the forging method can ensure the healing of the hole flaws inside the blank with the large height-diameter ratio, so that the possibility of forged piece scrapping caused by the loosened and non-forged center of the forged piece is greatly reduced; and moreover, a forged piece with a larger size can be manufactured by virtue of a small screw-down rate.

Description

The forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective
Technical field
The invention belongs to the forging field, specifically is exactly the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, and it is applicable to the open die forging process of various larger ratio of height to diameter blanks (like continuous casting billet) or larger ratio of height to diameter steel ingot etc.
Background technology
Forging is the important procedure in most of metal material processing process; Can improve the forging internal soundness through forging; Be broken as-cast structure, crystal grain thinning, uniform formation; And wrought alloy belongs to the shrinkage cavity in smelting process, produce, pore and defective such as loose, has great significance to improving forging quality.
Steel ingot can produce hole type defectives such as shrinkage cavity, loose, pore in cast and subsequently process of setting.After ingot mould, the molten metal that contacts with ingot mould will at first solidify at pouring metal melt, and the metal of heart portion is because hot the conduction slowly with final set.Steel ingot heart portion zone will form mushy zone gradually; And this moment, steel ingot rising head top surface solidified, and caused and can't carry out feeding to heart portion, finally formed shrinkage cavity and defective such as loose in the heart portion zone along ingot axis; These defectives are because size is bigger; Must use effective Forging Technology that its forging is closed, otherwise will cause whole serious consequence of scrapping, cause great economic loss.Equally; Concerning continuous casting billet; Owing to there is rising head not carry out feeding to its central pipe is loose, so there is serious penetrability shrinkage cavity rarefaction defect usually in its central area, adopts common Forging Technology to be difficult to make its effective healing; Usually can only use it to forge tube class, pipe type element, this has just seriously limited its scope of application.
From changing the angle of forging internal stress state, the researcher has proposed WHF (wide anvil heavy reduction forging method), FM (asymmetric flat anvil forging method) and JTS multiple pulling methods such as (center compacting forging methods).In proposing the process of these methods, people have recognized and have used can more effectively the heal center porosity of blank of wide anvil, limitedly cause the strain of heart portion acquisition less but the anvil of these pulling methods is wide, still are not enough to forge fully the center porosity of closing blank.As shown in Figure 1; The equivalent strain field pattern of the employing WHF method pulling larger ratio of height to diameter blank that obtains through finite element modelling; Inhomogeneous by visible strain among the figure along the axis direction stress distribution, between depressing for twice, leave and connect the anvil zone, this regional strain is very little; Become the distortion dead band, these forging methods can't effectively be forged should the hole type defective in the zone.Its ratio of height to diameters such as larger ratio of height to diameter blank (like continuous casting billet) or larger ratio of height to diameter steel ingot can't use jumping-up technology greater than 2, can only directly pull out it.
This just causes its forging ratio less, and the center strain is not enough, and connecing existence distortion dead band, anvil zone, is difficult to effectively heal center porosity.And if the increase forging ratio can cause the forging final diameter less, limited its scope of application.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; Can't forge the loose problem of the inner hole type of larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, especially axis of closing fully with what solve that present forging method causes.The forging method that adopts the present invention to formulate can guarantee the healing effect of the inner hole type of larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, significantly reduce forging because of center porosity do not forge close can't through flaw detection cause scrapping maybe.And compare because reduction ratio is less with traditional handicraft, use the blank of same size can make the bigger forging of diameter.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
The present invention proposes the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, comprise the steps:
1) to ratio of height to diameter greater than 2, can't use the larger ratio of height to diameter blank of jumping-up technology, use dull and stereotyped as anvil up and down, adopt wide anvil radially compaction process blank is depressed, wide anvil radially the reduction ratio in the compacting process be 20% ~ 40%;
2), blank melted down reheat to material forging temperature and insulation at wide anvil radially after the compacting;
3) with 90 ° of blank upsets, using up and down, flat anvil adopts conventional method to pull out.
In the said step 1), anvil all uses flat board up and down, and blank is carried out the radially compacting of wide anvil, and it depresses direction is the direction of depressing in the conventional pulling method.This is a upsetting process strictly speaking, but that it depresses direction is identical with the pulling process, claims that in the present invention such process is the radially compacting of wide anvil.
In the said step 1), when blank was cylinder, it depresses direction was the diametric(al) along the cylinder blank.
In the said step 1), the reduction ratio computing formula is:
Reduction ratio=Δ H/H
Wherein, Δ H goes up the distance that anvil is depressed under the situation that anvil is not subjected to displacement down in the forging process; H is the blank original height; Blank is a cylinder and when depressing direction along diametric(al), then H cut-off footpath size.
Said step 2) in; At wide anvil after radially compacting finishes; Blank is reheated to material forging temperature and insulation, and temperature retention time is more than 2 hours, with the resistance of deformation that reduces follow-up pulling process and make closed hole type defective that time healing more fully arranged.
Said step 2) in, radially after the compacting, steel ingot is flat side's shape at wide anvil.
Said step 2) in, temperature retention time is more than 2 hours, with the resistance of deformation that reduces follow-up pulling process and make closed hole type defective that time healing more fully arranged.
In the said step 3), radially after the compacting blank is overturn 90 ° at wide anvil, use WHF method or FM method to pull out two times times, each reduction ratio is 20%; After two times end, continue blank is pulled out to process.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective of the present invention's proposition; The method is compared with conventional pulling methods such as WHF method or FM methods; Can increase the blank internal strain greatly; Thereby help the healing of the inner hole type of blank defective, significantly reduce forging because of center porosity do not forge close can't through flaw detection cause scrapping maybe.
2, the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective of the present invention's proposition, the method can use less reduction ratio to guarantee the healing of the inner hole type of blank defective.Compare with traditional handicraft, use the method under the certain situation of billet size, to obtain the bigger qualified forging of diameter, expanded the range of application of forging greatly.
3, the present invention adopts numerical simulation technology to study the distribution situation of blank internal strain in traditional open die forging process; And radially compaction process of a kind of wide anvil proposed on this basis; This technology can make strain concentrate on blank heart portion, uses the less reduction ratio blank inside holes type defective that just can effectively heal.
4, the wide anvil that proposes of the present invention radially compaction process be applicable to the open die forging process of the various larger ratio of height to diameter blanks that can't adopt jumping-up technology especially good effect is arranged for the serious larger ratio of height to diameter blank of center porosity.
In a word, the forging that adopts this method to produce can guarantee the healing of the inner hole type of larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, significantly reduce forging because of center porosity do not forge close scrap maybe, and can make larger sized forging because reduction ratio is less.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 pulls out the equivalent strain field pattern of larger ratio of height to diameter blank for the employing WHF method that obtains through finite element modelling.
Fig. 2-4 is for forging schematic flow sheet, wherein:
Fig. 2 is a larger ratio of height to diameter blank form sketch map.
Fig. 3 a and Fig. 3 b are radially compacting process sketch map of the wide anvil of blank.Fig. 3 a is a front view, and Fig. 3 b is a left view.
Fig. 4 a and Fig. 4 b are that blank uses WHF method pulling process sketch map.Fig. 4 a is a front view, and Fig. 4 b is a left view.
Fig. 5 a is the continuous casting billet cross-sectional picture.Fig. 5 b is the local enlarged photograph in continuous casting billet central area among Fig. 5 a.
Fig. 6 is the equivalent strain field pattern after the compacting radially of wide anvil among the embodiment that obtains through finite element modelling.
Among the figure, 1-larger ratio of height to diameter blank (steel ingot or continuous casting billet etc.); The 2-blank; The wide anvil of 3-is the upper flat plate of compacting use radially; The wide anvil of 4-is the following flat board of compacting use radially; The last flat anvil that the pulling of 5-WHF method is used; The following flat anvil that the pulling of 6-WHF method is used.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment the present invention is detailed.
The present invention proposes the forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, be called radially compacting of wide anvil, comprise the steps:
1) after technologies such as pressing tongs handle, chamfered edge, the unnecessary rising head of excision finishes; Larger ratio of height to diameter blank (steel ingot or continuous casting billet etc.) 1; Its ratio of height to diameter is greater than 2 (be generally≤10), shown in Fig. 3 a and Fig. 3 b, with tubular blank 2 axis along continuous straight runs be placed on wide anvil radially compacting use following dull and stereotyped 4 on; Use wide anvil radially 3 pairs of blanks of upper flat plate of using of compacting carry out the radially compacting of wide anvil, vertical face is the A face among the definition figure.Radially in the compacting process, it depresses direction is the diametric(al) along the cylinder blank at wide anvil, depresses direction in the promptly conventional pulling method.Strictly speaking, this is a upsetting process, but since its to depress direction identical with the pulling process, claim that in the present invention such process is the radially compacting of wide anvil.
This wide anvil radially the reduction ratio in the compacting process be 20 ~ 40%, the promptly wide anvil radially distance of depressing of the upper flat plate 3 that uses of compacting is 20 ~ 40% of blank 2 original height (or diameter), the reduction ratio computing formula is:
Reduction ratio=Δ H/H
Wherein, Δ H goes up the distance (under the situation that anvil is not subjected to displacement down) that anvil is depressed in the forging process, and H is the blank original height, if blank is cylinder and depresses direction along diametric(al), cut-off footpath size then.
2) at wide anvil after radially compacting finishes; Blank is reheated to conventional forging temperature of material and insulation; Temperature retention time (was generally 2-20 hour) more than 2 hours, with the resistance of deformation that reduces follow-up pulling process and make closed hole type defective that time healing more fully arranged.
3) use conventional methods such as WHF method or FM method to carry out follow-up pulling process.Shown in Fig. 4 a and Fig. 4 b, use the WHF method that blank 2 is pulled out.At first, make the A face forward horizontal direction to 90 ° of blank 2 upsets, with blank 2 near pincers an end be placed on the following flat anvil 6 that the pulling of WHF method uses, use last flat anvil that the pulling of WHF method uses 5 to depress at correspondence position, reduction ratio is 20%.Afterwards; The last flat anvil 5 that the pulling of WHF method is used lifts; Blank 2 is moved to left shown in Fig. 4 b; Displacement is slightly less than the width (displacement is more than 80% of last flat anvil width) of the last flat anvil 5 of WHF method pulling use, and the last flat anvil 5 that once more pulling of WHF method is used is depressed, and reduction ratio is 20%.Repeat the end that this process is depressed into blank always, this process is called one time time.The same direction in edge makes to use the same method and carries out second time time pulling after first time time completion.After two times end, continue to adopt routine techniques to use proper tools that blank is pulled out to process.
Embodiment 1
The employed larger ratio of height to diameter blank of present embodiment is 9 of continuous casting billets, and its original size is Φ 600mm * 2000mm, and ratio of height to diameter is 3.33, and material is S45C+B, heavily about 4.4 tons of larger ratio of height to diameter blank, and blank heating temperature is 1200 ℃.Shown in Fig. 5 a and Fig. 5 b, exist very serious penetrability shrinkage cavity defect at the continuous casting billet center.Because continuous casting billet blank ratio of height to diameter is bigger, can't use jumping-up technology to it, can only directly pull out.At first use wide anvil radially compacting depress, after being pressed into flat side, it is melted down and is heated to 1200 ℃ and be incubated 3 hours.Fig. 6 for the wide anvil of use that obtains through finite element modelling radially compacting depress 20% o'clock blank equivalent strain field pattern, by visible among the figure, the wide anvil radially strain of compacting concentrates on the centre of blank, can reach more than 0.4.And as shown in Figure 1, even use the blank of WHF method pulling also to be merely 0.28 in the strain of strain concentration zones.The wide anvil of this explanation use radially compacting can make strain concentrate on blank heart portion, and very even, does not have the distortion dead band, is very beneficial for the healing of center porosity.After insulation finishes, adopt the WHF method to pull out two times times 90 ° of blank upsets, each reduction ratio is 20%.After two times end, continue blank is pulled out and fall circle to Φ 385mm.After forging completion, detect a flaw according to comparatively strict GB/T 6402-1991 secondary standard.Result of detection shows, adopt wide anvil radially 9 continuous casting billet qualification rates of compacting be 100%.
Comparative Examples
This Comparative Examples is used 9 continuous casting billets of same batch with embodiment, uses the wide KD anvil of 600mm (going up flat anvil and following V-type anvil) directly to pull out, and falls circle again to Φ 385mm; Other condition is identical with embodiment; Because KD anvil anvil is wide limited,, must in the pulling of following a time, just can make stress distribution more even by wrong half anvil like this connecing existence distortion dead band, anvil zone; But the accumulation of two passages make blank diameter less than heavy reduction rate, can only make the forging of minor diameter.Blank is pulled out and fall circle to Φ 385mm, after forging completion, detect a flaw according to the GB/T6402-1991 secondary standard.Result of detection shows that 9 continuous casting billet qualification rates that adopt the KD anvil directly to pull out are 55.6%.
Embodiment 2
The employed larger ratio of height to diameter blank of present embodiment is a steel ingot, and its original size is Φ 1000mm * 3000mm, and ratio of height to diameter is 3, and material is No. 45 steel, heavily about 18 tons of larger ratio of height to diameter blank, and blank heating temperature is 1200 ℃.Exist comparatively serious shrinkage cavity at the steel ingot center loose.Because steel ingot blank ratio of height to diameter is bigger, can't use jumping-up technology to it, can only directly pull out.At first use wide anvil radially compacting depress, after being pressed into flat side, it is melted down and is heated to 1200 ℃ and be incubated 5 hours.After insulation finishes, adopt the WHF method to pull out two times times 90 ° of blank upsets, each reduction ratio is 20%.After two times end, continue blank is pulled out and fall circle to Φ 600mm.After forging completion, detect a flaw according to comparatively strict GB/T6402-1991 secondary standard.Result of detection shows, radially the steel ingot of compacting is qualified to adopt wide anvil.
Embodiment result shows; The forging method of the inner hole type of a kind of little reduction ratio high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective that the present invention proposes; Present conventional forging method can be solved and the problem of closing the inner hole type of larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, especially center porosity can't be forged fully.The forging method that adopts the present invention to formulate; Can guarantee the healing effect of the inner hole type of larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; Significantly reduce forging because of center porosity do not forge close can't through flaw detection cause scrapping maybe; And compare because reduction ratio is less with traditional handicraft, use the blank of same size can make the bigger forging of diameter.

Claims (7)

1. the forging method of the inner hole type of a high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
1) to ratio of height to diameter greater than 2 blank, use dull and stereotyped as anvil up and down, adopt wide anvil radially compaction process blank is depressed, wide anvil radially the reduction ratio in the compacting process be 20% ~ 40%;
2), blank melted down reheat to material forging temperature and insulation at wide anvil radially after the compacting;
3) with 90 ° of blank upsets, using up and down, flat anvil adopts conventional method to pull out.
2. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency of claim 1 healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; It is characterized in that: in the said step 1); Anvil all uses flat board up and down, and blank is carried out the radially compacting of wide anvil, and it depresses direction is the direction of depressing in the conventional pulling method.
3. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency healing of claim 2 larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, it is characterized in that: in the said step 1), when blank was cylinder, it depresses direction was the diametric(al) along the cylinder blank.
4. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency of claim 1 healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; It is characterized in that: said step 2); At wide anvil after radially compacting finishes; Blank is reheated to material forging temperature and insulation, and temperature retention time is more than 2 hours, with the resistance of deformation that reduces follow-up pulling process and make closed hole type defective that time healing more fully arranged.
5. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency of claim 1 healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective, it is characterized in that: said step 2), radially after the compacting, steel ingot is flat side's shape at wide anvil.
6. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency of claim 1 healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; It is characterized in that: said step 2); Temperature retention time is more than 2 hours, with the resistance of deformation that reduces follow-up pulling process and make closed hole type defective that time healing more fully arranged.
7. according to the forging method of the inner hole type of the described high efficiency of claim 1 healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank defective; It is characterized in that: in the said step 3); Radially after the compacting blank is overturn 90 ° at wide anvil, use WHF method or FM method to pull out two times times, each reduction ratio is 20%; After two times end, continue blank is pulled out to process.
CN201210225394.1A 2012-07-02 2012-07-02 A kind of forging method of high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank inner void type defect Active CN102756062B (en)

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CN201210225394.1A CN102756062B (en) 2012-07-02 2012-07-02 A kind of forging method of high efficiency healing larger ratio of height to diameter blank inner void type defect
PCT/CN2012/081732 WO2013041043A1 (en) 2011-09-22 2012-09-21 Forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots or billets
EP12833320.0A EP2762247A4 (en) 2011-09-22 2012-09-21 Forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots or billets

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CN104057006A (en) * 2014-06-18 2014-09-24 中原特钢股份有限公司 Forging method for reducing center looseness of steel ingot
CN104607463A (en) * 2014-12-10 2015-05-13 徐州工程学院 Novel method for healing center porosity of cast-rolled 5052 aluminum alloy
CN105834346A (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-08-10 中国科学院金属研究所 Forging method for efficiently healing steel ingot internal hole type defects by using small pressure
CN107052222A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-08-18 攀钢集团江油长城特殊钢有限公司 The gathering stock forming method and forging method of a kind of large axis forging
CN108465762A (en) * 2018-06-21 2018-08-31 河南中原特钢装备制造有限公司 A kind of forging method of efficient whole uniform compaction deformation
CN108746449A (en) * 2018-05-28 2018-11-06 四川丰元机械制造有限公司 A kind of forging method of large and medium-sized steel ingot
CN109604926A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-04-12 中国原子能科学研究院 Steel blank constructs interface healing method
CN109622875A (en) * 2018-12-11 2019-04-16 陕西宏远航空锻造有限责任公司 A kind of forming method and device of engine oil box-frame aluminium forging
CN109909410A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-06-21 无锡派克新材料科技股份有限公司 A kind of forging method improving aluminum alloy round dish-shaped forgings flaw detection qualification rate
CN110315018A (en) * 2018-03-29 2019-10-11 中国科学院金属研究所 The soft core forging method of superhigh temperature of high efficiency elimination blank inner void type defect

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CN104057006A (en) * 2014-06-18 2014-09-24 中原特钢股份有限公司 Forging method for reducing center looseness of steel ingot
CN104607463A (en) * 2014-12-10 2015-05-13 徐州工程学院 Novel method for healing center porosity of cast-rolled 5052 aluminum alloy
CN105834346A (en) * 2015-01-13 2016-08-10 中国科学院金属研究所 Forging method for efficiently healing steel ingot internal hole type defects by using small pressure
CN105834346B (en) * 2015-01-13 2017-11-03 中国科学院金属研究所 A kind of forging method for the steel ingot inner void type defect that efficiently healed using small pressure
CN107052222A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-08-18 攀钢集团江油长城特殊钢有限公司 The gathering stock forming method and forging method of a kind of large axis forging
CN107052222B (en) * 2017-04-26 2019-09-24 攀钢集团江油长城特殊钢有限公司 A kind of the gathering stock forming method and forging method of large axis forging
CN110315018A (en) * 2018-03-29 2019-10-11 中国科学院金属研究所 The soft core forging method of superhigh temperature of high efficiency elimination blank inner void type defect
CN108746449A (en) * 2018-05-28 2018-11-06 四川丰元机械制造有限公司 A kind of forging method of large and medium-sized steel ingot
CN108746449B (en) * 2018-05-28 2020-02-14 四川丰元机械制造有限公司 Forging method of large and medium-sized steel ingots
CN108465762A (en) * 2018-06-21 2018-08-31 河南中原特钢装备制造有限公司 A kind of forging method of efficient whole uniform compaction deformation
CN109604926A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-04-12 中国原子能科学研究院 Steel blank constructs interface healing method
CN109622875A (en) * 2018-12-11 2019-04-16 陕西宏远航空锻造有限责任公司 A kind of forming method and device of engine oil box-frame aluminium forging
CN109909410A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-06-21 无锡派克新材料科技股份有限公司 A kind of forging method improving aluminum alloy round dish-shaped forgings flaw detection qualification rate

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